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Slabs

R M Moss BSc PhD DIC CEng MICE MIStructE, O Brooker BEng CEng MICE

Introduction

The introduction of European standards to UK construction is a significant event. The ten design standards,

known as the Eurocodes, will affect all design and construction activities as current British Standards for design

are due to be withdrawn in 2010.

This publication is part of the series of guides entitled How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2.

Their aim is to make the transition to Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures as easy as possible by drawing

together in one place key information and commentary required for the design of typical concrete elements.

The cement and concrete industry recognised that a substantial effort was required to ensure that the UK design

profession would be able to use Eurocode 2 quickly, effectively, efficiently and with confidence. With support

from government, consultants and relevant industry bodies, the Concrete Industry Eurocode 2 Group (CIEG) was

formed in 1999 and this Group has provided the guidance for a co-ordinated and collaborative approach to the

introduction of Eurocode 2. As a result, a range of resources is to be made available through The Concrete

Centre to help designers during the transition period (see back cover for details).

Designing to Eurocode 2

The analysis and design of concrete slabs with Eurocode 21 is essentially the same as with BS 81102, however, the

layout and content of Eurocode 2 will appear unusual to designers familiar with BS 8110. British designers will find

it strange that Eurocode 2 does not contain the derived formulae or specific guidance on determining moments and

shear forces. This has arisen because it has been European practice to give principles in the codes and for the

detailed application to be presented in other sources such as text books.

The first guide in this series How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Introduction3 highlighted the key

differences between Eurocode 2 and BS 8110, including terminology. A separate guide in this series will cover the

design of flat slabs.

Design Procedure

A procedure for carrying out the detailed design of slabs is shown in Table 1. This assumes that the slab thickness

has previously been determined during conceptual design. More detailed advice on determining design life,

loading, material properties, methods of analysis, minimum concrete cover for durability and control of crack widths

can be found in the accompanying guide How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Getting started4

It should also be noted that values from the UK National Annex have been used throughout this guide; this includes

values that are embedded in derived formulae (full derivations can be found at www.eurocode2.info). A list of

symbols is given at the end of this document.

Table 1: Slab design procedure

Step Task Further information

‘How to’ guide Standard

1 Determine design life Getting started NA to BS EN 1990 Table

NA.2.1

2 Assess actions on the slab Getting started BS EN 1991 (10 parts) and

national Annexes

3 Determine which combinations of Introduction to Eurocodes NA to BS EN 1990 Tables

actions apply NA.A1.1 and NA.A1.2 (B)

4 Determine loading arrangements Getting started NA to BS EN 1992 (TBC)

5 Assess durability requirements and Getting started BS 8500:2002

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

determine concrete strength

6 Check cover requirements for Getting started and Table 2 of this Approved Document B.

appropriate fire resistance period guide BS EN 1992-1-1: Section 5

7 Calculate minimum cover based in Getting started BS EN 1992-1-1 Cl 4.4.1

durability, fire and bar size

8 Analyse structure to obtain critical Getting started and table 3 of this BS EN 1992-1-1 section 5

moments and shear forces guide

9 Design flexural reinforcement See Figure 1 of this guide BS EN 1992-1-1 section 6.1

10 Check deflection See Figure 3 of this guide BS EN 1992-1-1 section 7.4

11 Check shear capacity See Table 5 of this guide BS EN 1992-1-1 section 6.2

12 Check spacing of bars Getting started BS EN 1992-1-1 section 7.3

5

Eurocode 2 Part 1– 2: Structural fire design , gives several methods for determining the fire resistance of concrete

elements; further guidance can be obtained from specialist literature. Design for fire resistance may still be carried

out by referring to tables for minimum cover and dimensions for various elements, as set out below.

Rather than giving a minimum cover, the tabular method is based on nominal axis distance (see Figure 7). This is

the distance from the centre of the main reinforcing bar to the surface of the member: it is a nominal (not minimum)

dimension, so the designer should ensure that a is greater than the sum of cnom, the link diameter (if applicable) and

half the main bar diameter.

Figure 7

Sections through structural members, showing nominal axis distance a

There are three standard fire exposure conditions that may need to be satisfied:

R Mechanical resistance for load bearing

E Integrity of separation

I Insulation

Table 2 gives the minimum dimensions slabs to meet the above conditions

The ribs in a one-way spanning ribbed slab may be treated as beams and reference made to How to design

concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Beams and the topping may be treated as a two-way slab where 1.5 < ly/lx ≤

2.

Table 2 Minimum dimensions and axis distances for reinforced concrete slabs

Standard Minimum dimensions(mm)

fire One- Two-waya,b,c,d Ribs in two-way spanning ribbed slabse

resistance way a,b

ly/lx ≤ 1.5f 1.5 < ly/lx ≤ 2f

REI 60 hs = 80 80 80 bmin = 100 120 ≥200

a= 20 10g 15g a= 25 15g 10g

REI 90 hs = 100 100 100 bmin = 120 160 ≥250

a= 30 15g 20 a= 35 25 15g

REI 120 hs = 120 120 120 bmin = 160 190 ≥300

a= 40 20 25 a= 45 40 30

REI 240 hs = 175 175 175 bmin = 450 700

a= 65 40 50 a= 70 60

Notes:

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

1. This table is taken from BS EN 1992-1-2 Tables 5.8 to 5.11

2. The table is valid only if the detailing requirements (see note 2) are observed and in the normal temperature design redistribution of bending

moments does not exceed 15%.

3. For fire resistance of R90 and above, for a distance of 0.3leff from the centre line of each intermediate support the area of top reinforcement

should not be less than the following:

As,req(x) = As,req(0) ⋅ (1- 2.5(x/leff)) where:

x is the distance of the section being considered from the centre line of the support.

As,req(0) is the area of reinforcement required for normal temperature design.

As,req(x) is the minimum area of reinforcement required at the section being considered but not less than that required for

normal temperature design.

leff is the greater of the effective lengths of the two adjacent spans.

Footnotes:

a The slab thickness hs is the sum of the slab thickness and the thickness of any non-combustible flooring (not applicable for flat

slabs).

b For continuous solid slabs a minimum negative reinforcement As ≥ 0.005 Ac should be provided over intermediate supports if

1) cold worked reinforcement; or

2) there is no fixity over the end supports in a two span slab; or

3) where transverse redistribution of load effects cannot be achieved.

c In two way slabs and flat slabs the axis distance refers to the lower layer of reinforcement.

d Two way slabs relate to slabs supported at all four edges. Otherwise, they should be treated as one-way spanning slab.

e For two-way ribbed slabs the following notes apply:

The axis distance measured to the lateral surface of the rib should be at least (a + 10)

The values apply where there is predominantly uniformly distributed loading

The should be at least one restrained edge

The top reinforcement should be placed in the upper half of the flange.

The axis distance measured to the lateral surface of the rib should be at least a + 10 mm

For minimum requirements for the flange refer to column 2

f lx and ly are the spans of a two-way slab (two directions at right angles) where ly is the longer span.

g Normally the cover required by BS EN 1992-1-1 will control

Flexure

The design procedure for flexural design is given in Figure 1; this includes derived formulae based on the simplified

rectangular stress block from Eurocode 2. Table 3 may be used to determine bending moments and shear forces

for slabs. Further information for the design of two-way, ribbed or waffle slabs is given in the appropriate sections

below.

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

δ % K’

Carry out analysis of slab

Redistribution

to determine design 1.00 0 0.2052

moments. (See table 3.) 0.95 5 0.1931

0.90 10 0.1800

0.85 15 0.1661

0.80 20 0.1512

0.75 25 0.1355

No 0.70 30 0.1188

Concrete grade Table 5: z/d for singly

≤C50/60? Outside scope of this guide reinforced rectangular sections

Yes K z/d

0.01 0.95

0.02 0.95

M

Determine K from: K= 0.03 0.95

bd 2 f ck 0.04 0.95

0.05 0.954

Determine K’ from Table 4 or: K ' = 0.6δ − 0.18δ 2 − 0.21 where δ ≤ 1.0 0.06 0.944

0.07 0.934

0.08 0.924

No Compression reinforcement

required – Not recommended 0.09 0.913

Is K ≤ K’ ? for typical slabs 0.10 0.902

0.11 0.891

0.12 0.880

Yes 0.13 0.868

0.14 0.856

No compression reinforcement required

0.15 0.843

0.16 0.830

0.17 0.816

Calculate lever arm z from Table 5 or:

0.18 0.802

z=

d

2

[

1 + 1 − 3.53K ≤ 0.95d ] 0.19

0.20

0.787

0.771

Calculate tension reinforcement required from fck fctm 0.26 fctm /fyk1

As = M/fyd.z 25 2.6 0.13%

28 2.8 0.14%

30 2.9 0.15%

Check minimum reinforcement requirements 32 3.0 0.16%

(see Table 4) 35 3.2 0.17%

As,min = 0.26 fctm bt d/fyk where fck ≥ 25 40 3.5 0.18%

45 3.8 0.20%

50 4.1 0.21%

1

Check maximum reinforcement requirements As,max = 0.04 Ac Where fyk = 500 MPa

for tension or compression reinforcement outside lap locations

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

End support End span Penultimate Interior spans Interior supports

support

Moment 0

Shear - -

Notes:

1. Redistribution of xx% has been included

2. loading

3. One type of imposed load

4. Spans do not differ in length by more than 15% of longest span

5. F is xxxxxx

Eurocode 2 offers alternative methods for determining the stress-strain relationship of concrete. For simplicity and

familiarity the method presented here is the simplified rectangular stress block which is similar to that found in BS

8110 (see figure 2). It gives recommendations for the design of concrete up to grade C90/105; however, the stress

block is modified for concrete greater than class C50/60. It is important to note that concrete strength is based on

the cylinder strength and not the cube strength (i.e. for grade C28/35 the cylinder strength is 28 MPa, whereas the

cube strength is 35 MPa).

0.8

Figure 2: Simplified rectangular stress block for concrete up to class C50/60from Eurocode 2

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

Deflection

Eurocode 2 has two alternative methods of designing for deflection, either a limiting span to depth ratio may be

used or the theoretical deflection can be assessed using the expressions given in the code. The latter is dealt with

in detail in the How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Deflection6 guide.

The span to depth ratios should ensure that deflection is limited to span over 250 and this is the procedure

presented in figure 3.

START

out better than this!

Is it a ribbed

or waffle

slab?

Yes

Is bf > 3bw

where bf is flange No

breadth and No

bw is rib breadth j1 = 1.0

Yes

exceed 7m &

support brittle

partitions?

j2 = 1.0 No

Yes

j2 = 7/leff

Is actual l/d < (l/d).j1.j2?

No

The basic l/d can be modified by:

310/σs = 500 As,prov/(fyk As,req)

Check complete Where σs is tensile steel stress under quasi-permanent

serviceability limit state design load.

Note: As,prov ≤ 1.5 As,req’d (UK National Annex)

†

The Code is ambiguous regarding this requirement. It is understood that this was the intention of the drafting

committee and is in line with current UK practice.

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

36

35

34

33

32 fck = 20

Note:

31 fck = 25 fck should be fck &

30 100 As/bd should be 100As/bd

fck = 28

29

28 fck = 30

Span to depth ratio (l/d)

27 fck = 32

26 fck = 35

25

fck = 40

24

23 fck = 45

22 fck = 50

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

0.30% 0.50% 0.70% 0.90% 1.10% 1.30% 1.50% 1.70% 1.90%

Percentage of tension reinforcement (As/bd)

Notes:

1. For two-way spanning slabs, the check should be carried out on the basis of the shorter span.

2. Graph assumes simply supported span condition (K = 1.0). For interior span condition multiply by 1.5 and for

end span condition multiply by 1.3.

3. Compression reinforcement, ρ’, has been taken as 0.

3/2

4. Curves based on the following expressions: l/d = K[11+1.5 √fck ρ0/ρ + 3.2√fck{ρ0/ρ-1} ] where ρ ≤ ρ0 and

’ ’

l/d = K[11+1.5 √fck ρ0/(ρ - ρ ) + √fck√{ρ /ρ0}/12] where ρ > ρ0.

It is not usual for a slab to contain shear reinforcement, therefore it is only necessary to ensure that the concrete

shear stress capacity without shear reinforcement (vRd,c – see Table 6) is less than applied shear stress (vEd =

VEd/(b d)). Where shear reinforcement is required, e.g. for ribs in a ribbed slab refer to How to design concrete

structures using Eurocode 2: Beams7.

Effective depth, d (mm)

As/(bd)

≤200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750

0.25% 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.36

0.50% 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.45

0.75% 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.53 0.51

1.00% 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.57

1.25% 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61

1.50% 0.85 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.65

1.75% 0.90 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.68

2.00% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.71

2.50% 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.71

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

k 2.000 1.943 1.894 1.853 1.816 1.756 1.707 1.667 1.632 1.577 1.516

Table derived from: vRd,c = 0.12 k (100ρI fck)(1/3) ≥ 0.035 k1.5 fck0.5 where k = 1 + √(200/d) ≤ 2 and

ρI = As/(bd) ≤ 0.02

Note: This table has been prepared for fck = 30. Where ρI exceed 0.40% the following factors

may be used:

fck 25 28 32 35 40 45 50

factor 0.94 0.98 1.02 1.05 1.10 1.14 1.19

Two-way slabs

Unlike BS 8110 there is no specific guidance given on how to determine the bending moments for a two-way slab.

The assessment of the bending moment can be carried out using any suitable method from Section 5 of the Code.

However, co-efficients may be obtained from Table 78 to determine bending moments per unit width (Msx and Msy)

where:

Msx = βsx w lx2

2

Msy = βsy w lx

Where βsx and βsy are co-efficents, lx is the shorter span and w (load per unit area) is the STR ultimate limit state

combination (For more information on combinations refer to How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2:

Introduction to Eurocodes.)

7

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

Current practices for determining forces in ribbed and waffle slabs may also be used for designs to Eurocode 2.

Where a waffle slab is treated as a two-way slab refer to previous section. Where it is treated as a flat slab

9

reference may be made to How to design concrete structures to Eurocode 2: Flat slabs

The position of the neutral axis in the rib should be determined, and then the area of reinforcement can be

calculated depending whether it lies in the flange or web (see flow chart in Figure 5). The main differences

compared to BS 8110 are that the assessment of the flange width is more sophisticated (see Figures 6 and 7).

Where a slab is formed with permanent blocks or a with a topping thickness less than 50 mm and one-tenth of the

clear distance between ribs is it recommended that a longitudinal shear check is carried out to determine whether

additional transverse reinforcement is required (see BS EN 1992-1-1 Cl 6.2.4).

START

No

Concrete grade

≤C50/60? Outside scope of this guide

Yes

beff = Σ beff,i + bw ≤ 0.2

beff,I = 0.5bi + 0.1lo ≤ 0.2lo & beff,I ≤ bi

Note: The flange width at the support will be different from that at mid-span. For symbols refer to Figure 7 and 8

M

Determine K from: K=

bd 2 f ck

Determine K’ from Table 2 or: K ' = 0.6δ − 0.18δ 2 − 0.21 where δ ≤ 1.0

d

[

z = 1 + 1 − 3.53K ≤ 0.95d

2

]

Calculate depth to neutral axis x from:

x = 2.5 (d-z)

Yes

Neutral axis in flange. Design as

Is x ≤ 1.25hf rectangular section.

No

Calculate moment capacity of flange from:

MR,f = 0.57 fck (beff – bw) hf (d -0.5hf) & Kf = (M - MR,f)/fck bw d2

No

Redesign section

Is Kf ≤ K’

Yes

As = [MR,f / fywd(d – 0.5 hf)] + (M - MR,f)/ fywd Flexural Capacity of Flanged Beams

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

Minimum area of principal reinforcement

The minimum area of principal reinforcement in the main direction is As,min = 0.26 fctm bt d/fyk but not less than

0.0013btd, where bt is the mean width of the tension zone. For a T-beam with the flange in compression,only the width of the

web is taken into account in calculating the value of bt.

The minimum area of secondary transverse reinforcement is 20% As,min. In areas near supports transverse

reinforcement is not necessary where there is no transverse bending moment.

The maximum area of tension or compression reinforcement, outside lap locations should not exceed As,max = 0.04

Ac

The minimum clear distance between bars should be the greater of:

• Bar diameter

• Aggregate size plus 5 mm

• 20 mm

Maximum spacing of reinforcement

For slabs less than 200mm thick the following maximum spacing rules apply:

• For the principal reinforcement: 3h but not more than 400 mm

• For the secondary reinforcement: 3.5h but not more than 450 mm

Except in areas with concentrated loads or areas of maximum moment where the following applies:

• For the principal reinforcement: 2h but not more than 250 mm

• For the secondary reinforcement: 3h but not more than 400 mm

Where h is the depth of the slab.

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

For slabs 200mm thick or greater reference should be made to section 7.3.3 of the code or the How to use

Eurocode 2: Getting Started guide

Selected Symbols

Symbol Definition Value

Ac Cross sectional area of concrete bh

As Area of tension steel

As2 Area of compression steel

As, prov Area of tension steel provided

As, req’d Area of tension steel required

bt Mean width of the tension zone

bmin Width of beam or rib

bw Width of section, or width of web on flanged

beams

d Effective depth

d2 Effective depth to compression reinforcement

fcd Design value of concrete compressive strength αcc fck/γc

fck Characteristic cylinder strength of concrete

(2/3)

fctm Mean value of axial tensile strength 0.30 fck for fck ≤ C50/60 (from

Table 3.1, Eurocode 2)

hf Flange thickness

hs Slab thickness

K Factor to take account of the different structural See table 7.4N

systems

leff Effective span of member See Section 5.3.2.2 (1)

l/d Limiting span to depth ratio

l x , ly Spans of a two-way slab

M Design moment at the ULS

x Depth to neutral axis (d-z)/0.4

xmax Limiting value for depth to neutral axis (δ - 0.4)d where δ≤1.0

z Lever arm

αcc Coefficient taking account of long term effects 0.85 for flexure and axial loads.

on compressive strength and of unfavourable 1.0 for other phenomena

effects resulting from the way load is applied (From UK National Annex)

δ Ratio of the redistributed moment to the elastic

bending moment

γm Partial factor for material properties 1.15 for reinforcement (γs)

1.5 for concrete (γc)

ρ0 Reference reinforcement ratio √fck/1000

ρ Required tension reinforcement at mid-span to As/bd

resist the moment due to the design loads (or at

support for cantilevers)

ρ’ Required compression reinforcement at mid- As2/bd

span to resist the moment due to the design

loads (or at support for cantilevers)

Free publications from The Concrete Centre

(Visit www.eurocode2.info or www.concretecentre.com to download)

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Slabs.

(To order copies visit www.concretebookshop.com or call the Concrete Bookshop on 01276 608778)

Concise Eurocode for the design of concrete building, R.S. Narayanan. 2005.

How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 (Compendium of free guides listed above). 2005

Spreadsheets for concrete design to BS 8110 and EC2 (3rd Edition). 2005.

www.eurocode2.info

www.eurocodes.co.uk

Other publications

Thomas Telford. Designers’ guide to EN 1990. H Gulvanessian, J A Calgaro & M Holicý, 2002.

A W Beeby, R S Narayanan. Designers Handbook to Eurocode 2. Part1–1: Design of concrete structures. Thomas

Telford, Date

Concrete structures. Eurocode EC2 and BS 8110 compared. R S Narayanan, A W Beeby, R T Whittle, K R Wilson.

1994.

ICE/IStructE. Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2. 2005.

Acknowledgements

The content of this publication was produced as part of the project ‘Eurocode 2: transition from UK to European

concrete design standards’. This project was part funded by the DTI under the Partners in Innovation scheme.

The lead partner was the British Cement Association. The work was carried out under the guidance of the

Concrete Industry Eurocode 2 Group.

Revision 4/OB 19 May 2005

British Cement Association

Building Research Establishment

The Concrete Centre

Construct

The Concrete Society

Arup

Clark Smith Partnership

Alan Baxter and Associates

Office of the Deputy Prime Minister Note for all publications

Quarry Products Association

British Precast

Department for Trade and Industry

Concrete Innovation and Design

For more information on Eurocode 2 and other questions relating to the design, use and performance of concrete

contact the National Helpline on

9700 4 500 500 or 0700 4 CONCRETE

helpline@concretecentre.com

Riverside House, 4 Meadows Business Park,

Station Approach, Blackwater, Camberley,

Surrey GU17 9AB

Tel: +44 (0)1276 606800

Fax: +44 (0)1276 606801

www.concretecentre.com

Ref. TCC/03/XX

ISBN 1-904818-x-x

Published XXXXX 2005

© The Concrete Centre

All advice or information from The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will evaluate the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and

application. No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by the Concrete Centre or their subcontractors suppliers or

advisors. Readers should note that all The Concrete Centre publications are subject to revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest

version. This publication has been produced following a contract placed by the Department for Trade and Industry (DTI), the views expressed are not necessarily those of the DTI

References

1

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION Eurocode 2: design of concrete structures – Part 1-1 General rules and

rules for building, BS EN 1992-1-1: 2004.

2

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION The structural use of concrete – Part 1 Code of practice for design and

construction, BS 8110-1: 1997

3

Narayanan R S & Brooker O, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Introduction, The Concrete

Centre, 2005.

4

Brooker O, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Getting started, The Concrete Centre, 2005

5 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. BS EN 1992–1–2, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. General rules –

structural fire design, BSI.

6

Wester R, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Deflections, The Concrete Centre, 2005

7

Moss R M & Brooker O, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Beams, The Concrete Centre, 2005

8

The Institution of Structural Engineers/The Institution of Civil Engineers, Manual for the design of concrete

building structures to Eurocode 2, IStructE/ICE, 2005

9

Moss R M & Brooker O, How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2: Flat slabs, The Concrete Centre,

2005

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