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# Índice

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𝒏 ........................................................... 15
𝒏 .................. ¡Error! Marcador no definido.
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ℝ2

ℝ𝑛

𝑛
ℝ×ℝ
(𝑎, 𝑏) 𝑎 𝑏
ℝ×ℝ ℝ2
𝑎 𝑏

(𝑎 + 𝑐, 𝑏 + 𝑑)

## [(𝑎, 𝑏) + (𝑐, 𝑑)] + (𝑒, 𝑓) = [(𝑎 + 𝑐, 𝑏 + 𝑑)] +

(𝑒, 𝑓) = (𝑎 + 𝑐 + 𝑒, 𝑏 + 𝑑 + 𝑓) (𝑎, 𝑏) + [(𝑐, 𝑑) + (𝑒, 𝑓)] = (𝑎, 𝑏) +
[(𝑐 + 𝑒, 𝑑 + 𝑓)] = (𝑎 + 𝑐 + 𝑒, 𝑏 + 𝑑 + 𝑓)

(𝑎, 𝑏) + (𝑐, 𝑑) = (𝑎 + 𝑐, 𝑏 + 𝑑) =
(𝑐 + 𝑎, 𝑑 + 𝑏) = (𝑐, 𝑑) + (𝑎, 𝑏)

## ⃗0 = (0,0) (0,0) + (𝑎, 𝑏) =

(0 + 𝑎, 0 + 𝑏) = (𝑎, 𝑏)

## −(𝑎, 𝑏) = (−𝑎, −𝑏) (−𝑎, −𝑏) +

(𝑎, 𝑏) = (0,0) = ⃗0

ℝ2 ℝ
𝛼∈ℝ (𝑎, 𝑏) ∈ ℝ2
𝛼 ∙ (𝑎, 𝑏) = (𝛼𝑎, 𝛼𝑏) ∈ ℝ2 𝛼(𝑎, 𝑏)

## 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ ℝ 𝑦 (𝑎, 𝑏) ∈ ℝ2 𝛼[𝛽(𝑎, 𝑏)] = 𝛼[(𝛽𝑎, 𝛽𝑏)] = (𝛼𝛽𝑎, 𝛼𝛽𝑏) = (𝛼𝛽)(𝑎, 𝑏)

(𝑐, 𝑑) ∈ ℝ2
𝛼[(𝑎, 𝑏) + (𝑐, 𝑑)] = 𝛼(𝑎, 𝑏) + 𝛼(𝑐, 𝑑)
(𝛼 + 𝛽)(𝑎, 𝑏) = 𝛼(𝑎, 𝑏) + 𝛽(𝑎, 𝑏)
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
1(𝑎, 𝑏) = (𝑎, 𝑏)

𝑎𝑥 + 𝑏 𝑛

(𝑎, 𝑏) 𝑎, 𝑏 ∈ ℝ

𝛼𝑎𝑥 + 𝛼𝑏

(𝑉, +, ⃗0)
𝐹 ∙: 𝐹 × 𝑉 → 𝑉

⃗0

⃗0 𝑦 ⃗0

## ⃗0 + ⃗0´ = ⃗0´, ⃗0´ + ⃗0 = ⃗0 ⃗0 =

⃗0 ∎

𝑣∈𝑉 𝑣́ 𝑣́ + 𝑣 = ⃗0
𝑣́ 𝑦 𝑣̈ 𝑣 + 𝑣́ = 0 𝑣 + 𝑣̈ = 0
𝑣́ = ⃗0 + 𝑣́ = 𝑣́ + 0 = 𝑣́ + (𝑣 + 𝑣̈ ) = (𝑣́ + 𝑣) + 𝑣̈ = ⃗0 + 𝑣̈ = 𝑣̈

𝑣́ −𝑣
𝑣

0∈𝐹 𝑣 ∈ 𝑉 0𝑣 = ⃗0
0𝑣 = (0 + 0)𝑣 = 0𝑣 + 0𝑣 −0𝑣
⃗0 = 0𝑣

## −(𝛼𝑣) + 𝛼𝑣 + (−𝛼)𝑣 = ⃗0 + (−(𝛼𝑣))

⃗0 + (−𝛼)𝑣 = ⃗0 + (−(𝛼𝑣))

(−𝛼)𝑣 = −(𝛼𝑣). ∎
𝑢 𝑣

𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑣 = ⃗0 𝛼=𝛽=0

(1,2) 𝑦 (0,1) ℝ2

𝛼=𝛽=0

ℙ𝑛 𝑛 𝑛=1

## 𝑝(𝑥) = 1 + 2𝑥 𝑦 𝑞(𝑥) = 𝑥, 𝛼𝑝(𝑥) + 𝛽𝑞(𝑥) = 𝛼 +

(2𝛼 + 𝛽)𝑥 = ⃗0 = 0 + 0𝑥 𝛼=𝛽=0

{𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑛 }
𝛼1 𝑣1 + ⋯ + 𝛼𝑛 𝑣𝑛 = 0 𝛼1 = ⋯ 𝛼𝑛 = 0

## 𝛼(0,1) + 𝛽(1,0) + 𝛾(𝑎, 𝑏) = ⃗0 𝛽 + 𝛾𝑎 = 0 𝛼 + 𝛾𝑏 = 0 𝑎𝑜𝑏

𝛽 = −𝑎, 𝛾 = 1 𝑎≠0 𝑎𝑦𝑏 𝛾≠0𝛼=𝛽=0
𝑝(𝑥) = 1, 𝑞(𝑥) = 𝑥 𝑟(𝑥) = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑥
𝑏(0,1) + 𝑎(1,0) = (𝑎, 𝑏)

{𝑢, 𝑣} 𝑣 ≠ ⃗0 𝑢
𝑣

𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑣 = ⃗0 𝛼𝑦𝛽 𝛼=0
𝛽=0 𝑣≠0 𝛼≠0 𝛼 −1 𝑢=
−𝛼 −1 𝛽𝑣 ∎

𝑢𝑦𝑣 𝑤
𝑢𝑦𝑣 𝛼𝑦𝛽 𝑤 = 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑣 (𝑎, 𝑏)
(0,1) 𝑦 (1,0)

{𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤} {𝑢, 𝑣}
𝑤 𝑢𝑦𝑣
𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑣 + 𝛾𝑤 𝛾≠0
𝑢𝑦𝑣

𝛾≠0 𝛾 −1 𝛾 −1 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛾 −1 𝛽 = 𝑤 ∎
{𝑢1 , ⋯ , 𝑢𝑛 } 𝑤
𝑢1 , … , 𝑢𝑛 𝛼1 , 𝛼2 , … , 𝛼𝑛 𝑤=
∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝛼𝑖 𝑢𝑖

{𝑢1 , … , 𝑢𝑟 } {𝑢1 , … , 𝑢𝑟 , 𝑤} 𝑤
𝑢1 , … , 𝑢𝑟
∑𝑟𝑖=1 𝛼𝑖 𝑢𝑖 + 𝛽𝑤 = ⃗0 𝛽 ≠ 0
𝑢𝑖 𝛼𝑖 = 0 𝑖 𝛽≠0
𝛽 −1 𝑤 = ∑𝑟𝑖=1 𝛽 −1 𝛼𝑖 𝑢𝑖 ∎

{𝑣𝑖 }𝑖∈𝐼
𝑣∈𝑉
𝑣𝑖1 , 𝑣𝑖2 , … , 𝑣𝑖𝑛 𝑣
𝑣𝑖1 , 𝑣𝑖2 , … , 𝑣𝑖𝑛
𝑉 {𝑣𝑖 }𝑖∈𝐼
𝑉 {𝑣𝑖 }𝑖∈𝐼
ℝ2 (1,0), (0,1)
ℙ1
𝑝(𝑥) = 𝑥, 𝑞(𝑥) = 1

ℝ2 ℙ1

𝑉
ℝ2 (1,0), (0,1)
ℙ1
𝑝(𝑥) = 𝑥, 𝑞(𝑥) = 1

𝑉
dim(𝑉) = 𝑟
ℝ2 ℙ1
𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) 𝑦 cos(𝑥)
𝛼𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) +
𝛽cos(𝑥) 𝛼𝑦𝛽
𝑓1 (𝑥) = 𝛼1 sen(𝑥) +
𝛽1 cos(𝑥) 𝑓2 (𝑥) = 𝛼2 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 𝛽2 cos(𝑥) 𝑓1 (𝑥) + 𝑓2 (𝑥) =
(𝛼1 + 𝛼2 )𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + (𝛽1 + 𝛽2 )cos(𝑥) 𝛾
𝛾𝑓1 (𝑥) = 𝛾𝛼1 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 𝛾𝛽1 cos(𝑥)
𝑠(𝑥) = 𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) 𝑦 𝑐(𝑥) = cos(𝑥)
𝑠(𝑥) = 1𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 0cos(𝑥) 𝑐(𝑥) = 0𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 1cos(𝑥)
𝑇
𝑠(𝑥)𝑦 𝑐(𝑥) 𝑇

## 𝐴𝑠(𝑥) + 𝐵𝑐(𝑥) = 0 𝐴𝑦𝐵 𝑥

𝐴𝑠(𝑥) + 𝐵𝑐(𝑥) = 𝐴𝑠𝑒𝑛(𝑥) + 𝐵𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑥) = 0 𝑥=0 𝐵=0
𝑥 = 𝜋/2 𝐴=0 𝑠(𝑥) 𝑦 𝑐(𝑥) dim(𝑇) = 2
ℝ2 (𝑎, 0)
(𝑎1 , 0) + (𝑎2 , 0) = (𝑎1 + 𝑎2 , 0)
𝛼(𝑎, 0) = (𝛼𝑎, 0)
𝑃1

⃗0 = (0,0)

𝑉 𝑆⊆𝑉
𝑆 𝑉

𝑉 𝑉 𝑉 ⃗}
{0
𝑣∈𝑉
𝛼𝑣 𝛼∈𝐹 𝑉
𝑆
𝑉 𝐹

𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤 ∈ 𝑆 (𝑢 + 𝑣) + 𝑤 = 𝑢 + (𝑣 + 𝑤)
𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝑢+𝑣 =𝑣+𝑢
𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝑦 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ 𝐹 (𝛼𝛽)𝑣 = 𝛼(𝛽𝑣)
𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝑦 𝛼 ∈ 𝐹
𝛼(𝑢 + 𝑣) = 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛼𝑣
𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ 𝐹 𝑦 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 (𝛼 + 𝛽)𝑣 =
𝛼𝑣 + 𝛽𝑣
𝑆𝑖 1 ∈ 𝐹 1∙𝑣 = 𝑣 𝑣∈𝑉

𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝑢+𝑣 ∈𝑆
⃗0 ⃗0 + 𝑣 = 𝑣 + ⃗0 = 𝑣, ∀𝑣 ∈ 𝑆

∀𝑣 ∈ 𝑆, ∃𝑣̇ , 𝑣 + 𝑣̇ = 𝑣̇ + 𝑣 = ⃗0
𝑆𝑖 𝛼 ∈ 𝐹, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆
𝛼𝑣 ∈ 𝑆

0∈𝑆
𝑣∈𝑆 −𝑣 ∈ 𝑆

𝑆⊆𝑉

𝑆 𝑉

𝑆⊆𝑉 𝑆≠∅

∀𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ ℝ

∀𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆, 𝑢 − 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆
𝑢∈𝑆𝑦𝛼∈𝐹 𝛼𝑢 ∈ 𝑉
𝑆 𝑣
𝑖) ⇒ 𝑖𝑖) 𝑦 𝑖𝑖𝑖) ⇒ 𝑖)
𝑣 ∈ 𝑆(𝑆 ≠ ∅) 𝑢 = 𝑣 𝑣 − 𝑣 = ⃗0 ∈ 𝑆
𝑣∈𝑆 ⃗0 ∈ 𝑆 ⃗0 − 𝑣 = −𝑣 ∈ 𝑆

𝑢𝑦𝑣 ∈𝑆 −𝑣 ∈ 𝑆 𝑢 − (−𝑣) = 𝑢 + 𝑣 ∈ 𝑆

⃗ }, {(𝑎, 0): 𝑎 ∈ ℝ} 𝑦 ℝ2
{0 ℝ2
{𝑝(𝑥) = 𝑎𝑥: 𝑐𝑜𝑛 𝑎 ∈ ℝ ∈ ℝ} ℙ2
𝐧

ℝ2
𝑛

ℝ𝑛
(𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … . , 𝑎𝑛 )
(𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 ) + (𝑏1 , 𝑏2 , … . , 𝑏𝑛 ) = (𝑎1 + 𝑏1 , 𝑎2 + 𝑏2 , … . , 𝑎𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛 )
𝛼∈ℝ 𝛼(𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 ) = (𝛼𝑎1 , 𝛼𝑎2 , … , 𝛼𝑎𝑛 )

ℝ2

𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤 ∈ ℝ𝑛 (𝑢 + 𝑣) + 𝑤 = 𝑢 + (𝑣 + 𝑤)
𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛 𝑢+𝑣 =𝑣+𝑢
⃗0 = (0, … ,0) ⃗0 + 𝑣 = 𝑣, ∀𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛

𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛 , 𝑤 ∈ ℝ𝑛 𝑣 + 𝑤 = ⃗0 𝑣=
(𝑎1 , … , 𝑎𝑛 ) 𝑤 = (−𝑎1 , −𝑎2 , … , −𝑎𝑛 )
−𝑣
𝑢 ∈ ℝ𝑛 , 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ ℝ 𝛼(𝛽𝑣) = (𝛼𝛽)𝑣
𝛼∈
ℝ 𝑦 𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛 𝛼(𝑢 + 𝑣) = 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛼𝑣
𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ ℝ
(𝛼 + 𝛽)𝑣 = 𝛼𝑣 + 𝛽𝑣
1∈ℝ 1𝑣 = 𝑣, ∀𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛

𝑛
ℙ𝑛 = {𝑝(𝑥) ∈ ℝ[𝑥]: 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑜(𝑝(𝑥)) ≤ 𝑛} 𝑝(𝑥) 𝑦 𝑞(𝑥) ∈ ℙ𝑛
𝑝(𝑥) + 𝑞(𝑥) = (𝑎0 + 𝑏0 ) + (𝑎1 + 𝑏1 )𝑥 + ⋯ (𝑎𝑛 + 𝑏𝑛 )𝑥 𝑛
𝑝(𝑥) = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 𝑞(𝑥) = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑏𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 𝛼𝑝(𝑥) = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝛼 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖

ℙ𝑛
{𝑣𝑖 }𝑖∈𝐼
𝑣∈𝑉
𝑣𝑖1 , 𝑣𝑖2 , … , 𝑣𝑖𝑛 𝑣
𝑣𝑖1 , 𝑣𝑖2 , … , 𝑣𝑖𝑛

{𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑟 }
{𝑢1 , … , 𝑢𝑠 } 𝑠≤𝑟

𝑠≤𝑟
{𝑤1 , … , 𝑤𝑘 }
𝑘>𝑟 {𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑟 }
𝑣𝑖
𝑟

𝑤𝑖 = ∑ 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑣𝑗 (𝑖 = 1, … , 𝑘)
𝑗=1

𝑤𝑖 𝑐1 , … , 𝑐𝑘
∑𝑘𝑖=1 𝑐𝑖 𝑤𝑖 = ⃗0
𝑥1 𝑎11 + 𝑥2 𝑎21 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑘 𝑎𝑘1 = 0
⋯ ⋯
𝑥1 𝑎1𝑟 + 𝑥2 𝑎2𝑟 + ⋯ + 𝑥𝑘 𝑎𝑘𝑟 = 0

𝑐1 , … , 𝑐𝑘
∑𝑘𝑖=1 𝑐𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0 𝑖 = 1, … , 𝑟 ∑𝑖 𝑐𝑖 𝑤𝑖 =
∑𝑖 𝑐𝑖 (∑𝑟𝑗=1 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑣𝑗 ) ∑𝑗(∑𝑖 𝑐𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 ) 𝑣𝑖 ∑𝑘𝑖=1 𝑐𝑖 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0

𝑤𝑖 ∎

ℙ𝑛 𝑋 = {1, 𝑥, 𝑥 2 , … , 𝑥 𝑛 }

𝑝(𝑥) = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑎𝑖 𝑥 𝑖 =
0 (𝑝𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑜𝑚𝑖𝑜 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑒 𝑐𝑒𝑟𝑜) 𝑎𝑖 = 0, 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎 𝑡𝑜𝑑𝑜 𝑖 = 0, … 𝑛
ℝ𝑛 {(1,0, . . ,0), (0,1,0, … ,0), … (0,0, … ,0,1)}

𝑉 {𝑣1 , … 𝑣𝑠 }
𝑣𝑠+1 , 𝑣𝑠+2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 {𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑠 , 𝑣𝑠+1 , 𝑣𝑠+2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 }

𝑣1 , . . , 𝑣𝑠 }
𝑣𝑠+1
𝑣𝑖 𝐵1 = {𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑠 , 𝑣𝑠+1 }
𝑣𝑠+1 𝐵1

𝑉 𝑉

𝑣 ∈ 𝑉 𝑣 ≠ ⃗0 {𝑣}

## ℝ3 (1,2,0), (1,0,1) (0,1,0)

𝑥(1,2,0) + 𝑦(1,0,1) =
(𝑥 + 𝑦, 2𝑥, 𝑦) = (0,1,0) 𝑥, 𝑦 (1,2,0), (1,0,1), (0,1,0)
ℝ3

{𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … 𝑣𝑠 } {𝑤1 , … , 𝑤𝑟 }
𝑠=𝑟

𝑉 𝑛
𝑟

𝑉 𝑆⊆𝑉
𝑆 𝑉
𝑆 𝑉 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑟 𝑆
{𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑟 } 𝑆 𝑉

𝑉 𝑆
𝑆
dim(𝑆) ≤ dim(𝑉)
dim(𝑆) = dim(𝑉) 𝑆=𝑉

{𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑟 } 𝑆 𝑉 𝑟≤𝑛
{𝑣1 , … , 𝑣𝑟 } 𝑆 𝑆 𝑉 𝑉
dim(𝑉) = dim(𝑆) dim(𝑆) < dim(𝑉)
𝑆 = 𝑉, dim(𝑆) = dim(𝑉) dim(𝑆) = dim(𝑉)
{𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … , 𝑣𝑛 } 𝑆 𝑆 𝑉 𝑤∈
𝑉 𝑣𝑖
𝑉⊆𝑆 𝑆⊆𝑉
𝑆 = 𝑉. ∎

ℝ2 ⃗}
{0
ℝ𝑛
{(1,0, . . ,0), (0,1,0, … ,0), … (0,0, … ,0,1)}
ℝ𝑛

𝑓(𝑡) 𝑦 𝑔(𝑡) 𝑡

## 𝑓 + 𝑔: ℝ → ℝ (𝑓 + 𝑔)(𝑡) = 𝑓(𝑡) + 𝑔(𝑡) 𝑡

−𝑓(𝑡))
𝛼 𝑓(𝑡) 𝛼𝑓: ℝ → ℝ
(𝛼𝑓)(𝑡) = 𝛼𝑓(𝑡) ∀ 𝑡 ∈ ℝ
(𝛼𝛽)(𝑓)(𝑡) =
𝛼(𝛽𝑓)(𝑡)) 𝛼(𝑓 + 𝑔)(𝑡) = 𝛼𝑓(𝑡) + 𝛽𝑔(𝑡)
(𝛼 + 𝛽)(𝑓)(𝑡) = 𝛼𝑓(𝑡) + 𝛽𝑓(𝑡) 1∈ℝ
(1𝑓)(𝑡) = 𝑓(𝑡)

ℙ 𝑓 𝑓
𝑓(𝑡) = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑎𝑖 𝑡 𝑖 𝑡 ∈ ℝ
𝑠𝑖 𝑓 𝑦 𝑔
𝑓(𝑡) = ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑎𝑖 𝑡 𝑖 𝑡 ∈ ℝ
𝑔(𝑡) = ∑𝑚 𝑖
𝑖=0 𝑏𝑖 𝑡 𝑡 ∈ ℝ (𝛼𝑓 + 𝛽𝑔)(𝑡) = 𝛼 ∑𝑛𝑖=0 𝑎𝑖 𝑡 𝑖 + 𝛽 ∑𝑚 𝑖
𝑖=0 𝑏𝑖 𝑡 =

## ∑𝑘𝑖=0(𝛼𝑎𝑖 + 𝛽𝑏𝑖 )𝑡 𝑖 , 𝑘 = max{𝑚, 𝑛}

𝑛 ℙ𝑛

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑜 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝑜

ℝ𝑛 𝐴 = (𝑎1 , 𝑎2 , … , 𝑎𝑛 )

√𝑎1 2 + ⋯ + 𝑎𝑛 2 ‖𝐴‖

ℝ2 𝑣 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 )
(𝑣1 , 0) 𝑦 (0, 𝑣2 ) ‖𝑣‖2 = 𝑣1 2 +
𝑣2 2 𝑣 ∈ ℝ3 𝑣 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ) ‖𝑣‖2 = 𝑣1 2 + 𝑣2 2 + 𝑣3 2

## 𝑣 = (−3,2,1) ‖𝑣‖ = √(−3)2 + (2)2 + (1)2 = √14

𝑢 𝑣 ℝ2 ℝ3
𝑢 𝑣 𝜃 𝑢𝑦𝑣
0≤𝜃≤𝜋

𝑢𝑦𝑣 ℝ2 ℝ3 𝜃
𝑢∙𝑣
‖𝑢‖‖𝑣‖𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃, 𝑠𝑖 𝑢 ≠ 0 𝑦 𝑣 ≠ 0
𝑢∙𝑣 ={
0 𝑠𝑖 𝑢 = 0 𝑜 𝑣 = 0

## 𝑢 = (0,0,1) 𝑣 = (0,2,2) 45° 𝑢∙𝑣 =

1
‖𝑢‖‖𝑣‖𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = (√02 + 02 + 12 )(√02 + 22 + 22 ) ( ) = 2 𝑢 = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) 𝑦 𝑣 =
√2

(𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ) 𝜃 𝑢𝑦𝑣

2
⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗ ‖ = ‖𝑢‖2 + ‖𝑣‖2 − 2‖𝑢‖‖𝑣‖𝑐𝑜𝑠 ↑ 𝜃
‖𝑃𝑄

⃗⃗⃗⃗⃗
𝑃𝑄 = 𝑣 − 𝑢
1
‖𝑢‖‖𝑣‖𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = (‖𝑢‖2 + ‖𝑣‖2 − ‖𝑣 − 𝑢‖2 )
2

1
𝑢∙𝑣 = (‖𝑢‖2 + ‖𝑣‖2 − ‖𝑣 − 𝑢‖2 )
2

‖𝑢‖2 = 𝑢1 2 + 𝑢2 2 + 𝑢3 2 , ‖𝑣‖2 = 𝑣1 2 + 𝑣2 2 + 𝑣3 2

## ‖𝑣 − 𝑢‖2 = (𝑣1 − 𝑢1 )2 + (𝑣2 − 𝑢2 )2 + (𝑣3 − 𝑢3 )2

𝑢 ∙ 𝑣 = 𝑢1 𝑣1 + 𝑢2 𝑣2 + 𝑢3 𝑣3 ℝ2 𝑢 ∙ 𝑣 = 𝑢1 𝑣1 + 𝑢2 𝑣2
𝑣 ∈ ℝ2
𝑃⊥ = {𝑢 ∈ ℝ2 : 𝑣 ∙ 𝑢 = 0}
ℝ2 𝑣 ∙ 𝑢 = ‖𝑣‖‖𝑢‖𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑢
𝜋
𝑢 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 0 𝜃= 2

𝑢𝑦𝑣 𝑢𝑦𝑣
𝑢∙𝑣 =0 𝑃⊥
𝑢, 𝑤 ∈ 𝑃⊥ 𝑦 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ ℝ 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑤 ∈ 𝑃⊥

𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ ℝ2 ℝ3
𝑣 ∙ 𝑣 = ‖𝑣‖2 = (𝑣 ∙ 𝑣)1/2
𝑢𝑦𝑣 𝜃
𝜃 𝑢∙𝑣 >0
𝜃 𝑢∙𝑣 <0
𝜋
𝜃= 𝑢∙𝑣 =0
2

## 𝑣 ∙ 𝑣 = ‖𝑣‖‖𝑣‖𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = ‖𝑣‖2 𝜃=0

𝑢 ∙ 𝑣 = ‖𝑢‖‖𝑣‖𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 0 < 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 < 1
𝜋 𝜋
0<𝜃< −1 < 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 < 0 < 𝜃 < 𝜋. ∎
2 2

𝑢, 𝑣, 𝑤 ℝ2 ℝ3 𝑘∈ℝ
𝑢∙𝑣 =𝑣∙𝑢
𝑢 ∙ (𝑣 + 𝑤) = 𝑢 ∙ 𝑣 + 𝑢 ∙ 𝑤
𝑘(𝑢 ∙ 𝑣) = (𝑘𝑢) ∙ 𝑣 = 𝑢 ∙ (𝑘𝑣)
𝑣∙𝑣 >0 𝑣≠0 𝑣∙𝑣 =0 𝑣=0

## 𝑢 = (𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , 𝑢3 ) 𝑦 𝑣 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , 𝑣3 ) 𝑘(𝑢 ∙ 𝑣) = 𝑘(𝑢1 𝑣1 + 𝑢2 𝑣2 + 𝑢3 𝑣3 ) =

(𝑘𝑢1 )𝑣1 + (𝑘𝑢2 )𝑣2 + (𝑘𝑢3 )𝑣3 = (𝑘𝑢) ∙ 𝑣 ∎
𝑃⊥ ℝ2 ℝ3
𝑢, 𝑤 ∈ 𝑃⊥ 𝑦 𝛼, 𝛽 ∈ ℝ 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑤 ∈ 𝑃⊥ 𝑣 ∙
(𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑤) = 𝑣 ∙ (𝛼𝑢) + 𝑣 ∙ (𝛽𝑤) 𝛼(𝑣 ∙ 𝑢) + 𝛽(𝑣 ∙
𝑤) 𝛼0 + 𝛽0 𝛼𝑢 + 𝛽𝑤 ∈ 𝑃 ⊥

𝑢𝑦𝑣 ℝ2 ℝ3 𝑢
𝑤1 𝑦 𝑤2 𝑤1
𝑣 𝑤2 𝑣 𝑢
𝜆𝑣 𝑢 − 𝜆𝑣
(𝑢 − 𝜆𝑣) ∙ 𝑣 = 0 𝑢 ∙ 𝑣 − 𝜆𝑣 ∙ 𝑣 =
𝑢∙𝑣
0 𝑣 ≠ ⃗0 𝜆 𝜆= 𝑤1
𝑣∙𝑣

𝑢 𝑣 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑦𝑣 𝑢 𝑤2
𝑢 𝑣
ℝ𝑛

𝑢𝑎𝑣 𝑑(𝑢, 𝑣) = ‖𝑢 − 𝑣‖
𝑎∙𝑗 7×1+8×1+9×1 24
𝑎 = (7,8,9), 𝑗 = (1,1,1), 𝜆 = = 1×1+1×1+1×1 = = 8, 𝑎
𝑗∙𝑗 3

## 𝜆 𝑑(𝑎, 𝜆𝑗)2 = (7 − 8)2 + (8 − 8)2 +

2
(9 − 8)2 = 2
3

√2/3 𝜆𝑗 = (8,8,8).

ℝ𝑛

𝑢, 𝑣 ∈ ℝ𝑛 𝑢 =
(𝑢1 , 𝑢2 , … , 𝑢𝑛 ), 𝑣 = (𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … . , 𝑣𝑛 ) 𝑢 ∙ 𝑣 = ∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖
𝑎 = (5.1, 2.9, 3.7, 4.2, 7) 𝑗 = (1, 1,1, 1, 1)
𝑎∙𝑗 5.1+2.9+3.7+4.2+7 22.9
𝜆= = = = 4.58 𝑑(𝑎, 𝜆𝑖)2 =
𝑗∙𝑗 5 5

## ‖𝑎 − 𝜆𝑖‖2 = 0.36 + 2.56 + .64 + .09 + 2.25 = 5.9 √5.9 𝜆𝑗 =

(4.58, 4.58,4.58,4.58,4.58)
𝑎=
30.1
(6,6,6,6,6.1) 𝜆= 5
=

## 6.02 𝑑(𝑎, 𝑎 − 𝜆𝑖)2 = .0084

 Lang, S. (2004). Linear Algebra. USA: Springer-Verlag.