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Transformer

Design

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Output Equation of Transformer

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Single Phase Transformers :

The voltage induced in a transformer winding with T turns and


excited by a source having a frequency f Hz is given by :

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The window in a single phase transformer contains one
primary and one secondary winding.
Total copper area in window :

Taking the current density δ to be the same in both primary and


secondary windings.

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The window space factor Kw is defined as the ratio of copper
area in window to total area of window

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Rating of a single phase transformer in kVA

Vp is approximately
equal to Ep

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Three Phase Transformers.
• In the case of three phase transformers, each window
contains two primary and two secondary windings.
• Proceeding as in the case of single phase transformers.

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Rating of a three phase transformer in kVA

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OUTPUT EQUATION—VOLT PER TURN
Considering the output of one phase, KVA rating of one phase

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where

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Table gives values of constant K for different
types of transformers.

Type K
Single phase shell type 1.0 to 1.3
Single phase core type 0.75 to 0.85
Three phase shell type 1.3
Three phase core type (distribution) 0.45
Three phase core type (power) 0.6 to 0.7

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RATIO OF IRON LOSS TO COPPER LOSS

In addition to above we must take into consideration the stray


load loss which may be 5 to 25 per cent of copper loss.

Ratio of iron loss


to copper loss
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RELATION BETWEEN CORE AREA AND WEIGHT OF
IRON AND COPPER
kVA output of a single phase transformer is given by

Ratio

If the ratio of mean length of the magnetic circuit to the mean length of turn of the
winding is assumed to be constant, which is approximately true for a given type of
transformer, then

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Substituting the value of AW KW in the output equation

where

taking

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For three phase transformers

Typical values of ratio for different types of transformers are

Single phase core type — 0.3 to 0.55


Three phase core type — 0.17 to 0.5
Single phase shell type — 1.2 to 2.

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OPTIMUM DESIGNS Design for Minimum Cost
Let us consider a single phase transformer. In kVA output is :

The optimum design problem is therefore that of determining


the minimum value of total cost :

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Hence, for minimum
total cost, the cost of
iron must equal the
cost of conductor.

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Hence, for minimum total cost
The cost of iron must equal the cost of conductor.
For minimum volume of transformer
Volume of iron = Volume of conductor

For minimum weight of transformer


weight of iron = weight of conductor

For minimum losses in transformer i.e., for maximum efficiency

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DESIGN OF CORE
• The net cross sectional area is obtained from the dimensions
of various packets and an allowance is made for the space lost
between laminations. This allowance is known as stacking factor
• The ratio of net cross sectional area to the gross area of the core
circle is known as utilization factor (UF). UF increases if the
number of core steps are increased (however, this increases the
manufacturing cost).
• Usually optimum number of steps is 6 for smaller transformer and
15 for large transformers.
• Improvement in UP increase the core area and hence increases volts/turns for
any particular core diameter and specified flux density. This results in the
reduction in winding forms and reduction of copper. Thus core area optimization
results in better economy.

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The core section for core type of transformers may be
rectangular, square or stepped. Shell type transformers use
cores with rectangular cross-section.

Rectangular Core
For core type distribution transformers and small power
transformers for moderate and low voltage, the rectangular shaped
core section may be used.

The ratio of depth to width of core varies between 1.4 to 2.


Rectangular shaped coils are used for rectangular cores.

For a shell type transformer width of central limb is 2 to 3 times the


depth of core.

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Square and Stepped Cores
• With core type transformers of small sizes, simple
rectangular core can be used with either circular or rectangular
coils. As the size of the transformer increases, it becomes wasteful
to use rectangular cores.
• For this purpose the cores are square
•shaped as shown in Fig.
• The circle represents the inner surface of the
tubular form carrying the windings. This
circle is known as the
circumscribing circle .

• Clearly a lot of useful space is wasted, the length of circumference of


circumscribing circle being large in comparison with its cross-section. This
means that the length of mean turn of winding is increased giving rise to higher
I2R losses and conductor costs.

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Square and Stepped Cores

Where

(taking stacking factor as 0.9)


Net iron area

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Stepped Cores or cruciform core.

Gross core area :

Differentiating the expression with respect to θ

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By increasing the number of steps, the area of
circumscribing circle is more effectively utilised. The
most economical dimensions of various steps for a multi-
stepped core can be calculated. The results are tabulated
in Table.

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Design of Yoke
• The area of the yoke is taken as 15 to 25 percent larger than that of
core for transformers using hot rolled silicon steel.
• This reduces the value of flux density obtaining in the yoke and
therefore there is reduction in the iron losses and the magnetizing
current. For transformers using cold rolled grain oriented steel in the
area of yoke is taken equal to that of the core.
• The section of the yoke can either be taken as rectangular or it may
be stepped.

• In the case of rectangular section yokes, the depth of the yoke is


equal to the depth of the core. This depth of the core is equal to the
width of the largest stamping when square or stepped cores are
used.
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Overall Dimensions

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W = length of yoke =
overall length of frame.

We have the following


relations for single
phase core type
transformers

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Single phase shell type transformer.

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Problem :

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Problem :

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Problem :

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Problem :

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COOLING OF TRANSFORMERS

• The transformer is a static device which converts energy at one


voltage level to another voltage level. During this process of energy
transfer, losses occur in the windings and core of the transformer.

• These losses appear as heat. The heat developed in the


transformers is dissipated to the surroundings.

The coolants used in transformers are


(i) Air (ii) Oil.

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METHODS OF COOLING OF TRANSFORMERS
There are a number of methods used for cooling of
transformers. The choice of method depends upon the size, type of
application and the type of conditions obtaining at the site where the
transformer is installed.
Medium.
The cooling mediums (coolants) used for transformers along with
symbols used for designating them are
(i) Air—A (ii) Gas—G (iii) Synthetic oil—L (vi) Water—W
(iv) Mineral oil—O (v) Solid insulation—S
Circulation.
The circulation of the cooling medium (coolant) may be through
natural means or there may be a forced circulation of the coolant.
Accordingly the symbols used are
(i) Natural—N (ii) Forced—F
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The cooling methods used for dry type transformers are
1. Air Natural (AN).
2. Air Blast (AB).

The cooling methods used for oil immersed transformers are


1. Oil Natural (ON).

2. Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF).


3. Oil Natural Water Forced (ONWF).

4. Forced Circulation of Oil (OF).

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The method of cooling oil in the heat exchanger depends upon the
condition obtained at the site. The methods of cooling transformers
by forced circulation of oil are classified accordingly as:
(i) Oil Forced Air Natural (OFAN).

(ii) Oil Forced Air Forced (OFAF).


(iii) Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF).

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Transformer oil
One of the most important factors which determines the life and
satisfactory operation of a transformer is the oil in which it is
immersed.

The transformer oil has two prime functions :

(i) To create an acceptable level of insulation in conjunction with


insulated conductors and coils.

(ii) To provide a cooling medium capable of extracting quantities of


heat without deterioration as an insulating medium.

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DESIGN OF TANK WITH TUBES

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Problem :

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Arrangement of cooling tubes.

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Problem :

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