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ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

Md. Raihan Ali Khan


Lecturer
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000

Lecture 01
Date: 27 October 2018

INTRODUCTION

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http://raihankhan.buet.ac.bd/
Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 1
Fluid Mechanics
Fluid Mechanics is a branch of physics, concerned with the behavior of liquids and gases at rest
(Fluid Statics) and motion (Fluid Dynamics).

It is a study which is applied to various natural phenomena, almost every discipline of engineering,
biology and life sciences even in warfare.

Valve

Fire pump
Water
treatment

Industrial Piping System Steam Boiler Fire Fighting System

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 2
Fluid Mechanics in Metallurgical Engineering

• stream of oxygen is being blown


through a lance onto a slag-metal
emulsion.
• formation of (supersonic) jets.
• interaction of gas jets with melts.
• nucleation and growth of gas
bubbles, gas bubble driven Metal Pouring
circulatory flows.
• Hot, highly viscous molten metal
• Complex behavior with the channel
and flow pattern

Basic Oxygen Furnace

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 3
Fluid Mechanics in Metallurgical Engineering

Steam jet ejector system Ore sintering


• used in vacuum degassing operation
• for removing exhausting gases from the melt

 While we have not yet reached a complete, quantitative understanding of the


detailed process mechanism, fluid flow theory, coupled with physical modeling
and experiments, have been very helpful in process improvement.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 4
Fluids
A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously under the action of a shearing stress of any magnitude. A
shearing stress is a force per unit area that is created whenever a tangential force acts on a surface.

Consequently,
If a fluid is at rest, there can be no shearing forces acting and, therefore, all forces in the fluid must be perpendicular to
the planes upon which they act.

• Fluids are unable to retain any unsupported shape.


• Solids offer permanent resistance to a deforming force.
• Fluid at rest must be in zero shear stress often called hydrostatic stress condition in analyses.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 5
Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid
Shear stresses are developed when the fluid is in motion.
In motion, the particles of the fluid move relative to each other so that
they have different velocities, causing the original shape of the fluid to
become distorted.
On the other hand, if the velocity of the fluid is the same at every
point, no shear stresses will be produced, since the fluid particles are
at rest relative to each other.
Flow past a solid boundary are of great interest in engineering systems.
(flow inside a pipe, flow past and airfoil, open channel flow etc.).

The fluid in contact with the solid boundary adheres to it, therefore,
have the same velocity as the boundary. Relative velocity of the fluid
particles in contact with the solid surface will be zero. This is often
referred as “No Slip Condition”.

Considering successive layers parallel to the boundary (Fig.), the


velocity of the fluid will vary from layer to layer as y increases.
Velocity Profile

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 6
Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 7
Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 8
Differences Between Solids And Fluids
The differences between the behaviors of solids and fluids under an applied force are as follows:

 For a solid, the strain is a function of the applied stress, provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.
For a fluid, the rate of strain is proportional to the applied stress.
 The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is applied and if the elastic limit is not exceeded,
the deformation disappears when the force is removed.
A fluid continues to flow for as long as the force is applied and will not recover its original shape when the force is
removed.
In most cases, substances can be classified easily as either solids or fluids. HOWEVER??

Slurry Pitch Jelly Toothpaste

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 9
Course Content

• Fluid Properties

• Fluid statics: manometry, forces on submerged planes and curved surfaces; Buoyancy and floatation.

• One dimensional flow of fluid, Equation of continuity, Euler's equation, Bernoulli's equation.

• Flow of fluid in pipes, Head losses.

• Flow Measurement Systems.

• Open Channel Flow: Flow through Weirs and Notches.

• Impulse and Momentum Principles.

• Fans and Blowers, Study of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Pumps.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 10
References

Text Book:
• Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, 2008, ISBN: 978‐007‐131121‐2.
• J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek, J. A. Swaffield, L. B. Jack, Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition, 2005, ISBN‐978‐0‐13‐129293‐2.
Class lectures will be available at http://raihankhan.buet.ac.bd/

Reference Books:
• Julian Szekely, Fluid Flow Phenomena In Metals Processing (1979), ISBN- 978-0-12-680840-7.
• Fox and McDonald, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition, 2015, ISBN: 978‐1118912652.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 11