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ABSTRACT: Study and observation of Brass and proper preparation of

metallographic specimens to determine microstructure and content requires that a rigid
step-by-step process followed to identify the microstructure of typical nonferrous metal.
Also known that the view what kinds of structure of Brass and equilibrium diagram of
Brass by using metallurgical microscope. In this experiment a smooth and glossy work
piece should be needed because if the work piece is smooth and glossy then it’s view
clearly in the monitor by using software.

2. INTRODUCTION: Brass is a copper-zinc alloy, whereas bronze is a copper-tin

alloy. Brass is stronger than copper and has a higher malleability then either copper or
zinc. Brass is also a good conductor of heat, has excellent acoustic properties and is
generally resistant to corrosion in salt water. Brass is commonly rolled and extruded.
However, these processes also work harden and can be quantified by metallographic
analysis. Microscopy consists of the microscopic study of the structural characteristics of
a nonferrous metal or alloy. Microscopic study depends largely upon the care taken in the
preparation of Brass. The ultimate object is to produce a flat, scratch free, mirror like
surface. Brass can be prepared either by hand polishing or machine polishing prior to
microscopic examination. Every substance in the world or universe is consists of smallest
particle, which is called atom. In nonferrous metal also numerous particles are exists in
particular shape and size. The procedure to be followed in the preparation of Brass is
comparatively simple and involves a technique which is developed only after constant
practice. The ultimate objective is to produce a flat, scratch free, mirror like surface.

3. Experimental Apparatus and Methods:

a) A small piece of cylindrical Brass
b) Metallurgical microscope
c) Five types of emery paper
d) Buffing Machine
e) Potassium per manganet (10%)

Fig-1: Microscopic view of Brass with 20X (a) lens.

Fig-2: Microscopic view of Brass with 20X (b) lens.

Fig-3: Microscopic view of Brass with 50X (a) lens.

Fig-4: Microscopic view of Brass with 50X (b) lens.

In this experiment, from figure (1) there have lots of black and white spots which cause
the view of microstructure is unclear. During the etching time, nitric acid should be use
proper precautions. The white spots is known as ferrite and the black spots is also known
as graphite and the total black spots is known as carbon. For the cause adding extra acid
burned the specimen some part. For using few quantity of acid the Brass microstructure is

5. Discussion:Study of microstructure of Brass is very important there have lots of

change of its properties by adding some of other ingredients on it. To know its internal
properties and this practical experiment explore a new window to learn about its
properties. In the experiment time, there have fallen some great problem in time of
performing this operation which are slow down the experiment greatly like one is, the
rotator belt of buffing machine is not rotate correctly because of having some vibrations.
During the polishing stage, right amount of polish may not acquire during the processing
which will result in an uneasiness in observing the right structure. An old cut specimen
can be used in the experiment after polishing may form rust again and will cause to
observe the specimen in a wrong manner. For removing this problem, a fresh piece just
after polishing should be observed by the microscope.

6. Conclusion:In this experiment to determine the internal properties of any structural

material that’s why the study of microstructure of Brass is very essential for beginners. It
is possible to determine grain size, shape and distribution of various phases and
inclusions which have a great effect on the mechanical properties of the metal and it may
possible to predict its expected behavior under a given set of conditions. This is helpful to
choice right types of Brass for various purpose also to develop new types of Brass in
future. This experiment also explores a new concept about Brass.

7. References: