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Design

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Output Equation of Transformer

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Single Phase Transformers :

excited by a source having a frequency f Hz is given by :

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The window in a single phase transformer contains one

primary and one secondary winding.

Total copper area in window :

secondary windings.

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The window space factor Kw is defined as the ratio of copper

area in window to total area of window

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Rating of a single phase transformer in kVA

Vp is approximately

equal to Ep

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Three Phase Transformers.

• In the case of three phase transformers, each window

contains two primary and two secondary windings.

• Proceeding as in the case of single phase transformers.

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Rating of a three phase transformer in kVA

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OUTPUT EQUATION—VOLT PER TURN

Considering the output of one phase, KVA rating of one phase

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where

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Table gives values of constant K for different

types of transformers.

Type K

Single phase shell type 1.0 to 1.3

Single phase core type 0.75 to 0.85

Three phase shell type 1.3

Three phase core type (distribution) 0.45

Three phase core type (power) 0.6 to 0.7

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RATIO OF IRON LOSS TO COPPER LOSS

load loss which may be 5 to 25 per cent of copper loss.

to copper loss

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RELATION BETWEEN CORE AREA AND WEIGHT OF

IRON AND COPPER

kVA output of a single phase transformer is given by

Ratio

If the ratio of mean length of the magnetic circuit to the mean length of turn of the

winding is assumed to be constant, which is approximately true for a given type of

transformer, then

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Substituting the value of AW KW in the output equation

where

taking

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For three phase transformers

Three phase core type — 0.17 to 0.5

Single phase shell type — 1.2 to 2.

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OPTIMUM DESIGNS Design for Minimum Cost

Let us consider a single phase transformer. In kVA output is :

the minimum value of total cost :

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Hence, for minimum

total cost, the cost of

iron must equal the

cost of conductor.

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Hence, for minimum total cost

The cost of iron must equal the cost of conductor.

For minimum volume of transformer

Volume of iron = Volume of conductor

weight of iron = weight of conductor

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DESIGN OF CORE

• The net cross sectional area is obtained from the dimensions

of various packets and an allowance is made for the space lost

between laminations. This allowance is known as stacking factor

• The ratio of net cross sectional area to the gross area of the core

circle is known as utilization factor (UF). UF increases if the

number of core steps are increased (however, this increases the

manufacturing cost).

• Usually optimum number of steps is 6 for smaller transformer and

15 for large transformers.

• Improvement in UP increase the core area and hence increases volts/turns for

any particular core diameter and specified flux density. This results in the

reduction in winding forms and reduction of copper. Thus core area optimization

results in better economy.

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The core section for core type of transformers may be

rectangular, square or stepped. Shell type transformers use

cores with rectangular cross-section.

Rectangular Core

For core type distribution transformers and small power

transformers for moderate and low voltage, the rectangular shaped

core section may be used.

Rectangular shaped coils are used for rectangular cores.

depth of core.

M.V.Ramana Rao

Square and Stepped Cores

• With core type transformers of small sizes, simple

rectangular core can be used with either circular or rectangular

coils. As the size of the transformer increases, it becomes wasteful

to use rectangular cores.

• For this purpose the cores are square

•shaped as shown in Fig.

• The circle represents the inner surface of the

tubular form carrying the windings. This

circle is known as the

circumscribing circle .

circumscribing circle being large in comparison with its cross-section. This

means that the length of mean turn of winding is increased giving rise to higher

I2R losses and conductor costs.

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Square and Stepped Cores

Where

Net iron area

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Stepped Cores or cruciform core.

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By increasing the number of steps, the area of

circumscribing circle is more effectively utilised. The

most economical dimensions of various steps for a multi-

stepped core can be calculated. The results are tabulated

in Table.

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Design of Yoke

• The area of the yoke is taken as 15 to 25 percent larger than that of

core for transformers using hot rolled silicon steel.

• This reduces the value of flux density obtaining in the yoke and

therefore there is reduction in the iron losses and the magnetizing

current. For transformers using cold rolled grain oriented steel in the

area of yoke is taken equal to that of the core.

• The section of the yoke can either be taken as rectangular or it may

be stepped.

equal to the depth of the core. This depth of the core is equal to the

width of the largest stamping when square or stepped cores are

used.

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Overall Dimensions

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W = length of yoke =

overall length of frame.

relations for single

phase core type

transformers

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Single phase shell type transformer.

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Problem :

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Problem :

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Problem :

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Problem :

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COOLING OF TRANSFORMERS

voltage level to another voltage level. During this process of energy

transfer, losses occur in the windings and core of the transformer.

transformers is dissipated to the surroundings.

(i) Air (ii) Oil.

M.V.Ramana Rao

METHODS OF COOLING OF TRANSFORMERS

There are a number of methods used for cooling of

transformers. The choice of method depends upon the size, type of

application and the type of conditions obtaining at the site where the

transformer is installed.

Medium.

The cooling mediums (coolants) used for transformers along with

symbols used for designating them are

(i) Air—A (ii) Gas—G (iii) Synthetic oil—L (vi) Water—W

(iv) Mineral oil—O (v) Solid insulation—S

Circulation.

The circulation of the cooling medium (coolant) may be through

natural means or there may be a forced circulation of the coolant.

Accordingly the symbols used are

(i) Natural—N (ii) Forced—F

8/8/2014 10:35 AM Electrical Machine Design

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The cooling methods used for dry type transformers are

1. Air Natural (AN).

2. Air Blast (AB).

1. Oil Natural (ON).

3. Oil Natural Water Forced (ONWF).

M.V.Ramana Rao

The method of cooling oil in the heat exchanger depends upon the

condition obtained at the site. The methods of cooling transformers

by forced circulation of oil are classified accordingly as:

(i) Oil Forced Air Natural (OFAN).

(iii) Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF).

M.V.Ramana Rao

Transformer oil

One of the most important factors which determines the life and

satisfactory operation of a transformer is the oil in which it is

immersed.

insulated conductors and coils.

heat without deterioration as an insulating medium.

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8/8/2014 10:35 AM Electrical Machine Design

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DESIGN OF TANK WITH TUBES

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Problem :

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Arrangement of cooling tubes.

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Problem :

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