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Tito, Marlo Angelo M.

ChE 172 - G

1. Uses of enzymes
Enzymes are protein molecules which facilitate catalysis in many specific biological
and chemical reactions. For the past decades of vast scientific development, studies about
enzymes have enabled humanity to use them in several applications such as in the
industry, medicine and analysis.
a. The industrial applications of enzymes has a lot more something to do with the
speeding up of the production process. With enzymes, the time for the production
process can be shortened to a fraction of a time at which a non-catalyzed reaction
occurs. It has been found that the use of enzymes is safe, environmentally friendly
and cost-effective. Today, the global market for enzymes is rapidly growing, with a
current worth of 2 billion euros per annum, the primary sectors of it being in the
detergent and animal feed industry. (Charnock & McCleary, n.d.).
b. Medical application of enzymes involve heavily on its therapeutic uses in
medicine. According to Chaplin (2014), the development of medical applications
of enzymes are as at least as extensive as those of industrial applications due to
their potential benefits. They can be used as treatment for diseases, in diagnosis,
preparation of medicines or removal of toxic substances. For example, therapeutic
enzymes are used in replacing enzyme deficiencies in treating diseases caused
by the deficiency. Unlike in industrial and analytical applications, enzymes are
required in small amounts but at a very high purity. Low K M and high vmax are
desired for maximum efficiency even at low enzyme and substrate concentrations.
c. Analytical enzymes are used in analytical chemistry because of their high
specificity and sensitivity, permitting quantitative assays on crude materials under
controlled, mild reaction conditions. Using spectrophotometer as an apparatus,
enzymes are used to quantitatively determine certain compounds which serve as
substrates, activators, or inhibitors of enzymes. They are also used to determine
isomeric configuration of compounds which refer to the primary structures of
complex biomolecules. (Whitaker, 1974). According to Charnock and McCleary
(n.d.), applications of analytical enzyme include medical diagnostics, as well as
food and beverage analyses. With the analytical usage of enzymes, it is required
that the enzyme be pure and free of other enzymes which are considered
impurities since they are highly specific and the impurities may inhibit and/or
interfere with enzyme activity. Also, they are required in large amounts which made
it a hard time in the 1960’s when large-scale production of enzymes was not yet
developed.
2. Examples of application of enzymes in industrial, medical and analytical uses
APPLICATION RESEARCH ARTICLE DESCRIPTION/SUMMARY
Industrial OLSEN, H & FALHOLT, P. Proteases, lipases, amylases
(1998). The role of enzymes and cellulases are used in
in modern detergency. the production of washing
Journal of Surfactants and powders. Proteases were the
Detergents. Volume 1, Issue first to be extensively used in
4, pp 555–567. doi: laundry detergents. While
10.1007/s11743-998-0058- they improve the level of
7 cleaning of clothes,
proteases have also made
environmental benefits by
reducing power consumption
by shortening washing times,
lowering water temperatures
and reducing water
consumption. In addition to
this, lipases and amylases
improve the detergent
efficiency as they lower the
temperature or pH at
cleaning operations.
Cellulases serve as a
maintenance of the washed
garments.

Essentially these enzymes


breakdown the dirt that can
normally be removed at
higher temperatures or by
using large amounts of
chemical reagents over a
long period of time.
Medical GOODSELL, D. (2005). The L-asparaginase is an
Molecular Perspective: l- enzyme isolated from
Asparaginase. The Escherichia coli or Erwinia
Oncologist March 2005 vol. corotovara. It hydrolyzes L-
10 no. 3 238-239. doi: asparagine to L-aspartic acid
10.1634/theoncologist.10-3- and ammonia. It is normally
238 involved in balancing the
levels of amino acids for
protein synthesis but large
amount of this enzyme can
break down asparagine it
finds.

With this, the enzyme is


actually found to be an
effective therapy with blood
cancer as they cut off the
asparagine supply in the
blood, ultimately killing the
cancerous cells as they are
unable to build their proteins.
However, it is a concern that
large doses of this enzyme
may trigger the body’s
immune system that would
clear the enzyme from the
blood within a few days.
Analytical WHISLER, R., HOUGH, L & Glucose dehydrogenase can
HYLIN, J. (1953). be used to determine the
Determination of D-Glucose amount of D-glucose in corn
in Corn Sirups. Anal. Chem., sirups. With oxygen, the
1953, 25 (8), pp 1215–1216 enzyme oxidizes D-glucose
doi: 10.1021/ac60080a020 to D-gluconolactone, which is
determined quantitatively by
titration with standard alkali

References

CHAPLIN, M. (2014). Medical applications of enzymes. Retrieved 04 October 2018 from


http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/enztech/medical.html

CHARNOCK, S & MCCLEARY, J. (n.d.). Enzymes: Industrial and analytical application.


Retrieved 04 October 2018 from https://www.megazyme.com/docs/default-
source/analytical-applications-
downloads/enzymes_indsutrial_and_analytical_appliation

GOODSELL, D. (2005). The Molecular Perspective: l-Asparaginase. The Oncologist


March 2005 vol. 10 no. 3 238-239. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.10-3-238

OLSEN, H & FALHOLT, P. (1998). The role of enzymes in modern detergency. Journal of
Surfactants and Detergents. Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 555–567. doi: 10.1007/s11743-
998-0058-7

WHISLER, R., HOUGH, L & HYLIN, J. (1953). Determination of D-Glucose in Corn Sirups.
Anal. Chem., 1953, 25 (8), pp 1215–1216 doi: 10.1021/ac60080a020

WHITAKER, J. (1974). Analytical Applications of Enzymes. Food Related Enzymes


Chapter 2, pp 31–78 DOI: 10.1021/ba-1974-0136.ch002