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particular series by first writing the nth partial sum, Sn, of the series in closed form,

and then investigate the i .

However, some series cannot be written in the closed form. Thus, the following tests

are used to determine the convergence and divergence of these series.

Theorem 1

i) If i , the series ∑ diverges.

diverge.

Note: if you can see at a glance that , then the Divergence Test should be used

Example 1

Use the Divergence Test to determine if the following series is divergent.

a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑

d) ∑ e) ∑

Page 6

WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

Theorem 2

Suppose f is a continuous, positive, decreasing function on [1 , ∞ and et an =

f(n). Then the series ∑ is convergent if and only if the improper

integral ∫ is convergent. In other words

Note: i) an = f(n), where If ∫ is easily evaluated, then the Integral Test is effective.

ii) If ∫ ∫

Example 2

Use the Integral Test to determine if the following series is convergent or divergent.

a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑ d) ∑

Page 7

WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

- the idea is to compare a given series with a series that is known be

convergent or divergent (eg: p-series, geometric series)

Theorem 3

Suppose that ∑ and ∑ are series with positive terms.

1. Delete the constant in the denominator of an (as this will not affect the

convergence or divergence of the series).

eliminate all except for the term with the highest power.

- if the guess is divergence, then choose a smaller series for comparison.

series, geometric series or any other series that is known to converge. In choosing

an appropriate p-series, we must choose one with an nth term of the same

magnitude as the nth term of the given series.

2. If ∑ , compare with ∑

√

3. If ∑ , compare with ∑

√

4. If ∑ √ , compare with ∑

5. If ∑ , compare with ∑

Page 8

WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

Example 3

Use the Comparison Test to determine if the series converges or diverges.

a) ∑ b) ∑

c) ∑ d) ∑

√

Page 9

WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

Theorem 4

Suppose that ∑ and ∑ are series with positive terms. If

Where c is a finite number and c > 0, then either both series converge or both

diverge.

Example 4

Use the Limit Comparison Test to determine whether the series converge or diverge.

a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑ √

d) ∑

√

Page 10

WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

Theorem 5

Let ∑ be a series with positive terms such that i | |=L

drawn about the convergence or divergence of the series ∑ .

Example 5

Use the Ratio Test to determine if the following series is convergent or divergent.

a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑ d) ∑ e) ∑

Page 11

WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

TRY THIS

Use any relevant test to determine whether the following series converges or diverges.

1. ∑ (Ans: Diverge)

2. ∑ (Ans: Converge)

3. ∑ (Ans: Diverge)

Page 12

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