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# WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

## We have discussed the method of determining the convergence and divergence of a

particular series by first writing the nth partial sum, Sn, of the series in closed form,
and then investigate the i .

However, some series cannot be written in the closed form. Thus, the following tests
are used to determine the convergence and divergence of these series.

## A) The Divergence Test

Theorem 1
i) If i , the series ∑ diverges.

## ii) If i , the series ∑ may either converge or

diverge.

Note: if you can see at a glance that , then the Divergence Test should be used

Example 1
Use the Divergence Test to determine if the following series is divergent.
a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑

d) ∑ e) ∑

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WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

## B) The Integral Test

Theorem 2
Suppose f is a continuous, positive, decreasing function on [1 , ∞ and et an =
f(n). Then the series ∑ is convergent if and only if the improper
integral ∫ is convergent. In other words

## ii) If ∫ is divergent, then ∑ is divergent.

Note: i) an = f(n), where If ∫ is easily evaluated, then the Integral Test is effective.
ii) If ∫ ∫

Example 2
Use the Integral Test to determine if the following series is convergent or divergent.
a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑ d) ∑

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WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

## C) The Comparison Test

- the idea is to compare a given series with a series that is known be
convergent or divergent (eg: p-series, geometric series)

Theorem 3
Suppose that ∑ and ∑ are series with positive terms.

## Tips for applying the comparison test

1. Delete the constant in the denominator of an (as this will not affect the
convergence or divergence of the series).

## 2. If the numerator or the denominator of an appears in a polynomial form,

eliminate all except for the term with the highest power.

## - if the guess is convergence, then, choose a bigger series for comparison.

- if the guess is divergence, then choose a smaller series for comparison.

## The Co parison Test works we for co paring “ essy” a gebraic series to a p-

series, geometric series or any other series that is known to converge. In choosing
an appropriate p-series, we must choose one with an nth term of the same
magnitude as the nth term of the given series.

## Eg: 1. If ∑ , compare with ∑

2. If ∑ , compare with ∑

3. If ∑ , compare with ∑

4. If ∑ √ , compare with ∑

5. If ∑ , compare with ∑

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WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

Example 3
Use the Comparison Test to determine if the series converges or diverges.

a) ∑ b) ∑

c) ∑ d) ∑

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WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

## D) The Limit Comparison Test

Theorem 4
Suppose that ∑ and ∑ are series with positive terms. If

Where c is a finite number and c > 0, then either both series converge or both
diverge.

Example 4
Use the Limit Comparison Test to determine whether the series converge or diverge.

a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑ √
d) ∑

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WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

## E) The Ratio Test

Theorem 5
Let ∑ be a series with positive terms such that i | |=L

## iii) If L = 1, then the Ratio test is inconclusive; that is no conclusion can be

drawn about the convergence or divergence of the series ∑ .

## Note: this test is usually used when involves factorials or n th power.

Example 5
Use the Ratio Test to determine if the following series is convergent or divergent.
a) ∑ b) ∑ c) ∑ d) ∑ e) ∑

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WEEK2 CHAPTER 1 MAT455

TRY THIS

Use any relevant test to determine whether the following series converges or diverges.
1. ∑ (Ans: Diverge)

2. ∑ (Ans: Converge)

3. ∑ (Ans: Diverge)

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