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KRISTINE MAY MATURAN MS CE 1 MSU – IIT Construction area of dam (http://www.wcsience.com/giant/dam.

html)
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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS

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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS

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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS

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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS

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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS

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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS

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INTRODUCTION TO DAMS
 The rise in numbers of dam building is evident in the last
century. By 1949 about 5,000 large dams had been
constructed worldwide, three-quarters of them in
industrialized countries. By the end of the 20th century, as
shown in Figure 1, there were over 45,000 large dams in
over140countries.
THE
ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACTS OF DAMS
THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DAMS
A. Impacts duetoexistenceof dam andreservoir
1. Upstreamchangefromrivervalleytoreservoir.
2. Changes in downstream morphology of riverbed and
banks, delta, estuary and coastline due to altered
sedimentload.
3. Changes in downstream water quality: effects on river
temperature, nutrient load, turbidity, dissolved gases,
concentrationofheavymetalsandminerals.
4. Reduction of biodiversity due to the blocking of the
movementoforganismsandbecauseofchanges1,2and
3above.

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THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF DAMS
Superimposedupontheaboveimpactsmaybe:
B. Impacts duetopatternof damoperation
1. Changesindownstreamhydrology:
a. changeintotalflows;
b. changeinseasonaltimingofflows;
c. short-termfluctuationsinflows;
d. changeinextremehighandlowflows.
2. Changes in downstream morphology caused by altered
flowpattern.
3. Changes in downstream water quality caused by altered
flowpattern.
4. Reduction in riverine/riparian/floodplain habitat diversity,
especiallybecauseofeliminationoffloods.

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FLOODING FOR POSTERITY
 The permanent inundation of forests, wetlands and
wildlife is perhaps the most obvious ecological effect
of a dam. Reservoirs have flooded vast areas, yet it is
not only the amount of land lost which is important,
but also its quality: river and floodplain habitats are
someoftheworld'smostdiverseecosystems.

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DAMS AND GEOLOGY:
MORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS
 All rivers carry sediments eroded from the soils and rocks
over which the river, and the water Flowing into it, pass. All
dams and reservoirs trap some of this sediment, especially
the heavy gravels and cobbles, and thus starve the river
downstream of its normal sediment load. Large reservoirs
and dams without low-level outlets will typically trap more
than 90 per cent, and sometimes almost 100 per cent, of
incoming sediment. Clear water below a dam is said to be
‘hungry’: it will seek to recapture its sediment load by
eroding the bed and banks of the river. The sediment
picked up by the hungry river may be deposited further
down- stream, and erosion (degradation) of the riverbed
below the dam will then be replaced by its raising
(aggradation)furtherdownstream.
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DIRTY DAMS:
EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY
 The chemical, thermal and physical changes which
flowingwaterundergoeswhenitisstilledcanseriously
contaminate a reservoir and the river downstream.
The extent of deterioration in water quality is in
general related to the retention time of the reservoir -
its storage capacity in relation to the amount of water
flowing into it. Water in a small headpond behind a
run-of-river dam will undergo very little or no
deterioration; that stored for many months or even
years behind a major dam may be lethal to most life in
the reservoir and in the river for tens of kilometers or
morebelowthedam.

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THEY SHALL NOT PASS: DAMS AND
MIGRATORY FISH
 Riverine ecosystems and human societies have
evolved with, and often become dependent upon,
seasonal changes in river flows. All storage dams alter
to some extent these seasonal patterns, in most cases
ironing out hydrological extremes by storing hoods
and increasing dry period flows. The exact nature of
the impacts, however, will depend on the design,
purpose and operating regime of the dam and the size
ofthereservoir.
 Dams and barrages used to divert water, especially for
irrigation, reduce, sometimes calamitously, the
downstreamflow.
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THREE GORGES DAM OF CHINA

THANKYOU!

“Environmental accountability is
paramount in engineering practice
and profit should never be
prioritized over environmental
concern.”

-Anonymous

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