STPM TRIAL 2010 (Marking Scheme) Paper 1

1 D 26 C 2 B 27 C 3 A 28 C 4 B 29 A 5 B 30 C 6 A 31 B 7 C 32 A 8 D 33 X 9 A 34 C 10 B 35 C 11 C 36 A 12 D 37 D 13 D 38 D 14 A 39 C 15 B 40 D 16 C 41 A 17 B 42 A 18 B 43 B 19 C 44 D 20 B 45 A 21 C 46 C 22 A 47 C 23 B 48 B 24 B 49 D 25 D 50 B

Paper 2 (Section A) 1(a) nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus (iii) peptide bond

(b)(i)(ii) refer diagram below

(c)

-non polar R group (alanine & valine)

-less active and not soluble in water -more soluble in water

-example collagen & keratin

-acidic amino acids which contain carboxyl groups

-NH3+ and COO- form ionic bonds and help to maintain spherical shape of globular protein -amino acid with polar groups increases the solubility of protein 2(a) P-juvenile hormone / neotenin -retention of juvenile characteristics

Q-moulting hormone / ecdysone -stimulates shedding of old cuticle and formation of new one (b) (c)(i) (ii) (d) temperature, food, light intensity, light duration complete development, egg  larva  pupa  imago butterflies, houseflies, mosquitoes -if both P and Q were produced in similar quantities, the larva moults but does not form adult cuticle -if Q and a low concentration of P were produced, the larva moults to become a pupa -if only Q produced, adult cuticle would be formed 3(a) a functional unit which consists of structural genes, a promoter and an operator that transcribes as a single mRNA (b) (c) it is the binding site for RNA polymerase z-β-galactosidase y-permease a-transacetylase

(d)(i) mutated geni i will produce defective repressor which cannot bind to the operator and enzymes will be produced continuously (ii) mutated gene o will result in defective operator which the repressor cannot bind to and enzymes will be produced continuously 4(a) (b) is a degradative enzymes that recognises a specific sequence of nucleotides on DNA and cuts it -DNA fragments with sticky / staggered end -these fragments tend to base-pair (hybridise) with a complementary sequence of bases

-fragments from two sources may be combined (c) -both the foreign DNA and pBR322 are treated with BamHI -different fragments are mixed -DNA ligase and ATP are added -some of recombined plasmid will contain foreign DNA (d) (e) will not have resistance to tetracycline λ phage, other viruses, YAC (yeast artificial chromosome)

Section B 5(a) The light reactions.occur in the thylakoid and consist of non-cyclic photophosphorylation and cyclic photophosphorylation. Non-cyclic photophosphorylation -The light energy is trapped by the antenna chlorophyll molecules and is transferred to the chlorophyll a molecule in the reaction centre (known as P680 in Photosystem II). - The chlorophyll pigment in Photosystem II becomes photoactivated and the high energy photoactivated electrons are pushed to a higher energy level - Electrons are received by electron acceptor phaephytin. - The electrons are then transferred through a series of electron carrier in the thylakoid membrane (including quinone, plastoquinone, cytochrome b64 complex and plastocyanin) to the pigment in Photosystem I at a lower energy level. - Energy which is released when the electrons flow from high energy level to low energy level is trapped in the photophosphorylation of ADP to ATP. - Light energy is absorbed by antenna pigments in reaction centre P700 in Photosystem I and photoactivated, electrons are ejected to a higher energy level. - Electrons which are lost from pigment molecules in Photosystem II are replaced by electrons from water molecules. - The loss of electrons from water molecules causes the splitting of water into protons (H+) and oxygen is released. The process is known as photolysis of water. - The protons (H+) ,released combine with electrons from the electron acceptor (proteins Fe-S --> ferredoxin) and then reduce NADP+ into reduced NADP (NADPH) and H+. Cyclic photophosphorylation - Photoactivated electrons are released from P700 Photosystem I. The electrons flow through the electron acceptor (protein FeS), ferredoxin, cytochrorne b6f, plastocyanin and recycled back, to P700 Photosystem I with the production of ATP. - The products of light reaction, photosynthesis are ATP, NADPH and oxygen. - ATP and NADPH are used in the dark reactions in the stroma of chloroplast (b)

6(a)

-From the diagram above, it is observed that the synapse is a junction between two neurones with the presynaptic knob located at the end of the axon. -In each synaptic knob, there are many mitochondria and sac-like vesicles. -These vesicles contain neurotransmitters which play an important role in the transmission of an impulse at the synapse . -Between the end of the synaptic knob and the neurone membrane that connects to it, is a small space called the synaptic gap. -This gap is bordered by the presynaptic membrane of the synaptic knob and the postsynaptic membrane of the neurone that connects with it. -The postsynaptic membrane contains many receptors which allow the neurotransmitter from the presynaptic knob to bind to them. -This results in the sodium-potassium gated channels found on the postsynaptic membrane to open and allow an influx of sodium ions leading to depolarisation of the postsynaptic membrane.This is how impulse is transmitted through the synapse. (b) -When the node of Ranvier of a myelinated axon receives a strong stimulus, it causes the gated sodium channels to open to allow an influx of sodium ions into the axon. -This causes the axon membrane at the node to depolarise and generate an action potential. -Once initiated, the action potential is self-propagating. -During depolarisation, the axoplasm at that particular node is more positive relative to the axoplasm of the adjacent node which is at its resting potential. -The difference in potential causes ions to flow in the axoplasm between the nodes. -The flow of sodium ions into the adjacent node induces the opening of the gated sodium channels and causes the influx of sodium ions. -This action is repeated in a wave of depolarisation till the end of the myelinated axon with depolarisation occurring only at the nodes. -The impulse seems to 'leap' from one node to another during its transmission along the myelinated axon. -Such a transmission is known as the saltatory conduction which helps to speed up its transmission.

7(a)

-β cells in the islets of langerhans in pancreas secrete insulin

-insulin increases the permeability of the plasma membranes of the target cells to glucose -an increase in the supply of glucose to the cells increases the rate of cellular respiration and the oxidation of glucose occur -Speed up the rate of glycogenesis, the conversion of glucose to insoluble glycogen -which is store in the liver and muscles -increases the rate at which the excess glucose is converted to fats and stored in adipose tissue -inhibits glycogenolysis, the conversion of stored glycogen into glucose -the glucose level in the blood decreases, returning to the normal level (b) There are two main forms of diabetes mellitus. (i) Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) - accounts for l0-20% of all cases of diabetes mellitus. It may be due to an autoimmunity disorder where cytotoxic T cells destroy the beta cells of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Type I diabetes mellitus usually manifests in young people below the age of 20The patients usually require daily insulin injections. (ii) The remaining 80-90% of the patients has type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus). It is due to a deficiency in insulin secretion or the failure of insulin receptors on the plasma membranes of target cells to

respond to insulin. This is often associated with inherited genetic factors, diet, obesity and increasing age. Some patients control their blood glucose levels by regulating their diet and exercise. In severe cases, they still need daily insulin injections. 8(a) -Infected cells, cancerous cells or leucocytes which have phagocytosed foreign material become antigenpresenting cells (APC). -APC displays fragments of antigens on their cell surface membranes via the MHC molecules in their membranes. -When a helper T-cell (TH) encounters and recognises the MHC-antigen complex, the TH cell is stimulated to divide rapidly and produce activated TH, cells and memory T cells. -TH, cells have CD4 proteins on their membranes -which bind with the MHC molecule on the APC. -Activated TH cells secrete cytokines that promote the activation of cytotoxic T cells (TC). -TH cells have CD8 surface proteins that bind to the target cells, which are infected body cells or cencerous cells. -Activated TH cells release perforin and proteolytic enzymes. -Perforin makes pores in the target cell membranes while the enzymes cause the death of the target cell -After destroying the target cells, the TH cell can go on to attack other infected cells. (b) -Plasma cells secrete antibodies specific for the antigen that stimulated the activation of the β-lymphocyte. -Each plasma cell produces and secretes about 2 000 antibody molecules per second. -The life span of the plasma cell is 4-5 days. -Memory cells are long lived and are capable of rapid proliferation and differentiation when they encounter the same antigen in subsequent infections. -Memory cells responsible for rapid and pronounced secondary response which is the reason why individuals rarely develop the symptoms of a disease more than once. 9(a)

10(a) The concepts of species: -Have similar morphological, anatomical and physiological characters. -Must originate from a late common ancestor and have evolved to form a new species. -Must be able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring (b) Difficulties: -There are intermediate forms that exist in the process of speciation that is difficult to classify. -Hybridisation with polyploidy between two different species can give rise to fertile offspring. -Complicated life cycles that involve many different forms at different stages -Mutation can occur resulting in the appearance of new forms which are mutants. -Some organisms that have lost the ability to reproduce sexually cannot be tested by interbreeding. -The biological definition of species for extinct organisms cannot be proven. -Allopatric isolation confuses the biologist that mistaken one species as different species. (c) Process of speciation: . (i)Isolation - A big population is split by geographical conditions (such as oceans and mountains), cannot interbreed and become genetically isolated. - Mutation and natural selection that occur separately in the subpopulations cause these sub populations to become two new species after isolation by geographical barriers. (ii)Hybridisation - The production of offspring through interbreeding between two subspecies or two very closely related species. - Hybrids are usually infertile. However, through polyploidy, their genomes can multiply and become tetraploids. -The tetraploids are fertile and may represent new species. (iii)Genetic drift - Changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance. - A group of individuals from a big population moves to a new habitats and become pioneer population there. Continuous reproduction causes drastic changes in gene and genotype frequencies. -Finally, a new species is formed. (iv)Adaptive radiation - Continuous competition for food and shelter among different groups in a population, cause some to leave the existing habitats. - The particular groups survive in a new habitat under continuous natural selection and undergo a process of modification from generation to generation. A new species forms from an ancestral species.

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