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7.

1 Equilibrium

Equilibrium Reactions in Chemistry


● A state of equilibrium is reached in a closed system when the rates of the forward
and reverse reactions are equal.
● Dynamic Equilibrium: ​The forward and reverse reactions continue but no
overall change in the concentration of reactants and products occurs.
● Single arrows are for non-reversible reactions
● Double headed arrow are for reversible reactions which are in equilibrium

Chemical Systems
● The terms “Reactants” and “Products” implies a reaction goes to completion
when in reality, many reactions are in equilibrium
● Relative rates of a reaction depend on which effects the eq​m​:
○ Temperature and Pressure
○ Concentration of reactants and products
○ Presence of catalyst
● At equilibrium:
○ Forward and reverse reactions occur at equal rates
○ No change in concentration of reactants or products
○ No change in macroscopic properties - color and density
○ Eq​m​ can be approached from either the fwd or reverse dir0ec​n​.
Equilibrium Law
● Law:​​ At a given temperature, the ratio of the concentration of products to the
concentration of reactants (each raised to the power of their molar coefficients) is
a constant

● Constant is called​ equilibrium constant​​ denoted by K​c


● This constant changes at different temperatures
● Large K​c​ value (K​c​ > 1) means products are favored over reactants
● Small K​c​ value (K​c​ < 1) means reactants are favored over products
● Homogeneous equilibrium: reactants and products are present in one phase.
(Common one is reactions in gaseous phase)
● Heterogeneous equilibrium: reactants and products exist in more than one phase.
● Pure solids and liquids are ​not included​​ in when calculating the K​c value

● K​c​ of the reverse reaction is the same as 1/K​c​ of the forward reaction
○ Kc (reverse) = 1/K​c​ (forward)

Change in reac​n​​ ​ equation Equilibrium constant expression Equilibrium


constant

Reverse the reaction Inverse of the expression 1/K​c

Halve the coefficients Square root of the expression √kc


Double the coefficients Square the expression K​c 2​

Sum equations Product of the expression K​c =


​ K​c1 x
​ K​c2 x​ ​ ….

Effect of conditions on equilibrium constant

Concentration

Change Aim of Equilibrium Movement of Equilibrium towards

Increase in reactant Decrease in reactant Forward reaction

Decrease in reaction Increase in reactant Backward reaction

Increase in product Decrease in product Backward reaction

Decrease in product Increase in product Forward reaction

Pressure:

Change Aim of Equilibrium Movement of Equilibrium towards

Increase in pressure Decrease in pressure Total number of gaseous moles less

Decrease in pressure Increase in pressure Total number of gaseous moles


more

● No effect if the number of gaseous moles are same on both the side of reaction

Temperature:
● ΔH would always be given - generally for forward reaction. Negative ΔH
meaning reaction is exothermic.

Change Aim of Equilibrium Movement of Equilibrium

Increase in temperature Decrease in temperature Towards​ ​Endothermic

Decrease in temperature Increase in temperature Towards Exothermic


Catalyst:

● Catalyst reduces activation energy


● It increases rate of forward and reverse reaction by equal amount thus no change
in K​c
● Equilibrium achieved faster

Le Châtelier principle
● Le Châtelier principle​​: If a change is made to a system that is in equilibrium, the
balance between the forward and reverse reactions will shift to offset this change
and return system to equilibrium.
● Used to maximize the amount of the desired product formed in an equ​m​ reaction.
○ Value of K​c​ does not change

Reaction Quotient

● The reaction quotient (Q) measures the relative amount of products and reactants
present during a reaction at a particular point in time. Q is the equilibrium expression
with non-equilibrium concentrations. The position of the equilibrium changes with
changes in concentration, pressure, and temperature.