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3. White blood cells help to prevent disease.

The diagram shows one type of white blood cell ingesting a bacterium.

(a) (i) Complete the table to give the names and functions of the parts of the cell labelled
A, B and C.

(ii) Describe what happens to the bacterium after it has been ingested.

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...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Describe how a different type of white blood cell can also help to prevent disease.

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...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 8 marks)

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4. The table lists the names of some human conditions and their symptoms.
Complete the table by writing the name of the organ affected in each empty box.
One has been done for you.

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5. The diagram shows the carbon cycle.

(a) (i) Which letter represents photosynthesis?

............................................................................................................................... (1)
(ii) Arrow C could represent two processes.
Name these two processes.

1 .............................................................................................................................

2 ............................................................................................................................. (2)

(b) Human activities can increase the carbon dioxide in the air.
Describe the possible consequences of too much carbon dioxide in the air.

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...................................................................................................................................... (5)

(Total 8 marks)

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11. A person moves from a cold room to a warm room.
Describe the changes that take place in the skin of this person.

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(Total 6 marks)

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12. The drawing shows a small unicellular organism called Amoeba.

(a) What is meant by the term ‘unicellular’?

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) Large organisms use a transport system to move substances around the body.

(i) Explain why an Amoeba does not need a transport system.

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...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(ii) The table below is about the transport system of large organisms.
Complete the table to show the substances transported, where they enter the
blood and how they are carried.

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14. The diagram shows the kidneys and associated structures.

(a) (i) The kidneys are part of a system in the body.


Name this system.

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Name the structures labelled A, B and C.

A .............................................................................................................................

B .............................................................................................................................

C ............................................................................................................................ (3)

(b) Name the two liquids that could pass down tube A in a male.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

2 ................................................................................................................................... (2)

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(c) If the kidneys fail to work, a kidney can be transplanted from another person
(donor).
Suggest two reasons why there is a shortage of suitable donor kidneys.

1 ...................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2 ...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 8 marks)

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15. (a) The table shows the names, sources and functions of some components of a balanced
diet.
Complete the table.

(b) (i) Give the chemical elements present in lipid.

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Describe how lipids are digested in the human gut.

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............................................................................................................................... (3)

(Total 10 marks)

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16. A plant leaf was placed in a sealed test tube as shown below. The test tube was exposed
to different levels of light intensity.

The table shows the rate of photosynthesis and respiration at different levels of light
intensity. It also shows the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tube at each level
of light intensity.
Complete the table using only the words below. The first row has been done for you.

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17. The diagram shows the human digestive system divided into four sections A, B, C
and D.

State the section or sections where


(a) the gut contents have a pH of 2.

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(b) most villi are found.

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(c) amylase is released.

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

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(d) egestion takes place.

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(e) peristalsis takes place.

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(Total 5 marks)

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Marks scheme of above questions

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1. The table lists the names of different structures found within a human.
Complete the table by numbering each structure in order of its size.
Use number 1 for the smallest structure through to number 4 for the largest.

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3. The iris of the eye helps the pupil to change as a person moves from an area of bright light
to an area of dim light.

(a) (i) Draw and label the iris and the pupil in each eye below to show how they would
appear in bright and dim light.

(ii) Explain how the iris produces this change in appearance in the pupil.

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............................................................................................................................... (2)

(iii) Explain why it is important to change the appearance of the pupil when moving
from bright light into dim light.

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............................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Changes in the eye also take place to help focus on near objects.
Describe these changes.

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..................................................................................................................................... (3)
(Total 10 marks)

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4. The diagram shows a normal red blood cell.

(a) Describe two ways in which the structure of a normal red blood cell helps it to absorb
and transport oxygen.

1 ....................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

2 ....................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited condition that affects the shape of red blood cells.
It is caused by a recessive allele, n, which causes the cells to buckle and look sickleshaped.
The dominant allele, N, allows red blood cells to develop normally.
The diagram shows normal red blood cells and sickle-shaped red blood cells.

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(i) What is an allele?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(ii) Two parents know they are both heterozygous for sickle cell anaemia.
Complete the genetic diagram below to show the genotypes of the parents, their
gametes and their possible offspring.
Use the letter N for the dominant allele and the letter n for the recessive allele.

Parent genotypes
Gamete genotypes
Possible offspring genotypes (3)

(iii) What are the phenotypes of the possible offspring?

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(Total 7 marks)

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6. The heart rate of an athlete was measured every ten minutes for one hour during a training
session.
The results are shown in the table.

(a) Describe how heart rate changes during the training session.

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...................................................................................................................................... (2)

(b) Explain the change in the results from 0 minutes to 40 minutes.

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(Total 6 marks)

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7. The passage describes the way in which alcohol is made by a fungus during the production
of beer.
Write on the dotted lines the most suitable word or words to complete the passage.

Most fungi are made from thread-like structures called ....................................................

and have .................................................... made of chitin. They also have lots of the

organelle called a .................................................... in their cytoplasm. The fungus

used to make beer is single-celled and is called .................................................... .

This fungus uses a process called ................................................... respiration to

convert a sugar called .................................................... into ethanol and a gas

called .................................................... .

(Total 7 marks)

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9. The diagram shows part of the human digestive system and some other organs.

(a) (i) Using the letter P and a guideline, mark on the diagram the pancreas. (1)
(ii) Using the letter S and a guideline, mark on the diagram the small intestine. (1)
(b) The pancreas secretes enzymes that digest large molecules into smaller molecules.
Complete the table to show the missing large molecule, smaller molecule and
enzymes.

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(c) The diagram shows a villus.
Explain how the structure of a villus helps it perform its function.

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(Total 12 marks)

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13. The diagram shows a nephron from a human kidney.

(a) Identify the parts of the nephron labelled A, B, C and D.

A ...................................................................................................................................

B ...................................................................................................................................

C ...................................................................................................................................

D ................................................................................................................................... (4)

(b) In which part, A, B, C or D, does each of the following occur?

(i) Ultrafiltration ..........................................................................................................

(ii) Reabsorption of glucose .........................................................................................

(iii) Increased permeability to water in response to ADH ............................................ (3)

(c) The table shows the amount of some substances (in arbitrary units) filtered, excreted
and reabsorbed by the kidneys in a day.

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(i) Calculate the percentage of filtered urea that is reabsorbed.

Answer .................................... % (2)

(ii) Suggest why it is important to excrete urea.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)

(iii) Suggest why it is important that all the glucose is reabsorbed.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (1)
(iv) Use the information in the table to name the process by which glucose is
reabsorbed.
Give a reason for your answer.

...............................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................... (2)

(Total 13 marks)

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14. Green plants carry out the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
(a) Complete the balanced chemical symbol equation for photosynthesis.

(b) Identify two environmental factors that can affect the rate of movement of carbon
dioxide into the palisade cells of a plant.

1 ....................................................................................................................................

2 .................................................................................................................................... (2)

(c) Describe and explain how the net exchange of carbon dioxide in a green plant is
different during the day compared to the night.

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...................................................................................................................................... (4)

(Total 8 marks)

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15. Human body temperature is 37°C. When a person is in a hot environment where the air
temperature is much higher than 37°C, changes take place to make sure that their body
temperature remains at 37°C.
(a) Explain two changes that take place in the body to keep its temperature at 37°C in a
hot environment.

1 ....................................................................................................................................

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2 ....................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................... (4)

(b) Maintaining a constant body temperature is an example of homeostasis.


Give two other examples of homeostasis in the human body.

1 ....................................................................................................................................

2 .................................................................................................................................... (2)

(c) Homeostasis involves negative feedback.


With reference to body temperature, describe what is meant by the term negative
feedback.

......................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................... (1)

(Total 7 marks)

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Marks scheme of above questions

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