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“Analysis of Structure Shift in the Translation of Noun Phrase in The

Short Story Entitled Gadis dari Jendela into The Girl from the

Nama: Zelia Vitalina P. Sarmento

Nim: 1601542029

2018 – 2019
1. Background of the Study

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tipe ini dari data ini

2. Problem of the Study

In translation process, there are a lot of problem that may arise when transferring one
language (SL) to another language (TL). This trouble may arise because of the problem in
translation such as differences in the cultural term, specific term such as legal term, differences
in idiom, the structure between the language, and also the differences of the collocation. Thus,
from this background there are two problem in this paper:

1. What types of category shift that occur in the translation of noun phrases in the short
story entitled Gadis dari Jendela into The Girl from the Window?

2. What types of category shift that occur the most?

3. Aim of the study

The objective of a scientific paper is to improve our knowledge and also give answer
to the subject matter after being observed, in this paper the subject matter is the shift that occur
in the translation of noun phrases in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela. Based on this
the aims of this writing are:

1. To find out and analyze the types of category shift that occur in the translation of
noun phrases in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela.

2. To figure out what types of category shift that occur the most in the translation of
noun phrases in the short story entitled Gadis dari Jendela.

4. Scope of Discussion

The focus of this writing is to answer the problem in this paper. Thus, there are
limitation in the discussion of short story analysis. The theory that is used is the Translation
Shift theory proposed by Catford. There are two types of Translation Shift by Catford, they are
level shift and structure shift. However, in this paper the focus is on the explanation of category
shift that occur in the translation of noun phrases. Category shift consists of structure shift,
class shift, unit shift, and intra-system shift.
5. Theoretical Framework

In this research, the theory proposed by Catford about Shifts is the main theory that
applied in this paper. Beside that, the theory of noun phrase and theory from Larson about
meaning based translation are adopted to support the analysis in this paper.

5.1 Translation Shift

The first theory of shift is proposed by J.C. Catford. He defined shift as departures from
formal correspondence in the process of going from the SL to the TL (1965:73). He then
divided the shift into two major types of shift that occur in translation, namely level shifts and
category shifts.
5.1.1 Level Shift
Catford defined level shift as a shift of level which mean that a SL item at one linguistic
level has a TL translation equivalent at a different level (1965:73). This means that level shift
occurs where there is a difference between the aspect of system, for instance between English
in present tense with English in continuous tense. Moreover, Catford also said that level shift
occurred from grammar to lexis, and vice versa. Below is the example of level shift that occur
in translation from SL (English) into TL (Indonesian).
SL: I am working hard
TL: Saya sedang bekerja keras
From this data it can be seen that the grammatical item to be +-ing (pattern of present
continuous tense in English) is translated into ‘sedang’ which is a lexis in Indonesian. Thus,
the level shift in the translation is indicated by grammar in SL translated into lexis in TL.
5.1.2 Category Shift
Catford defined structure shift as the departures from formal correspondence in
translation (1965:76). Formal correspondence then can be understood as any target language
(TL) category which may be said to occupy as nearly as possible the same place in the economy
of TL as the given source (SL) category occupy the SL. Catford then divided category shift
into four types, they are structure shifts, class shifts, unit/rank shifts, and intra-system shifts.
A. Structure Shifts
Structure shifts are the shifts that occur when the source language structure and target
language structure are different. This shifts usually occur in the level of phrase, clause, and
sentence. This shift also amongst the most frequent category shift that occur at all ranks in
translation. (Catford, 1965:77). For instance:
(1) SL: I (S) wash (V) myself (O)
TL: Saya (S) mandi (P)
The structure of SL is S-V-O, whereas when it is translated into TL the structure change into
S-P, it can be seen that one element in TL which is the object (O) is not translated in TL. Thus,
structure shifts occur here.
(2) SL: Big (M) House (H)
TL: Rumah (H) besar (M)
The structure of SL is M-H with house as the head and preceding by big as the adjective pre-
modifier, whereas in TL the structure is H-M with Rumah as the head and followed by besar
as the post-modifier.
B. Class Shifts
Catford definition of class shift is derived from Halliday and he defined class as ‘that
grouping of members of a given unit which is defined by operation in the structure of the unit
next above’. Moreover, he said class shifts occur when the translation equivalent of a SL item
is a member of a different class from the original item (1965:78). It can be said that SL has
different class with TL such as from noun to verb, verb into noun, adjective into verb, verb into
adjective, noun into adjective, adjective into adverb, and vice versa. The example of class shift
that occurs from adjective to adverb and adjective to verb.
(1) SL: Mereka bekerja dengan lambat.
TL: They are working slowly.
In this sentence the word “lambat” in SL is an adjective, whereas in TL it is translated into
“slowly” which is an adverb. Thus, the class shifts occur here.
(2) SL: It’ll be lovely
TL: Itu akan menyenangkan
In this sentence the word “lovely” in SL is an adjective, yet when it is translated into the TL it
becomes “menyenangkan” which is a verb. It is obvious that the word class of word “lovely”
shifted into another word class which is verb in TL.
C. Unit/Rank Shifts
Unit/Rank shifts is a change of rank that is departures from formal correspondence in
which the translation equivalent of a unit at one rank in the SL is a unit at a different rank in
the TL (Catford, 1965:79). It can occur from word to phrase or vice versa, and phrase to clause.
The example of unit/rank shift that occurs from word to phrase, that is:
(1) SL: Your watch is very sophisticated
TL: Jam tangan anda sangat canggih
It can be seen here in SL the word “watch” is translated into a noun phrase “jam tangan” in TL.
This example shows that there was a shift from rank of a single word to rank of noun phrase.
(2) SL: Late in winter of my seventeenth years
TL: Di penghujung musim dingin usia ketujuh belasku.
It can be seen here that in SL the word “winter” is translated into a noun phrase “musim dingin”
in TL. This shows the occurrence of unit/rank shift from the lower rank (word) into higher rank
D. Intra-System Shifts
6. Data Source (2-3 Paragraph) samain kaya yang biasa.

2.1 Data of Source Language Text (SLT)

Data dari bahasa sumber diambil dari internet. Data yang akan digunakan dalam analisis
diambil dari kalimat yang terdapat pada report teks yang berjudul “Kucing”. Data diambil dari
blog Englishiana, penulisnya bernama Keenza Abriella.

Data yang diambil dipublish secara online pada tanggal 28 Februari 2016. Report teks
yang berjudul “Kucing” terdiri dari tiga paragraph yang mana paragraph pertama merupakan
general classification, dan paragraph kedua dan ketiga adalah deskripsi detail dari kucing.
Report teks ini menjelaskan tentang kucing, dan pengklasifikasiannya sebagai hewan

Penulis mengambil 5 kalimat dari report teks ini yang mana nanti akan di analisis
menggunakan teori translation milik Catford dan Nida.

2.2 Data of Target Language Text (TLT)

The data source is taken from the internet. The data that will be used in analyzing is a
report text entitled “Cats”. It is taken from a blog called Englishiana, and the writer is Kenzaa

The text is published online on February 28th 2016. The report text is three paragraph
long, which the first paragraph is the general classification, whereas the second and third
paragraph is the description of the cats. This report text explained about cats and its
classification as a carnivore mammal.
The writer took 5 sentences from the report text and will be analyze using translation
theory from Catford and Nida.

7 Data Analysis Discussion

Pilih 5 data

8. Conclussion

Jawab pertanyaan yang ada, kalua 2 pertanyaan dua paragraph


Kekamaip. (n.d.). Gadis dari Jendela [Internet]. Available from:

[22 November 2018].

Catford, J. C. (1965). A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Oxford University Press, London.