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Fertilización en banano

Autores Carlos gauggel


Gloria arevalo
Edicion Profesores de suelos, escuela agricola panamericana, el
zamorano, honduras
Fecha 2011, noviembre 11
Palabras claves Morfológicas, fertilización, nutrición, producción.
Factors that determine the fertilization in bananas: climate
description (temperatures, cold fronts, winds, rains and ,their distribution,
humidity relative). Elevation above sea level, soils
(morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical),
internal and external soil drainage. Influence of properties
Morphological: structure (granular or medium blocky)
To fine, k absorption severely
Restricted in massive soils, porosity (size, and continuity of
Pores, excellent texture francas to fine sand, friable
consistency. Effect of physical properties: apparent density
(this has to be <
1.5 g / cm3 for adequate absorption, the lower the better),
infiltration and permeability (these have to be moderate, slow
or very fast inhibit the absorption of k, resistance to the
penetration of roots of medium to low.

Contenidos Fertilization of nitrogen, essential in the formation of proteins, amino acids,


nucleic acids, etc, in essential banana to obtain a vigorous plant and large
and good fruit formed, deficiency: slow-growing plant, small, yellow leaves
and small fruit, optimum levels on the sheet are 2.5- 3%. Fertilization of
continuous nitrogen, soils with high content of matter organic usually require
less n (> 8% m.o.) But always require nitrogen. This has been one of the
greatest limitations of the organic production of bananas at the export.
Required doses 350-600 kg n / ha / year depending on the texture of the
floor, the floors gritty require more n and applied to more frequency.
Fertilization with phosphorus: its function is as ph buffer of the cell; control of
starch synthesis, in the climacteric breath during the fruit maturity; power
driver (atp); reduction of nadp to nadph releasing energy for breathing,
glycolysis and co2 fixation; required to the synthesis of sucrose; synthesis of
phospholipids and cellulose formation.
Scenario in storing energy as phytin in seeds and fruits and constitutes
molecules organic like membrane phospholipids cellular, lipoproteins, etc.
Bananas require relatively large quantities small ones of p since there is a
large transfer from mother to child, grandchild etc. And the deficiencies of
this element are rare after the first generation. Optimum foliar levels are
between 0.25-0.30%.
Fertilization with potassium: in banana, it is essential to maintain hydrated
plant and regulate the opening of the stomata; in the accumulation and
translocation of carbohydrates synthesized new and important in the
cellulose synthesis, it can be said that it is one of the most important
elements in nutrition of the banana.
The lack of k results in low weight fruit, short, thin and very susceptible to
maturity early k deficiency is perhaps the factor that causes more harm to
the industry banana plantation internationally.
Optimum foliar levels are between 3.5 and 4.0%, having great benefits in
keep them around 4% mainly doinde hydric stresses and low temperatures.
The mineralogy and the amount of clay has a great influence on
The bioavailability of k and p. In banana the rich soils in iita
They fix significantly k the same as the clay soils rich in
Smectite, the required doses are the following:
Floors rich in illites between 750 to 1200 kg of k / ha / year. In floors
Clay smectitic 650 to 900 kg k / ha. In free soils of mixed mineralogy, friable
550 kg / ha / year. The most common source of fertilizer is kcl but in saline
soils and / or sodium should be used potassium sulfate and avoid chlorides.
The absorption of k as well as that of p is highly influenced for the
compaction and massiveness of the soils so work with soils with
morphological and physical properties is very important. Foliar applications
in the form of chelates and metalosates are very desirable mainly in the dry
and / or cold season.
Fertilization with calcium: the ca is essential in the formation of calcium
pectate which is an important part of the epidermis of the fruit and in the
formation of new meristematic culture. Its application in banana depends on
the content of ca in the soil and relative humidity. Ca is not absorbed
When the relative humidity is high and even when the soil have enough
calcium can be presented deficiencies of this element.
In acidic soils, liming is necessary
Calcium carbonate or dolomite, depending on whether
Lack of mg. At the beginning of the plantation the best
Results have been obtained with the application of chelates
Or foliar metalosates. It is also important to
Application in times when relative humidity is
High.
Fertilization with magnesium: form the nucleus of the molecule
Chlorophyll, necessary in the conversion of atp to adp.
It is necessary in banana to obtain good weight of the fruit, greater thickness
and reduce the curvature. Its lack is common in sandy soils or very clayey.
Optimum foliar levels range from 0.28 to 0.30%. Application doses in very
hard soils clayey osilan between 75-150 kg / ha / year, in sandy soils
between 100 to 200 kg of mg / ha / year. Reinforcements are also
recommended with chelates and magnesium metallosates in the dry season
in sandy soils.} Fertilization with s; although the chlorosis of the leaves
Young disappears, the effect of his lack is observed in the yield,
This can decrease 20% of your maximum potential.
Its lack is common in sandy soils and low organic matter (<3% m.o), it is
advisable to apply 29-30 kg of s / ha / year.
Fertilization with zinc: scenario in many activities of the plant,
For example the activity of anhydrase carbonica depends on zinc.
Its lack results in fruit with fingers deformed superiors and short fruit and
bunches general low weight. Almost all of the banana soils of the caribbean,
central america and south america they contain low levels of zinc.
Fertilization with boro: its function is related to growth
Meristematic, cellular differentiation, maturation, division and elongation.
Its optimal foliar content ranges from 20 to 30 mg / kg. Almost all the soils
dedicated to the cultivation of bananas in the continent are lacking in b from
greatest to least grade.
Its lack requires applications preferably boric acid foliar at less than 0.5-1kg /
ha / year or if the application of 4-6 kg of borax / ha / year depending on the
severity of the deficiency and the levels in the ground.
Fertilization with iron and
Manganes, the function of these elements in the plant is also
Of enzymatic character.
in most banana soils these elements they are found at sufficient
concentration and solubility that your application does not become
necessary. However, in desert or semi-desert areas where these elements
occur in insoluble form is
Your application is necessary. In these soils the doses could range between
25-45 kg of iron sulfate or manfaneso / ha / ano. It should be noted that in
central america, the caribbean, colombia and ecuador trials with applications
of these
elements have not yielded any significant results.
Metodologia
Metodologgia aanalitica y practica, de observacion.

Conclusions The most important elements in general in


Banana nutrition are potassium,
Nitrogen, manganese, zinc and boron.
• in the initial stage of the planting it is necessary to
Monitor the sulfur.
• phosphorus is essential in the
Establishment of the plantation but then its
Importance decreases after the third
Harvest.

Autor rae Angie Lorena ortega Ceron

Agronomía

Cultivos de clima cálido

Universidad nacional abierta y a distancia