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Lecturer

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka-1000

Lecture 01

Date: 27 October 2018

INTRODUCTION

raihankhan19query@gmail.com

http://raihankhan.buet.ac.bd/

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 1

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics is a branch of physics, concerned with the behavior of liquids and gases at rest

(Fluid Statics) and motion (Fluid Dynamics).

It is a study which is applied to various natural phenomena, almost every discipline of engineering,

biology and life sciences even in warfare.

Valve

Fire pump

Water

treatment

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 2

Fluid Mechanics in Metallurgical Engineering

through a lance onto a slag-metal

emulsion.

• formation of (supersonic) jets.

• interaction of gas jets with melts.

• nucleation and growth of gas

bubbles, gas bubble driven Metal Pouring

circulatory flows.

• Hot, highly viscous molten metal

• Complex behavior with the channel

and flow pattern

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 3

Fluid Mechanics in Metallurgical Engineering

• used in vacuum degassing operation

• for removing exhausting gases from the melt

detailed process mechanism, fluid flow theory, coupled with physical modeling

and experiments, have been very helpful in process improvement.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 4

Fluids

A fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously under the action of a shearing stress of any magnitude. A

shearing stress is a force per unit area that is created whenever a tangential force acts on a surface.

Consequently,

If a fluid is at rest, there can be no shearing forces acting and, therefore, all forces in the fluid must be perpendicular to

the planes upon which they act.

• Solids offer permanent resistance to a deforming force.

• Fluid at rest must be in zero shear stress often called hydrostatic stress condition in analyses.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 5

Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

Shear stresses are developed when the fluid is in motion.

In motion, the particles of the fluid move relative to each other so that

they have different velocities, causing the original shape of the fluid to

become distorted.

On the other hand, if the velocity of the fluid is the same at every

point, no shear stresses will be produced, since the fluid particles are

at rest relative to each other.

Flow past a solid boundary are of great interest in engineering systems.

(flow inside a pipe, flow past and airfoil, open channel flow etc.).

The fluid in contact with the solid boundary adheres to it, therefore,

have the same velocity as the boundary. Relative velocity of the fluid

particles in contact with the solid surface will be zero. This is often

referred as “No Slip Condition”.

velocity of the fluid will vary from layer to layer as y increases.

Velocity Profile

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 6

Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 7

Shear Stress in a Moving Fluid

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 8

Differences Between Solids And Fluids

The differences between the behaviors of solids and fluids under an applied force are as follows:

For a solid, the strain is a function of the applied stress, provided that the elastic limit is not exceeded.

For a fluid, the rate of strain is proportional to the applied stress.

The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is applied and if the elastic limit is not exceeded,

the deformation disappears when the force is removed.

A fluid continues to flow for as long as the force is applied and will not recover its original shape when the force is

removed.

In most cases, substances can be classified easily as either solids or fluids. HOWEVER??

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 9

Course Content

• Fluid Properties

• Fluid statics: manometry, forces on submerged planes and curved surfaces; Buoyancy and floatation.

• One dimensional flow of fluid, Equation of continuity, Euler's equation, Bernoulli's equation.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 10

References

Text Book:

• Frank M. White, Fluid Mechanics, 6th Edition, 2008, ISBN: 978‐007‐131121‐2.

• J. F. Douglas, J. M. Gasiorek, J. A. Swaffield, L. B. Jack, Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition, 2005, ISBN‐978‐0‐13‐129293‐2.

Class lectures will be available at http://raihankhan.buet.ac.bd/

Reference Books:

• Julian Szekely, Fluid Flow Phenomena In Metals Processing (1979), ISBN- 978-0-12-680840-7.

• Fox and McDonald, Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 9th Edition, 2015, ISBN: 978‐1118912652.

Md. Raihan Ali Khan, Dept. of ME, BUET L-2, T-2, Dept. of MME, BUET ME 221: Elements of Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (July 2018) 11

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