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• Foreword • Rationale for a style guide • Writing for Creamer Media • Structuring your interview and writing • Guidance from A – Z • Areas of common difficulty 3 4 4 5 9 26 43 43 48
1. Hyphenation 2. Government of South Africa i. Government Departments ii. Government Ministers 3. Abbreviations of units of measurement 4. Commonly used scientific elements and their abbreviations 5. Commonly used abbreviations 6. Glossary of standards authority 7. Glossary of mining terms 8. collection of tips, homilies, sermons, fulminations, A threnodies and other information 9. Ode to a spell checker
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10. Currencies guide
Understanding readers marks
Foreword When it comes to style
When it comes to the style in which one should write for Engineering News and Mining Weekly, one can do worse than to take a cue from Radio 702 presenter John Robbie. Those who have listened to Robbie will know that he instructs contributors to his talk shows: “Keep it short,” he pleads from the outset. If there is the slightest waffle, Robbie adds: “Get to the point.” The moment there is adulation, he bellows: “Cut the slush.” Staff of Engineering News and Mining Weekly may benefit from applying Robbie’s three main lines when they are putting their reports into readable form. Probably the briefest message of all time was from a British officer whose regiment had conquered Sinde in India; he cabled a one-liner, “Pecavi”, the Latin for “I have sinned”. I recall this to stress the need for brevity. Most of all, reports in Engineering News and Mining Weekly must be easy reads: they must inform, they must stimulate, they must expose and, where appropriate, yes, also entertain. Clarity of writing usually follows clarity of thought. Should you not be certain, phone around until you are, then complete your work. Your reports must always have meat, but avoid constantly pouring over them the same gravy. Writer George Orwell is credited with having said that a scrupulous writer will ask himself four questions in relation to every sentence written: “What am I trying to say? Which words will express it best? Which image could make it clearer? Could I reduce it to fewer words?” Test what you have written by handing it to a nonjournalist colleague and then finding out what it has communicated. If communication proves moggy, try again. I have, however, regularly used this route with a semblance of success: write it, sub it, rewrite it, resub it, submit it. A stylebook ensures consistent quality; it’s a newsroom’s bureau of standards, a verbal constitution, an arbiter in times of dispute and doubt. Thus, we are indebted and very grateful to all those who undertook the laborious task of producing this stylebook, and this electronic version. Martin Creamer Publishing editor
Rationale for a Style Guide
Even those born to the English language will freely admit that this is not an easy language to speak, let alone write. If you listen to the language spoken in parts of the UK you would not believe that this, too, is English. In South Africa, English is seldom a first language – it may only be a fourth or fifth language. It is, however, the language of business – and that’s where we come in. Poor language usage can mislead and confuse the reader. We want clarity. A style guide is just that – a guide. It does not contain all the answers, but it does have some. This is a living document as it constantly evolves as style tips surface. Its purpose is best served as an electronic document, which is easily updated and, most importantly, searchable! To ensure that the master copy remains an authoritative document, please send all additions/queries/updates to Judy Woodburne (email@example.com). Regular updates of the document will be posted on the site.
How to use this guide
Writing for Creamer Media
Get both sides of the story When you write a controversial article (anything that could/will discredit a company) it is imperative that comment is obtained from the company you are writing about. As a journalist, you are accountable – you need to be sure of your efforts and make sure you are contacting the right people. The words substantiation and verification should be high up on your list when attempting anything of a controversial/ investigative nature. Do not, under any circumstances, simply use random information you got off the Internet for the basis of your argument. Use only relevant, secure sources and always include the other side of the story. Your job as a journalist is to be objective and you should do everything in your power to get both sides of the story. All sources should have equal opportunity to state their case and it is your job to ensure that they do. However, in the event that is it a news-breaking or extremely important issue that you feel you need to probe and you are struggling to get comment from a particular source, please speak to your editor for guidance. If you have any questions, please speak to your editor.
Think like a reader Given Engineering News and Mining Weekly’s readership profile, we strive to produce a riveting read for the MD and an intelligible, clear, educational medium for shopfloor workers and artisans.
Structuring your interview and writing PART ONE
News story structure GOlDEN RUlE: News first, scene setting second, context third, comment last (pack article with news, limit commentary). GUIDElINE 1: If you don’t understand your sentence/article, no one else will (rewrite it until it is clear – don’t forget punctuation). GUIDElINE 2: Exhaust your angle before moving on to a new theme. GUIDElINE 3: Have appropriate joiners to introduce a new theme (meanwhile, further, in addition, another priority . . .). GUIDElINE 4: Multisource where appropriate, and always get the other side of the debate if one is raised. GUIDElINE 5: Clear stories with source and accept reasonable changes, particularly if the article arose from an unsolicited approach by us. Stories arising from public media events do not need to be cleared, unless you have gained additional information on the side of the event. GUIDElINE 6: Limit the use of direct quotes and rather interpret for the reader in indirect speech. GUIDElINE 7 (most important): Read your article through three times before submission to an editor or a source. intro 1: News first, then who said it 1. ourced, nonexclusive: State-owned power utility Powerkom approved four new S megaprojects, involving a combined capital investment of R42-billion, CEO Coal Stoffberg reported last week. (past tense) 2. ourced, exclusive: State-owned power utility Powerkom has approved four new S megaprojects, involving a combined capital investment of R42-billion, CEO Coal Stoffberg tells Engineering News. (present tense) 3. onsourced, exclusive: State-owned power utility Powerkom has approved four N new megaprojects, involving a combined capital investment of R42-billion, Engineering News can today report. (present tense) 4. onsourced, nonexclusive: State-owned power utility Powerkom has approved N four new megaprojects, involving a combined capital investment of R42-billion, industry sources reveal. (present tense)
intro 2: Describe company generically, then say where it is from 1. Generic description: State-owned power utility . . . 2. Where: Bomber Engineering of Boksburg, on the East Rand, . . . intro 3: Once you have chosen your tense, you have to stick with it throughout the article. intro 4: Try not to start your story with a direct quote. paragraph two: Scene setting 1. ourced, nonexclusive: Speaking at a results presentation in Johannesburg on S Tuesday, Stoffberg said the projects were part of a bigger R97-billion, five-year capital-investment programme, which had been scaled up from R84-billion to cater for faster-than-expected demand growth. (past tense) 2. ourced, exclusive: Speaking exclusively to Engineering News, Stoffberg reveals S that the projects are part of a bigger R97-billion, five-year capital-investment programme, which has been scaled up from R84-billion to cater for faster-thanexpected demand growth. (present tense) paragraph three: Direct quote “We were asked by our shareholder, the government, to review our planning in light of the accelerated and shared growth initiative for South Africa, or Asgisa, and this review made us realise that we needed to accelerate our capital programme, particularly with regard to new base-load capacity,” Stoffberg explains. paragraph four: Provide context The South African utility has been mandated to lead the power-expansion programme, following a decision by Cabinet in 2003, not to break Powerkom into its various components of generation, transmission and distribution, so that it could lead the increasingly urgent security-of-supply initiative. paragraph five: More context, if needed For nearly three decades, Powerkom has not needed to make major investments, given that South Africa had surplus generation capacity and had even mothballed several stations. It was also uncertain whether it would be allowed to move ahead with new investments, given that government was considering a new competitive framework for electricity supply. paragraph six: More context, if needed However, demand has been rising steadily, given higher-than-anticipated economic growth rates and South Africa is now expected to run short of generation capacity, particularly peaking capacity, in the not-too-distant future.
paragraph seven: More news The review concluded that there would also be a shortage of base-load capacity ahead of the initial projected date of 2012. For that reason, Powerkom has brought forward the development of a new R26-billion base-load coal-fired station, which will be built in the north of the country. paragraph eight: More news The four other projects approved relate to a peaking power plant to be built in the Drakensberg, and two major transmission lines from the Mpumalanga region in the north of the country through to the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces, in the south. paragraph nine: This additional news may also need context The transmission projects are deemed necessary to strengthen the network supplying the Western Cape, which was shown up as fragile in December, when the Koeberg nuclear reactor was forced to shut down, owing to a damaged stator . . . paragraph ten: More news Pack the article with facts and figures about the investment programme, the projects, the contractors, the technologies chosen, etc. paragraph 11: A balanced article may want to raise concerns Many observers believe the capex programme is too little, too late. Western Cape DA spokesperson Joe Moan says . . . paragraph 12: Direct quote for concerned party “There is little doubt that the power-supply shortage currently being faced comes down to poor policymaking from the national government and bad planning on the part of Eskom,” Moan argues. paragraph 13: Get a response Powerkom, though, is sanguine about its ability to deal with the challenge . . . paragraph 14: Another direct quote, possibly to conclude “We believe we have the structures and systems in place to deliver on this ambitious capex programme,” Gcabashe concludes. paragraph 15: May want to end with summing up, or a fact 1. ll eyes will be on Eskom and the executive team to see whether they will be able A to translate the paper plans into reality. 2. enders are out for the coal-fired power station and construction is expected to T start next week.
TyPES Of STORIES
project story • Name of the project and location • Project description (brownfield or greenfield) • Mine project 1: (expansion or replacement) • Mine project 2: (output, when commissioned, when at full production) • Value • Duration • Breakdown of main contracts • Client • Latest developments • Companies awarded contracts • Any challenges • Any unique features or technology • Will the project require the use of structural steel and, if so, how much? • On budget and on time? fINANCIAl PRESENTATION Always look for an angle beyond the results (new projects, new strategic direction, views on the business environment) But also include: • Earnings (net profit/loss after tax in R-million rather than earnings a share) • an also include operating profit/loss as nonoperational issues often affect the C bottom line. • If the company is looking to raise finance there are three issues to look at: 1. If it is debt finance: Is it project finance or will it involve the issue of a bond? 2. hat is the company’s current gearing (debt:equity ratio) Do observers believe it W has the capacity to raise more debt? 3. f it is equity finance: What is the dilution factor on other shareholders and is there I any attempt to limit dilution? bEE DEAlS • ive a context of why the BEE deal is necessary (the company needs a licence to G operate or the company wants to secure its position as a supplier to a company that has a BEE procurement policy). • ive details of the nature of the consortium. Who leads it? Is it broad based and G how is it structured? • ow will the deal be funded? Will banks fund it, will shareholders fund it (through H dilution), or will the company act as a funder through vendor finance? • s the deal expansionary? In other words, will the proceeds go into expanding the I operation in some way? COMPANy PROfIlES • Get a good generic description of the company. How does it describe itself?
• ry to understand what the company actually does (we favour manufacturers over T traders, but both have their place). • oes the company do any R&D? Does it have any of its own commercial D innovations on the market? • s it simply a conduit for imports? If so, what value does it add to the economy I and its client base? • ow is it being affected by macrofinancial (interest rate, rand), economic (growth H rate, importation), and social trends (Bee, social development)? • What new projects does it have on its book? Then use project questions. • What new products and services is it pursuing? • How many people does it employ? • What raw materials does it use in its business process? • Who is the leader? note 1: When you write up these types of interviews, look for hard news in the form of projects, innovation or business development first. If there is nothing there, then move to issues confronting the industry as a whole note 2: If it was an exclusive interview, don’t hold the person to his exact quotes. If the language was a little rough, try to interpret it through indirect speech or finesse them into direct quotes that are more readable NEW PRODUCTS/NEW TECHNOlOGy • e circumspect about the use of words such as ‘revolutionary’, ‘world-first’, unless B you can verify that. • Try to write using as few adjectives as possible. • Be careful in making big changes to releases other than simplifying the language. • ake sure you know what the product does and for which sector it is appropriate M purely by reading your text. • If it is a locally developed innovation, you can go a bit bigger. • et chapter and verse on what has been spent, who the researchers were, G who verified the product’s efficacy, where it has been sold, whether it has export potential. • You could even do a sidebar on the innovator him/herself.
Abbreviations Always write the full form on first appearance; for example, extensions are under way at the South African bureau of Standards (SABS); the bracketed abbreviation follows immediately. Try not to use the abbreviation too frequently by substituting a generic, for example, the bureau instead of SABS. Remember there is no need to abbreviate if the organisation is only mentioned once. Do abbreviate: Chief executive officer, managing director and general manager in body text as CEO, MD and GM respectively. It is not necessary to write out in full at the first time of mention. • Deputy director-general, is not abbreviated to DDG Exceptions: • Write out Member of Parliament (MP) at the first time of mention. • rite out chief information officer (CIO) and chief technical officer (CTO) at W the first time of mention. If used in a title, such as the Africa CIO Summit, as this is the name of the event the acronym stands, but thereafter, it should be used in full, followed by the acronym in brackets. Avoid using Prof, Gen and Col, but Dr is acceptable. Do not abbreviate in body copy (although it is acceptable in headlines): • South Africa (SA in heads). • Million and billion in body copy for example, $46-million ($46m in heads). Familiar abbreviations, such as GDP or Scada, must be written out on first mention, but may be used in headlines. For information on abbreviations used in units of measurement, see Annexure XX. Acronyms If an abbreviation can be and is pronounced, for example, Numsa, Nato, Seifsa and Gatt, then it is written in upper and lower case and further reference takes the following forms: . . . it was reported that Numsa . . . the Numsa delegates . . .. In cases where it cannot be or is not pronounced, capitals are used, for example, SAbC and GDP and further preceded by the, for example, the SABC will operate . . . Note that the NUM and DIN are written in capitals because this is the way in which they are commonly referred to, while African Rainbow Minerals is shortened to Arm. Agreement between subject and verb Engineering News and Mining Weekly always refer to companies in the singular: De Beers Consolidated Mines has completed its feasibility study. The building contractor, Buildright Engineering, refuses to comment on the allegations.
GUIDANCE fROM A TO Z
In general, two ordinary nouns joined by the word ‘and’ take the plural form of the verb: • Time and tide wait for no man When the subject refers to one concept, notion or idea, it takes the singular form of the verb. It is important to establish the way in which the subject is perceived: • The wages of sin is death. • Fish and chips makes the perfect meal. There are some words that refer to a group, and can take either the singular or plural form, depending on the context of the sentence. When the noun refers to separate members or individuals, the plural form is used, but when the entity is meant, the verb takes the singular: • Our team has lost every game. • The board has reached a conclusion. Words that refer to pairs take the plural form, but not when the word pair is actually used: • Pliers were needed to lift the lid. • Where is my new pair of scissors? Anybody refers to one person; therefore it always takes the singular form of the verb. Each always takes the singular, for example, Each of the men is going to succeed. But when each follows a plural word, use a plural verb: the workers are each expected to . . . . None usually takes the singular form of the verb, for example, None of us understands his motivation. However, in some cases, the plural may be possible, for example, None of the tools are in good condition. Many is plural and uses the plural verb. Apostrophe The apostrophe is usually used to indicate possession, for example, the gold mine’s profits. Names that end in ‘s’, for example, James and Jones become James’s and Jones’s when denoting possession. Euphony many decide the addition or omission of ‘s, although it is often omitted when the last syllable of the name is pronounced ‘iz’, and in Bridges’ and Moses’. Plural-sounding company names that end in ‘s’, take an apostrophe after the ‘s’ when denoting possession: De beers’ exploration tenements. Plural possessives ending in –s are written as bosses’, dogs’, directors’, countries’. Apostrophes are not used in the plurals of abbreviations such as PCs and PLCs. There is no apostrophe in 1980s, the 20s. The towns Jeffreys bay and Richards bay do not take apostrophes, but Simon’s Town and King William’s Town do, however. Apostrophes also indicate the place where a letter is missing from a word: • It’s wrong to judge = it is wrong to judge
Compare this to the possessive its: • Its profits have increased. The apostrophe when used to mark the omission of a letter or numeral: • Don’t (do not) • That’s (that is) • Rock ‘n’ roll (rock and roll) • It’s (it is) • In ’94 or ’95 (1994 or 1995). Articles Used in every sentence, articles are an integral part of the English language. Often misapplied, ‘a’ and ‘an’ are usually referred to as the indefinite articles. In general, an is used before a vowel while a appears before a consonant. An is also used before a silent ‘h’ (but not before the words hotel and hospital since the h is pronounced). In addition, words which begin with ‘u’ but are pronounced as though the begin with a ‘y’ are preceded by ‘a’, for example, a utensil, a useful idea; but an ugly gesture, an upstart. The definite article ‘the’ generally points to some particular subject, thereby distinguishing it from others named in the sentence. The effect of ‘the’ is stronger on a singular noun than with a plural: • The engineer will notice a difference in engine performance. • Engineers notice slight differences in engine performance. Note that the definite articles should be used only when the purpose is to draw attention to a noun and it cannot be used interchangeably with a or an. When adjectives that denote quantities belonging to different things are connected, the article should be repeated: • A black and a blue vehicle passed the test. (This means two vehicles.) When connected adjectives relate to the same thing, the article must not be repeated: • A black and blue vehicle passed the test. (This means one vehicle.) bold The full names of people are written in bold on first appearance in an article. Thereafter, use only the surname in medium font. Headings, crossheads and questions are also in bold. brackets and parentheses Phrases can be inserted into a sentence in parentheses – ( ) – as an explanation or qualification. A phrase inserted in parentheses must make complete grammatical sense on its own and must not have any grammatical connection with the main sentence. Phrases used in parentheses must be kept short. Where possible, insert commas in place of these punctuation marks. Square brackets – [ ] – are used to enclose an explanation by the writer in clarification of a quoted source. Capitals General rule – if in doubt, use lower case
All private appointments are written in lower case, for example, marketing manager and operations director. But CEO, MD and GM are never written out in full. Ranks and titles are written with a capital letter, but only when written in conjunction with a name, for example, President Jacob Zuma. When a title appears on its own, it is written in lower case, for example, the president. Note the capitalisation of political titles – Finance Minister, Cabinet Minister, Consul-General, (but Botswana Democratic Party secretary-general Daniel Kwelagobe); military titles – Colonel, Vice-Admiral; academic titles – Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Vice-Chancellor, Professor; plus, Pope benedict XVI, Queen Elizabeth and God. Also capitalise: Councillor. Also note the capitals in State (as in government, but not in state of the economy), Internet, Web (but website) and Ethernet. Do not-upper case government when referring to, for example, the government of Mozambique. When the name, Jan van der Merwe is written in full, van is lower case, but it takes a capital letter when the surname is used on its own or with a title, for example Van der Merwe or Professor Van der Merwe. The names of race groups are not written with a capital letter but Asians, Europeans, Africans and other group names, which are derived from the names on continents, are. Definite geographical places, regions areas or countries take initial capitals. These include Western Cape, South East Asia, Middle East, South Atlantic, the West. Use lower case with east, west, north or south is used as an adjective, for example southern free State and northern Canada, but South Africa’s West Coast. Use lower case for province, city or state when it is not strictly part of a name, for example, Kuwait city, New york city, Washington state, Eastern Cape province. The same applies to streets, rivers, dams and project names, for example, Smith street, Van Riebeeck avenue, fish river, Katse dam, Alusaf Hillside smelter project, Kendal power station, but the lesotho Highlands Water Project. Organisations, such as the National Union of Mineworkers and Industrial Development Corporation, are written with caps. The names of programmes or developments, which are not proper nouns, take lower case, for example, mine extension programme. Don’t be too liberal with caps. Names of seagoing vessels should be in italics, for example, MSC Catania or MV Peace in Africa. Common errors • Pacific Ocean, not Pacific ocean. • Lowercase website. • Lowercase doctoral, as in ‘doctoral research’.
Clichés Clichés become clichés because they are useful in the first instance; but although they can find a new life from the very fact that they are familiar expressions, they should be avoided. However, use a familiar phrase if it expresses meaning correctly, not just because it is easily recognised. Collective nouns Words that refer to a group or collection of elements, for example: • Team, staff and joint venture, take the singular form: • The board has reached a conclusion. However, in some cases, the sense may not lend itself to the singular: • The staff have collected money for the Christmas party. A safe rule when using the word number: • The number is . . . A number are . . . (when number means many). A pair and a couple are plural. Think carefully before using the plural form. Colons If a colon does not add to the clarity of the wording, then it should be omitted. For example: • he manufacturing facility has the following features: a tool shop, a spray booth T and a training centre for artisans. If the colon is removed, the sentence is still perfectly understandable. • riters are often tempted to add a colon after “including”, and the same rule W applies. • efore a whole quoted sentence, but not before part of a quoted sentence, for B example, She said: “I need to hone my gardening skills”. However, “I need to hone my gardening skills,” she says – is preferred by Engineering News and Mining Weekly. • he colon is used to precede an explanation or to expand on what has gone T before, for example, the cause of the fire was obvious: the wiring of the entire building had long been a reason for concern. Commas Use commas sparingly. Short sentences are easier to read than long ones interspersed with many commas. Engineering News and Mining Weekly style is that if a sentence may be understood without using commas, they should be omitted: • Engineering Anonymous contract manager Piet Smith says the plant is operational. Rather than • iet Smith, contract manager for Engineering Anonymous, says the plant is P operational.
Commas are used to separate phrases or clauses. When a sentence begins with a subordinate clause, a comma must appear after the clause, that is, before the main clause: • While the four sets at Morupule were being phased in, the supply from Gaborone was phased out. Two commas must be used when a phrase is inserted into a sentence parenthetically: • arge power stations, we have come to realise, require a lot of maintenance. L Not: Large power stations, we have come to realise require a lot of attention. The use of commas is required when several items are listed in a sentence: • he local agency stocks valves, bolts and nuts. Don’t use commas before ‘and’ T at the end of a list. The use of commas is mandatory to denote decimals, for example 2,6 and not 2.6. Also note that a space is used to separate thousands from hundreds (and not a comma), for example, 3 400. Companies Call companies by the names they call themselves, but omit (Pty) ltd, limited and cc unless the name is used in an Engineering News plant profile when we specify Pty or limited, but never (Pty) ltd on the basis that if it is Pty it must be ltd and if it is limited it is a company as opposed to private one. Other abbreviations omitted after a company name are AG, SA or Gmbh. The names of companies may be abbreviated after first appearance, for example, Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC). Compound modifiers Two words functioning as a single adjective should be hyphenated to ensure clarity, for example, long-term growth and twentieth-century technology. Generally, no hyphen is needed between an adverb and an adjective: • A carefully researched article. Neither is a hyphen required when single adjectives follow a noun: • The proposal was ill considered, (but: an ill-considered proposal). Currencies The commonly used currencies of rand, dollar, pound, yen do not take initial capitals. When before a figure, currency abbreviations are used without a space, for example, €40 and $400. Other examples of usage: • he European benchmark ferrochrome price has increased by 16%, to $1,03/lb, T which is US14c higher for the fourth quarter • rand:dollar exchange rate Countries: In most cases the names of countries should be written out in full. Exceptions are the
UK for the United Kingdom and the US for the United States of America. Note that Russia, often used interchangeably with the ex-Soviet Union, is only one of the republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Remember the use of capitalisation in country names, such as Far East, South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In cases where a country is know by more than one name, we used the United Nations list of member states as a reference for official names. For example, we refer to Côte d’Ivoire rather than Ivory Coast. Use http://www.Un.Org/en/members/index.Shtml to check the accuracy of country names. Dash The dash (–) must not be confused with the hyphen (-). The hyphen links words whereas the dash separates groups of words. The presence of a dash indicates a slight pause. Dates The acceptable style for dates is October 27, 2009. Dates are always written out in full. Note that when a date is written out in midsentence, a comma follows the year, for example, on September 3, 1939, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. • Use twentieth century rather than 20th century. • Wherever possible, use exact dates rather than the mid-1920s. • ikewise, avoid the use of hyphens between two dates, for example, 1995-96. Use L a slash instead, for example, 1995/6 • 2008/9, not 2008/2009 • August 2009, not August, 2009. • On June 2 and 3, Nersa held hearings Defamation We need to be very careful to avoid a situation where we find ourselves in hot water for defaming any individuals or companies, or making ourselves vulnerable to any claims that we have defamed anyone. It was not long ago that another mining publication from South Africa suffered a heavy blow when it was taken to court in London for the alleged defamation of a Russian mine owner. The settlement cost them millions of rands. If you are ever in doubt as to whether an article is defamatory, get it checked before we publish it on our website or in our magazines. We really cannot afford to make any mistakes in this regard. As Martin Creamer always says, “If in doubt, find out or leave it out.” Webber Wenzel defines defamation law as a branch of the law of delict (or tort), which protects a person’s reputation. The law of defamation seeks to find a workable balance between two conflicting rights: • the right to an unimpaired reputation (the right to dignity); and • the right to freedom of expression.
The law of defamation protects the reputation of a person; reputation is defined as ‘the estimation or good opinion, which an individual has in the eyes of society’. All natural persons are entitled to sue for defamation, as are trading and nontrading juristic persons. The law allows a plaintiff to claim against a defendant if the plaintiff is able to prove three elements: that the defendant (a) published, (b) defamatory matter, (c) referring to the plaintiff. In respect of defamatory material published on the Internet, the High Court has held that publication takes place where the material is accessed (i.e. where the content of the website is downloaded). On proof of the above three elements, the defendant is presumed to have published the matter wrongfully and with the intention of defaming the plaintiff. It is then for the defendant to rebut either of these presumptions by relying on a defense. There are three traditional defenses: • ruth in the public interest. Here, the defendant argues that the material allegations T contained in the defamatory statement are substantially true and were made in the public interest; • he defamatory statement amounted to fair comment on a matter of public interest T (e.g. an editorial or a satirical cartoon); or • ualified privilege. The defendant will escape liability in the absence of malice if he Q or she is under a legal, moral or social duty to publish defamatory matter, and the recipient has a similar interest or duty in receiving it (e.g. an employment reference). This defence also extends to the fair and accurate reporting of the proceedings of Parliament, courts and certain other public bodies. It is also possible to be sued for defamation for comments made on the social web, such as Twitter or Facebook – or on blogs, forum discussions or in messages sent by email. So think before you vent. Ellipses The ellipsis (. . .) should be used only to mark the omission of a word or phrase from a quoted source. Ethnic groups Avoid distinguishing different races. Since South Africa’s move to democracy and the announcement of the Reconstruction and Development Programme, many companies have invested in small business, rural and human resource development. This has sparked the use of racist classifications for projects, such as the black managers’ programme or underprivileged housing subsidies (note the use of lower case). Avoid mentioning race if it does not detract from the story. foreign words Try not to use foreign (anything not English) words and phrases. Avoid Latin phrases in particular. Use:
• n site rather than in situ, if you mean the machine was assembled on site, but o use in situ if you mean the in situ ore reserves – the ore reserves in the ground, prior to mining • a year rather than per year – The rule with the use of ‘per’ is that it can be used if substituting ‘a’ or ‘for each’ does not read well, for example, ‘ . . . about £441 a year per person’ is better than ‘ . . . about £441 a year a person.’ • year rather than annum • through or by rather than via However, in South Africa: • Legotla, which translates as ‘meeting place’, in Tswana’ is italicised, but Indaba, which is Zulu and means ‘a conference, a council or a matter for discussion’, is not. Judging by the number of search engine hits, Indaba is, by far, the more commonly used of the two, and is widely adopted – at least in South Africa. forward slash is the name of the “/” character on the computer keyboard. Examples of common usage: • quartz/magnetite/chalcopyrite veins. Gender Avoid differentiating between the sexes. Use: • chairperson not chairman • businessperson not businessman • draughtsperson not draughtsman; draughtsmen becomes draughtspeople • work hours not man hours • work years not man years • labour not manpower • worker’s compensation not workman’s compensation • spokesperson not spokesman or spokeswoman • firefighters, not firemen or firepeople • service personnel, not servicemen • women-owned, not female owned Where this rule doesn’t work that well is when using middleman or middlemen, which would, if this rule is followed, be changed to middleperson or middlepersons, ie, the iron-ore is sold at low prices and the middlepersons make a big profit selling on at inflated prices. Middlepersons just doesn’t work. For the same reason, foundrymen remains foundrymen. Hanging clauses Watch out for hanging clauses when beginning a sentence with an adjectival or adverbial phrase. Ensure that the phrase qualifies the subject of the sentence. avoid at all costs: • A specialist of extensive experience, the board entrusted him with the project. Hyphenation See annexure One
Information Technology In this rapidly evolving field, it is often difficult to keep up the correct usage of the related technology. Examples are: • elearning • cloud computing • emessaging Initials The initials of people’s names are never used in body copy. Always write first names and surnames and not initials, for example, William Jones not WH Jones. The initials of directors are, however, used in company profiles, for example, marketing director WH Jones, not W.H. Jones. The acronyms of companies or initials in company names are also used without points or spaces, for example, AEC not A.E.C. Remember to spell out the company’s name at first mention in an article. Inverted commas Double inverted commas are used in direct speech: “The state of the industry is more positive since the elections,” says Engineering Anon MD Burt Smith. If certain words are quoted as they appear, double inverted commas are necessary: MacGregor remarked that the Minister had “fervently promised some sort of remuneration”. Single inverted titles are used to enclose the titles of articles or reports, for example, ‘Wheels within Wheels’. Single inverted commas are used to indicate a quotation within a quotation: “The president of the association has agreed to ‘challenge imports head-on’ and will be announcing a plan early next year,” reports SAACE member John Brett. Single inverted commas are also used to indicate an unusual word or phrase: The advent of ‘chronobiology’ could change the world. They are also used to indicate a quote in a headline or in a pullout quote. Italics are used for the titles of books or poems, for example, Oliver Twist; the titles of films, for example, White Wedding; names of ship and aircraft, for example, Destiny and Challenger and words from another language, for example, lekgotla. Jargon Avoid at all costs. Technical terms work well in proper context and should be defined or briefly explained early in the article. In many instances a simpler synonym is the harder-working word. Remember, you don’t sacrifice precision when omitting jargon. legal aspects There are three legal pitfalls into which journalists can fall: defamation, contempt of court and interfering with sub judice matters.
Defamation is the publication of any injurious statement in respect of another person or class of persons with the intent of causing disrepute to his or her name, company credit or reputation. Contempt of court includes irresponsible reporting to the extent that the judge or magistrate has reason to consider the report an interference with the process of the law. Matters under consideration by a court are sub judice until evidence is heard. Any report written on the case must not impute blame to any party. Report – don’t judge. lists No colons in front of lists, unless the list is bulleted. lower case Refer to the section on capitals. If in doubt as to whether to use capitals or lower case, opt for lower case. Measurements See annexure Three Metaphors Although a skilfully used metaphor can evoke a visual image, adding this new dimension to a story can be tricky. To use this figure of speech without loss of vividness steer clear of dipping into the well of worn-out metaphors, which will only tire the reader and force him or her to move on to another story. Use all metaphors sparingly. Strive for accuracy, not ambiguity. Names The names of people are written out in full and appear in bold on first appearance. Thereafter, only the surnames are used when using direct or reported speech. Numbers • Never start a sentence with a figure; write out the number in words. • umbers one to ten are written out in full, unless the number is a decimal, for N example, 4,6 and 5,9 or precedes a unit of measure, for example, 4%. • Use two-billion and 10-million. but R10-million, not ten-million rands. • ractions should be hyphenated when spelled out in full, for example, two-thirds, F even when the number is higher than ten. The same applies to figures used as adjectives: He gave a tenth (not 10th) of his salary to the poor. • hen ‘to’ is being used as a ratio it is best to spell it out rather than use a colon: W They voted nine votes to two, to abandon the project. However, ratios expressed as percentages can be referred to in figures, for example, the shareholding was 50:50. • t is acceptable to have 22 000 but million and billion must be written out in full I and with a hyphen, for example, R22-million.
• o not use a hyphen in place of ‘to’ when using two figures: the project will take D 12 to 18 months (not 12-18 months) to complete. • hen million is used, for example one-million tons, it has to be written out in full if W the number is below 11. Do not use 1-million tons. However, 3,2-million tons and 1 t is acceptable, as is 4 c/t. • f there is a sequence of numbers, use figures as in ‘9 of the 11 units’, or . . . ’by I 10-million tons to 13-million tons’. Use: • iftieth not 50th anniversary; however, if the number is too long, for example thirtyf thousandth, rather use 30 000th. • 20 m a minute, not 20 m/m • one metre to ten metres is written in words, thereafter 11 m is used. • 20° angle, but 30 °C • twelve 200-mm pinch valves • five-thousandths of a millimetre (,005 mm) • he project is expected to take 24 to 30 months, not take between 24 months to t 30 months. Ongoing, one word Omitted words Passages omitted from a quotation must be indicated by three dots (. . .) or four dots (. . . .) to indicate a full stop. Please note the space between the dots. Percentage Use the sign % instead of per cent wherever possible. Write 5%, 30% but five per cent and thirty per cent when starting a sentence with a percentage. When hyphenating, use: • 26%-owned by . . . The ‘four Ps’ Engineering News and Mining Weekly have their own unique hierarchy of subject importance. These are, in order of preference: • Projects (major developments, their values and the companies involved) • Products (introduction of innovative technology in products and its features) • People (who’s making the news) • Policy (government regulations in industry) • These can be extended to include: • Polemic (debate the issues, present both sides of the story) • Probing (this is what investigative journalism is all about!) • Prodding (encourage formal insistutions to take action) • Praise (acknowledge creditworth performance) • Please (give the reader what he or she wants) And there’s another ‘P’ – Priority. Journalism has evolved with the advent of
on-line reporting, which needs to be brief and to the point. The ‘inverted pyramid’ is a metaphor used to illustrate how information should be arranged or presented in a report; the most important facts first and less important detail tapering to the inverted point of the pyramid. This historic form of news writing is ideally suited to the web and also suits many of the articles written for Creamer Media publications as it makes editing easier when text needs to be cut for layout purposes. Pyramid format writing is more suited to academic papers, where a foundation is supported by research findings, data and extensive summaries. It is unsuited to journalism. Feature writing results in several pages of articles, supported by photos and advertising, providing an overview of an engineering or mining aspect. It is vital to ensure that writing is informative, interesting and relevant in support of the Engineering News and Mining Weekly status as an essential source of information for those involved in the engineering and mining sectors. To this end, the inverted pyramid format is often best suited to feature writing, but the flow of information may dictate the use of other formats. The question and answer format is also used to bring variety and interest to the publications. It is also suited to on-line journalism and is popular in personality profiles. Cover stories for Engineering News and Mining Weekly typically begin with a scenesetting opening paragraph and then present various points of view on the topic – setting out the challenges, successes, dilemmas and other aspects, and ending with a thought-provoking concluding paragraph. The more interpretive narrative form of writing is not a style associated with Creamer Media but is often used in magazines, where the article opens with a human-interest story designed to catch the reader’s attention. The writer presents the facts or views by crafting these around this story and other illustrative stories. The key message or messages unfold throughout the piece and may or may not wrap in a punchy conclusion. Most published columns follow a format of writing and columnists are featured in Engineering News and Mining Weekly. There are many fine examples of this format in a myriad of publications and many talented writers who have become esteemed columnists, some who have become powerful opinion formers in arenas from politics and sport to entertainment and food. Quotations Quotations are not something written but rather something that is spoken. Hence, make a quote less formal and more friendly. Strive to reflect the speaker’s character. Quote only when imperative. Quotation marks Quotation marks are used in direct speech: • Tourism will benefit from the 2010 fIfA World Cup,” says Tourism Minister “ Marthinus van Schalkwyk
They are also used when quoting phrases within a sentence: • e are warned that “the legislation will force industry to evaluate its W production processes”. Note the relative placing of quotation marks and punctuation: if a complete sentence is quoted, the final stop should be placed inside the quotation marks and, if the quotation forms part of a sentence, the quotation marks should precede any punctuation marks. Relative pronouns In short, ‘who’, or ‘whom’ is used for people while ‘which’ or ‘that’ is used for animals and inanimate objects. Note that a company is not human and therefore it does not take ‘who’: • The company that survived . . . not • The company who survived . . . Note also: • he company, the premises of which are situated in . . . T rather than • The company, whose premises are situated in . . . Reported speech Engineering News and Mining Weekly style is to report before attributing the speech: • “The product has enjoyed unprecedented success,” reports Engineering Anon sales manager Joe Myburg. rather than • Engineering Anon sales manager Joe Myburg says: The product has enjoyed unprecedented success.” Note that the attributive verb is always in the present unless reporting on a speech or presentation. Use says not said, explains not explained, reports not reported. Semicolons and colons Semicolons mark a pause longer than a comma but shorter than a full stop. They can be used to distinguish phrases listed after a colon if commas will not do the job clearly. Don’t overdo. • The colour patterns are: red, white and blue; silver, green and purple; gold, black and yellow; and grey, brown and orange. • They agreed on only three points: that the ceasefire should be immediate; it should be internationally supervised, preferably by the AU; and a peace conference should be held, either in Geneva or Ouagadougou. Slang Slang, like metaphors, should be used only occasionally if it is to have any effect. Even then, slang should be used with caution. Examples of South African slang include bakkie (light truck), dorp (town), dwaal (lost), fundi (from the Nguni umfundisi, meaning teacher or preacher), gogga (insect), howzit,
just now (shortly), muti (medicine) platteland (countryside), takkies (as in wheels or running shoes) and vrot (rotten or smelly). Avoid using expressions such as thumbs up or thumbs down, guesstimate, massive. As an alternative, always opt for the simpler, clearer word. Spacing A space must be left between a figure and its unit of measurement: 26 m, 32 km, 12 ℓ and 30 ºC (temperature) is the correct style, but 24% and 16º (angles). Also note the use of the hyphen in adjectival forms: a 12-ℓ can, a 15-km journey. Split infinitives Splitting of infinitives is justified only when avoiding ambiguity. Compare: Our object is to further cement trade relations (split infinitive), and Our object is to cement further trade relations. He wanted to desperately expand his business. (wrong) He desperately wanted to expand his business. (right) Style Golden rule: News first, scene-setting second, context third, comment last. (Pack article with news, limit commentary.) Guidelines: 1. f you don’t understand your sentence or article, no-one else will. Rewrite it until it I is clear. Don’t forget punctuation. 2. Exhaust your angle before moving into a new theme. 3. ave appropriate joiners to introduce a new theme (meanwhile, in addition, another H key priority …) 4. ultisource where appropriate and always get the other side of the debate if one M is raised. 5. Limit the use of direct quotes and rather interpret for the reader in indirect speech. 6. Most important) read your article through three times before submission to an ( editor or a source. Tenses The present tense is the norm when writing an article: • ohansen says that building will start in two months’ time. J The past tense is used only when report on a speech which has already occurred: • acKenzie said in his inaugural speech that he was looking forward to his term M of office. Note that was and not is is used after the word said. The past tense will follow throughout the rest of the reported speech. For the sake of immediacy it is better to say: Retecon has been commissioned as main contractor rather than Retecon was commissioned.
Time Time should always be given in figures according to the 24-hour clock without specifying am or pm or using an ‘h’: • A decision is expected by 14:00 on Monday • Don’t use three years to five years. Use three to five years Titles Although the overriding principle is to treat people with respect, do not indulge people’s self-importance unless it is insulting not to use the titles they themselves adopt. Titles are used only to indicate positions of importance, for example, Professor Jan Goldblatt; Dr Jack Mulder, Sir Ernest Oppenheimer. Mr, Mrs and Miss are not used in Engineering News and Mining Weekly. First names and surnames are used on first mention: Nols Oliver not Mr Nols Oliver. After having used a person’s first name and surname once, just his surname is necessary thereafter: Oliver not Mr Oliver, Mulder not Dr Mulder and Goldblatt not Professsor Goldblatt. The only time Mr is used is for the names of judges, for example Mr Justice J McArthur. People’s designations in a company are rarely written with capitals. The designations of general manager and managing director are always abbreviated to GM and MD respectively. Note: For the sake of brevity and ease of reading, use Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies rather than Minister of Trade and Industry, Alec Erwin. book titles While, newspaper and magazine titles are not written in Italics, with the exception of our own publications, Engineering News and Mining Weekly or the on-line Polity and Research Channel Africa, book titles are italicised, for example, The Long Walk to Freedom. Titles of articles appearing in a book, newspaper or magazine, and titles of reports, are enclosed in single inverted commas, for example, ‘Wheels within wheels’, ‘Gold hits new high’ and ‘World Competitiveness Report’. Song and movie titles are Italicised – no quotes – for example Nkosi Sikelel’ iAfrika and District Nine. Units of measure – see Annexure Three Unnecessary words Some words, while adding length to an article, do nothing for journalistic style. Adjectives can be used to make your meaning more precise but you should guard against those that serve only as decorations. Prime examples are very and wide. Deleting these from a phrase rarely detracts from their intended meaning: • The chances of inflation increasing in the next two years are (very) good. • The company offers a (wide) range of petrochemical products. Other examples include strike instead of strike action; cuts instead of cutbacks; record instead of track record; sold instead of sold off.
Watch points (Engineering News and Mining Weekly no-nos) There are several words and phrases that Engineering News prefers not to use. • According to – Tom Ansley says is preferred • ddress/ed – Do not use address or addressed as a verb. Substitute with words A like confront, consider, promote. • Almost all – Most is more concise, although an exact figure would be even better • Annually and per annum use yearly or a year instead of Latin words. • Approximately – About or almost is preferred. • At the same time – Simultaneously is preferred. • ompany location – do not write Endenvale-based Acme Props but Acme C Props, of Edenvale. • in situ – On site is preferred. • Intros – Do not start introductions with company names unless the alternative is grammatically incorrect or very cumbersome. • Now – Avoid using unless its omission changes the meaning of a sentence. • Number of – Several is preferred. • Per – Use of this word should be avoided. For example, eight hours per day can be replaced by eight hours a day. • Percentage – When writing percentages use per cent rather than percent. • Presently – means soon, not at present. Avoid. • uantity – Please distinguish between amount, number and quantity (and Q fewer and less). • ecently – Avoid using as the word is vague and, in some cases, redundant. R Rather use the exact date or nothing at all” • On his visit to South Africa . . . not . . . On his recent visit to Africa. • The building has been finished . . . not . . . The building was recently finished. • S’ vs ‘Z’ – The leter ‘s’ is preferred to the letter ‘z’ as a verbal ending: ‘ emphasise rather than emphasize; specialise rather than specialize. Use horizon, not horison. • oday – do not use, except in cases such as . . . “Engineering News can today T report’.
Areas of common difficulty A
Ability, Capacity Ability is physical and mental power, particularly the power to plan and execute, while capacity is the power to receive: • The MD has the ability to carry out the company’s rationalisation plans. • he MD has a great capacity for technical equations and mathematical T calculations. • The plant has a production capacity of 500 t/y.
Academic qualifications should be mentioned in chronological order, for example, BA, MA. Advertisement, is preferred to advert According to – Tom Ansley says is preferred. Address/ed – do not use address or addressed as a verb. Substitute with words like confront, consider, promote. Adviser, not advisor Affect/effect. Affect and effect as verbs are frequently confused. Effect is ‘to bring about’, ‘to accomplish’, affect is to ‘produce an effect on’, ‘to attack, ‘move or touch’. Examples from the CM style guide: • The struggling economy had a disastrous effect on the gold price • The struggling economy affected the gold price terribly. • The Chinese and South African markets had been impacted on to a lesser extent. Replace ‘impacted on’ with affected. Aims, Objectives Aims are the goals set and objectives are the measurements we undertake to achieve the aims. Almost all – most is more concise, although an exact figure would be even better. Allow, enable and afford allow means to: • ive permission for something to happen or somebody to do something, or take g no action or make no rule to prevent it • let somebody or something enter or be present in a place • let somebody or yourself have something, often a benefit or pleasure of some kind • ive or credit somebody with an amount of money as a discount or in exchange g for something • et aside or make available something such as a period of time or amount of s material for a particular purpose • ake something into consideration or make provision for it when making a plan or t decision • admit something or accept it to be true or valid (formal) • present something as possible or reasonable (formal) • US usage means to state or suppose Enable means to: • provide somebody with the resources, authority or opportunity to do something • make something possible or feasible (note: this definition is not given for ‘allow’.) Afford means to: • be able to meet the cost of something without unacceptable difficulty • e able to do or provide something without unacceptable or disadvantageous b
consequences. Do not use ‘allow’ when you mean afford as in to “to do” or ‘to provide”. • e able to spare something without unacceptable or disadvantageous conb sequences • supply or provide something Allusion, Illusion, delusion The first two especially are frequently confused. An allusion is an indirect or covert reference to something. An illusion is a false or mistaken conception. A delusion is a view of belief so utterly false that it suggests insanity: • n the first stanza, the poet makes several allusions to the works of earlier poets. I The author alludes to Hamlet but nowhere names the play. • hough he had never managed to publish anything, he was under the illusion that T he was a poet. • n his famous speech in the fourth act of the Tempest, Prospero presents the world I as a vase illusion • he belief that he and his soldiers could not be harmed by the enemy’s bullets was T only one of the delusions he suffered. Allusive, elusive, elusory, illusory Allusive is the adjectival form of allusion. When poets make frequent allusions, we speak of their style as allusive. If we call something elusive or elusory, we mean that it is perplexing, difficult to grasp (it eludes us). Illusory is the adjectival form of illusion. To call something illusory is to say that it is deceptive, that it has the character of an illusion. Alternate(ly), alternative(ly) Alternate(ly) implies ‘first one, then the other’. Alternative(ly) traditionally referred to ‘a choice between two’, but its use in referring to ‘a choice among several possibilities’ is now firmly established: • They marched and rested on alternate days. • They worked and played alternately and never became bored. • hey could surrender; alternatively, they could retreat and wait for another opporT tunity to attack. • he generals had several alternatives to choose from in deciding on a course of T action. Annually. Use yearly or a year instead of Latin words. Anticipate, expect – use expect instead where appropriate Anticipate means to: 1. magine or consider something before it happens and make any necessary i preparations or changes. 2. think or be fairly sure that a certain thing will happen or come. 3. feel excited, hopeful, or eager about something that is going to happen. 4. imagine or consider something that might happen and take action to prevent it. 5. ay or do something before it becomes fashionable or comes into widespread use s (formal).
6. make use of something before it has actually been received (formal). Expect means to: 1. believe with confidence, or think it likely, that an event will happen in the future. 2. ait for, or look forward to, something that you believe is going to happen or arrive. w 3. emand or anticipate receiving something because of a perceived right to it or d because it is somebody’s duty to give it. Amend, emend Amend means ‘to alter’, usually in the sense of improving something. Emend means ‘to remove errors from’: • The legislature met to amend the country’s constitution. • Several amendments to the motion were passed. • The writer emended two passages in the typescript • he manuscript shows that the writer made several emendations before subT mitting the article for publication. American spelling The only time this is not changed to UK spelling is when it is the name of an American organisation, for example: The Center for Disease Control. Among (not amongst), between Traditionally between and among were carefully distinguished in both speech and writing. Something could be divided between two people or among more than two. Among continues to imply ‘more than two’, while between has come to be permitted when more than two are indicated. Even in formal writing, between can be used with more than two when it is used spatially or geographically: • Their house was situated between the railway, the road and the shopping centre. • part from this exception, unless your phrasing lands you in difficulties, you should A observe the distinction in formal writing. The correct expression is between you and me (between us) and not between you and I. Ante, Anti – ante means before and anti means against: • An antecedent is a preceding thing or circumstance. • An antidote is a remedy against poison. Approximately – about or almost is preferred Archaisms Archaic är-ká-ik, adj. ancient; savouring of the past; not absolutely obsolete but not longer in general use; old-fashioned. examples: • Coolth =coolness • Proven = proved • Thereafter = after that • Therein • Thereof = of that • Whilst = while • Amid = among • Amongst = among • Thereafter = later or after that • Thereof = of that
Not archaic but a nonword: Telephonic At the same time – simultaneously is preferred Artisanal mining, not artisinal mining Autocatalyst, not auto catalyst. backup, not back-up bail-out, as in following a bail-out by JSE-listed company Zambia Copper Investments. baseload, not base load. Use baseload expansion, baseload generation capacity. basin is lowercased (like reef) – for example, the Witwatersrand basin or the Eastern, Western and Central basins. Geologically, a basin is a broad tract of land in which the rock strata are tilted toward a common centre, or a large, bowl-shaped depression in the surface of the land or ocean floor. It is also the catchment area of a particular river and its tributaries or of a lake or sea. beside, besides Beside is a preposition while besides is a conjunction or an adverb meaning ‘as well as’: • He sat down beside the toolbox. • esides gaining a head start in the local market, the company found success in b the export market. biannually – twice a year. One word. See also Biennially. biennially – occurring every two years. One word. bloc: a bloc is a group of countries or people with a shared aim. born, borne A child is born but the burden of birth is borne by the mother. If what you wish to express is not related to birth, the word you should use is borne. borne refers to burdens, insults and responsibilities. breakthrough, not break through by-product, not by product Called/known as – be careful about using either. You may have called someone an expert, but the person may not be known as one. A current trend is to write: “the R5-million machine, called ‘Mighty Mouse’, has . . .” , when “the R5-million, machine, ‘Mighty Mouse’, has . . .” would be acceptable! Both cannot and can not are acceptable spellings, but the first is much more usual. You would use can not when the ‘not’ forms part of another construction such as ‘not only’ Capex, is an abbreviation for capital expenditure; however, use ‘was spent on capital projects’ instead of ‘was spent on capex’. Cause, reason – the cause of an event is the power or agency that brings about its circumstance, while its reason is an explanation formulated in the human mind Cash flow, not cashflow Century
• twenty-first century, • twenty-first-century skills Channel, as in Maputo channel, is lowercased City, We uppercase ‘City of Johannesburg’, but city on its own, is lowercased Coalfield, one word – but coal bed is two words, for example ‘coal-bed methane’. Cochairperson, not co-chairperson Cofiring boilers, not co-firing Coinvestors, not co-investors Colour, lower case blue, green, yellow etc Commonwealth, not Common Wealth Compare to, compare with • ‘Compared to’ is used when the subjects are of different orders, for example: • nternational Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) compared to US Generally I Accepted Accounting Principles (US GAAP). • Recent climate observations compared to projections • ut developments in diesel technology have to be compared to continuing B advancements in gasoline-powered vehicles. • ‘Compared with’ is used when the subjects are of the same order, for example: • ash generated from operations increased by 134% to R147,3-million, compared C with R62,9-million the year before. • Refracting telescopes compared with reflecting telescopes, • hen discussing climate Japan is often compared with California because of its W north-south placement. An easy way to remember is that you can compare one type of apple with another type of apple, but you would compare an apple to an orange. Compliment, -ary (flattering), is often confused with complement, -ary (in completion of) or form a complement to as in ‘her scarf complements her dress’. Complex, as in Bushveld Complex, is capped. Compound modifiers Two words functioning as a single adjective should be hyphenated to ensure clarity, for example, long-term growth and twentieth-century technology. Generally, no hyphen is needed between an adverb and an adjective, for example, a carefully researched article. Neither is a hyphen required when single adjectives follow a noun, for example, the proposal was ill considered (but, an ill-considered proposal). Contemporary (noun and adjective) means both ‘belonging to the same period of time’ and ‘current, of our own time’. This can lead to confusion. If contemporary is used in a sentence that refers to an earlier period or a particular person, it means ‘of that period or that person’s period’. It is therefore incorrect to write: Shakespeare’s plays are relevant to contemporary problems, if what you mean is that his plays are relevant to problems of our own time. As a rule, if you refer to an earlier period or a particular person who lived in an earlier period, and you want to relate that period or person to our own time, avoid using contemporary in your sentences. Find an acceptable substitute to express what you want to say. The following show some of the correct uses of contemporary: • Shakespeare’s plays surpass even the best works of his contemporaries.
• Blake’s poetry is significantly different from the work of contemporary poets. • Ben Jonson was a contemporary of Shakespeare. • Emily Dickinson’s poetry was largely ignored by contemporary writers and critics. Continual, continuous Continual implies a recurrence at frequent intervals; continuous means extending uninterruptedly, unbroken and connected. The best way to remember the difference between these words is to make up a saying along the lines of the following: You can learn to play a musical instrument by continual practice; but your effort cannot be continuous. Contracts are awarded, not rewarded. Crosscuts, not cross cuts. Currency When speaking it is acceptable to say ‘ten rand’ or a ‘million rand’ – we all do it; but when writing – especially for publication – we must write ‘ten rands’ or ‘a million rands’. However, if rand is used adjectivally, then it remains rand and may need to be hyphenated, for example, a multibillion-rand initiative. Cutoff, not cut-off Data In Latin, data is the plural of datum, meaning, ‘one piece of information’. Datum is infrequently used. When it is used, it typically means ‘thing known or granted, unquestionable fact’. The word data is often used with a plural verb; however, increasingly it is used as a collective noun denoting a single body of facts or information. In such constructions it takes a singular verb. It is correct to use the singular construction unless it seems awkward in the particular sentence you are writing; • The available data are insufficient to draw any conclusions • The data on the subject is rather meagre Database, not data base Dependant, dependent Dependant is the noun, while dependent is the adjective. Dependence is a state of being dependent on somebody. Dependency – a territory subject to nonadjacent country, or overreliance on a drug. Die casting is not hyphenated, for example ‘die casting technology”. Differ with, differ from Normally a distinction is drawn between differ with and differ from. We differ with people when we do not agree with them. Differ from is used in the sense of ‘be different’. The confusion arises because although I may differ with you (or disagree with you) my ideas would be said to differ from yours. Differ with is the more frequently-used expression. In present usage, differ from is often replaced by phrases using different: • e differs with those historians who think of history as the actions of famous H people.
• His description differs from the accounts of other anthropologists. Different from/to/than Although different has been used variously with from, to and than since at least the seventeenth century, expressions using different can trigger off heated disagreement among grammarians. Many writers continue to insist that different from is the only permissible construction, though more recently some have been prepared to tolerate different to in speech and even in writing. Directions: • North-west Johannesburg • North-western bypass route • North-northeast of Sishen • Unless a town is very small, it is not necessary to write ‘the mine is situated 25 km west of the town of Musina’, when ’25 km west of Musina’ would suffice. Diversified, as in ‘a diversified mining company’. To be classed as a diversified mining company, the company needs to mine at least three different minerals, for example, gold, coal and iron. An example is BHP Billiton. Downtime, one word. Draft, an air current, the order to join the armed services, a preliminary sketch or plan a preliminary report or speech, a written order to pay money a drink, a dose of medicine, the depth required for a ship to float, Draughting, not drafting, services. Draughtsperson or draughting technician Electricity. We use electricity, not electrical power. En dash – The en dash is used instead of a hyphen to indicate a break in a sentence followed by information, which adds to or clarifies the first part of the sentence, sometimes as an alternative to using brackets. It is also used in lists to avoid using too many commas. Other uses include: • public–private partnership, were the usage of a hyphen may be deemed A adjectival when, instead, the two entities have equal weight. • Lloyd-Jones (one person), but a Lennon–McCartney composition (two people). • Paris–Dakar Rally. • Johannesburg–London–Cairo trip. • Waterval-Boven–Waterval-Onder railway line. End Does ‘in the end’ and ‘at the end’ mean the same thing? ‘In the end’ is most commonly used to mean finally or after a long while. ‘At the end’ is generally used to mean the point where something stops. Electromechanical, not electro-mechanical Enormity means extreme evil or moral offensiveness or a very evil or morally offensive deed. An enormity can mean sheer size, terrible nature or atrocity, so be careful in its usage, for example: • The enormity of war crimes.
• The bombing of the defenceless population was an enormity beyond belief. When referring to size, cope, extent, influence or immensity, examples include: • The enormity of the task. • The enormity of such an act of generosity is staggering. eresearch, not e-research
farther, further – farther has reference to distance; further to continuance: • He rode farther • further to our conversation fibre-optic cable, not fibre-optics cable follow-up is the noun, follow up is the verb forklift, one word fundraising, one word further, not furthermore Gasfields, not gas fields Going forward is one of those phrases people like to use; however, if dropped from a sentence and the meaning is unchanged, it is best deleted. Government, it is not necessary to use “the” in front of government – use “ . . . commitment to government’s economic agenda”, rather than “. . . commitment to the government’s economic agenda”. Similarly, do not use “the” in front of Cabinet. Groundwater, one word. Groundwork, one word. Happen, occur, take place Happen and occur usually refer to circumstances beyond control whereas take place refers to things that are done intentionally: • The accident occurred in the plant. • The meeting will take place tomorrow. • What happened to Europe’s winter? • omething really pivotal has happened to South Africa’s public finances; they have S collapsed – and the fault does not lie entirely with the global recession. Hard wearing (two words), as in hard wearing and corrosion resistant Healthcare, one word Hematite, not haematite Hot spots (two words) However Many of you have trouble using the word ‘however’, which is usually followed by a comma when used as the first world of a sentence, and preceded and followed by a comma when used later in a sentence. For instance: In any case, however, the siphon may be filled.
When it means ‘to whatever extent’ ‘however’ needs no following comma, for example, “Bring the drum, however full it is.” However can come at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence, but it is best positioned immediately after the item that is held up for contrast: ‘ In the morning, however, nothing was done’ (in contrast to the preceding afternoon). It should be surrounded by commas unless it means ‘no matter how’, as in ‘however hard I work’. Hot spots, two words. Hyphenation. See Annexure One I Impact or impacted is followed by ‘on’, as in ‘ China and south Africa have been impacted on to a lesser extent’. However, ‘the meteriorite impact was felt . . .” is not followed by ‘on’ as, in this case, impact implies force. Independently, not independantly Information technology sectors, not information-technology sectors Independencies and independences • he former is the plural from of independency, an independent territory or state, T while the latter is the plural form of independence. Input, one word. Inquiry nquiry is correct when used to indicate an investigation, for example, a I Court of Inquiry. Enquiry would be used in the sense that is it a request for information. Internet Internet is always captatilised. Junior miner What Is A Junior Miner Anyway? Juniorminers.com set out to find what the definition of what a Junior Miner was. So we contacted the nice folks at the PDAC (Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada) and asked them for their definition of a junior mining company. Their response was this: Mining companies are defined largely by the way in which they derive their revenues. A senior producer or operator generates its revenues from the production and sale of the commodity it is mining. A junior mining company has no mining operations and is essentially a venture capital company. It must rely almost entirely on the capital markets to finance its exploration activities [I say “almost entirely” because some juniors derive their financing from private sources]. There is another category: midtier producers. These are generally junior companies that have decided to go into production on properties that they have discovered. We then asked the folks at the TSX and their response was: Everyone has their interpretation of the definition of a junior mining company. We see most of them as being listed on TSX Venture Exchange instead of on the TSX. Judgement, judgment Judgement is a variant of judgment, which is preferred.
Keeps up. Rather use maintains ie ‘He maintains morale.’ Kick-off, not kickoff – as in 100 days to kick-off. landfill, not land fill. landmark, not land mark. largest, rather use biggest. lend, loan, borrow lend is the verb while loan is the noun: • he company lent the entrepreneur R50 000 and he was grateful for the loan. The T entrepreneur borrowed R50 000 from the company. learn, learned, learnt Learn – acquire knowledge or skill Learned1 is the past tense and past participle of learn (also learnt, which is a variant of learned). Learned2 – having great knowledge or characterised by scholarship (not learnt). The difference between learned and learnt is the tenses: • I learned something yesterday. (Past tense) • I have learnt my lesson. (Past participle) • here is a lesson to be learned/learnt in the smallest and simplest things in life T each day. (Both forms are correct.) learning difficulties, use instead of mental handicap or retarded to avoid giving offence, as in people with learning difficulties, her son has learning difficulties (also learning disabilities). less, fewer • Less refers to degree or quantity; fewer to number. licence, license The letter ‘c’ refers to a noun, while the letter ‘s’ refers to a verb. Hence, licence is a noun and license is a verb: • he company manufactured the produce under licence to its overseas principal. T (noun). If you use ‘card’, ‘contract’ or ‘papers’ instead of licence and the sentence still makes sense, then ‘licence’ is correct. • he company had the product licensed. (verb) In this case, if you can use the verb T ‘to allow’, which is a verb, in its various forms (allowing, allowed, allows) instead of “license”, then license, is correct. If you use ‘allowance’ and the sentence makes sense, then you should be using ‘licence’. • Hana Botswana holds 11 prospecting licences. life span, not lifespan. lifestyle, not life style. life cycle, two words, but life-cycle costing. lightweight, not light weight. location If, for example, you are referring to a company that is based in France, it is France36
based – the geographical location. To use French-based means that it may have originated in that country, for example, French is widely spoken in Africa. Write: • Australia-based. • England-based. However, we would refer to South African-produced motor vehicles. looking at, rather use considering. Manhours. Rather use work hours, for example‘ . . . including engineering work hours . . .’ Manmade, rather use artificial or synthetic, if appropriate. Majority, on its own, is singular. (However, if you write about a majority of some specified group, such as a majority of employees, you should use the plural form, are.) Many, much Many refers to number, much to quantities: • There must have been as many as a hundred at the conference. • The company was willing to spend as much as R2-billion on the project. Measurements • he use of centimetres is, for some peculiar reason, restricted to textiles and T garments. In all other instances, please use millimetres. • ll imperial measurements must be converted to the metric equivalent. Thus, A use hectares instead of acres, kilometres instead of miles, metres instead of yards, litres instead of gallons, kilograms instead of pounds and note: tons instead of tonnes. The exception is nautical miles, which remain the same. Metaphors Although a skilfully used metaphor can evoke a visual image, adding this new dimension to a story can be tricky. To use this figure of speech without loss of vividness steer clear of dipping into the well of worn-out metaphors, which will only tire the reader a force him or her to move on to another story. Use all metaphors sparingly. Strive for accuracy, not ambiguity. Marketplace, not market place. Mount Moreland, not Mt Morland. None is or are? Not one is = none. So, none is. When used with a plural noun, however, opinions begin to differ, for example, ‘none of my colleagues is’ does not read as well as ‘none of my colleagues are’. In this case the most natural usage would be acceptable. Now – avoid using unless its omission changes the meaning of a sentence. Nuclear-1, not Nuclear One. Number of – several is preferred.
Obligate is an ugly and unnecessary word. Use ‘oblige’. Off the shore of Côte d’Ivoire, not offshore of Côte d’Ivoire, but ‘maintenance of the
oil rigs (two words) offshore of Angola’. Offtake, one word – offtake agreement. OK, not okay, but rather use acceptable. On line, but online when referring to the Web or an online account. On to, two words. Openpit, not open pit. Opencast, not open cast. Orebody, not ore body. Orepass, not ore pass. Output, one word. Overperformed, overcommitted, overstressed and oversold (one word, not two words). Owing to, due to While either of these is correct when used as an adjectival phrase qualifying a noun, only owing to is correct as an adverbial phrase modifying a verb. Collins: Due to may be used adjectivally without controversy, as in diseases due to poor hygiene: as a preposition, may be replaced by owing to or because of. Owing to may be used instead of due to where appropriate, to avoid controversy, as in the taxi arrived late owing to traffic congestion. Use: • The furnace was shut down owing to market conditions. • Furnace 1 was due for a scheduled maintenance shutdown. • The furnace was due to shut down in April.
Past, last These words are often confused. For the sake of clarity, use past when referring to a historic event and last when you mean lately: • The company manufactured carbon steel in the past. • He has been away the last three days. • Last’ can mean the final (as in ‘He ate the last remaining sweet’) or, in this context, ‘ the most recent, as in ‘Last week we went to the beach’ or ‘Last time I saw him, we went to the cinema.’ • Past’ is more vague and can be used to refer to a nonspecific period millions of ‘ years ago or a couple of years back, although it tends largely not to be used for more recent events, ie. “In the past, dinosaurs roamed the earth’ or ‘In the past, we used to go to the fair together.’ Per should be avoided, use ‘each’, for example ‘each year’. Per annum should also be replace by ‘a year’. There are, however, acceptable uses of ‘per’: • Per capita. • 100 carats per hundred tons (cpht). • When used in a quote. phase 2, not Phase 2. Pilanesberg, not Pilansberg.
Platinum-group metals (PGMs), not platinum group metals, but a platinum-group metal (PGM). Platework, not plate work. Policymaking, one word as in ‘the policymaking process’. Polokwane, not Pietersburg. Port is lowercased, for example, the Beira port but Port of Beira. Post – usually attached without the hyphen when referring to the past, except when the next word begins with t or a capital letter. Postelection, not post-election. Postwar, not post-war ie ‘postwar Japan’. Practice, practise The letter ‘c’ is used in the noun while the letter ‘s’ is used in the verb. Hence practice is a noun and practise is a verb: • He opened his own practice on the Rand. (noun) • He practised his putting daily. (verb) Presently. There are still those among us using the word ‘presently’ to mean ‘now’. It does not: it means ‘before long’, ‘soon’ or ‘shortly’. ‘Currently’ is preferred. Principal, principle Principal is the main, head or chief or an organisation while principle refers to values or features. Principal may be a noun or adjective, principle is always a noun: • he principal shareholder has a major say in the day-to-day workings of the T company. • The principle behind the workings of the lathe is simple. Pumpstation, one word.
Qualifications Write: • PhD, not PHD. • BSc (Hon), not B. Sc. (Hons). • Quantity – distinguish between amount, number and quantity (and fewer and less). Use: • A small quantity of ore or goods. • ilbara blend comprises the different qualities of iron-ore blended in specific P quantities. R Raiseboring is one word, while raise-drilled is hyphenated. Rail track is two words. Recently – avoid using as the word is vague and, in some cases, redundant. Rather use the exact date or nothing at all: • On his visit to South Africa . . . not . . . on his recent visit to South Africa. • The building has been finished . . . not . . . the building was recently finished. Reef. Lowercase, for example, Merensky reef, UG2 reef, Main reef.
Risk averse, not risk adverse. Roadshow, not road show. Rock drills, not rockdrills. Roll-out is hyphenated whether used as an adjective or noun, but the verb is roll out – two words. This applies to rolled-out and rolling-out. Roofs, not rooves. Semiskilled, not semi-skilled. Sewage, sewerage and sewer. Sewage is the waste matter carried off by sewer drains and pipes. Sewerage refers to the physical facilities (e.g., pipes, lift stations, and treatment and disposal facilities) through which sewage flows. • It’s a sewage treatment works, not a sewerage treatment works. • Old sewerage piping was replaced. Source – as in the origin or a story. Use: a source confirmed to Engineering News . . . or Engineering News confirmed with . . . . Standalone, not stand-alone. Stock exchanges • The JSE is listed as such and should not be written as the Johannesburg Securities Exchange Use: • Aim- and ASX-listed Sylvania Resources • The New York and London stock exchanges • The TSX Stormwater runoff, not storm water run off. State with a capital ‘S’ refers to the government of a country. The lowercase ‘s’ refers to: state • The condition that something or somebody is in at a particular time • A very nervous, upset, or excited frame of mind or manner of behaving (informal). • very formal, dignified or grand way of doing something in which all the A appropriate ceremonies are observed • ny of the various forms such as solid or liquid or quantifiable conditions such as A energy levels that a physical substance can be in depending on its temperature and other circumstances • A very messy or disreputable condition (informal) • o express something in spoken or written words, especially to announce someT thing publicly in a deliberate formal way • To declare something officially so that it has the force of a law or regulation Use: • State-owned power utility, but State power utility does not take a hyphen. • non-State, not nonState.
Subconsultants, not sub-consultants. sub-Saharan, not Sub-Saharan. Standards authorities Abbreviations for standards authorities need to be written out in full at the first time of mention if used without reference to the particular standard – ISO 90001:2000. • IAF – International Accreditation Forum. • ILAC – International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation. • ISO – International Organisation for Standardisation. • SANS – South African National Accreditation System. A full list of standard’s authorities names and abbreviations is available in Annexure six Surnames: • n articles where people have the same surnames, use both name and surname at I the second time of mention. Sustainability includes the economic, social and environmental spheres of corporate involvement and influence – so don’t write ‘environmental and sustainability challenges’.
Tender and Award stage of projects. That part of the project life cycle during which construction contractors are invited to prepare and submit bids, a selection is made and contracts are awarded. A call for bids or call for tenders or invitation to tender (ITT) (often called tender for short) is a special procedure for generating competing offers from different bidders looking to obtain an award of business activity in works, supply or service contracts. They are usually preceded by a prequalification questionnaire (PQQ). Testwork, not test work. Third World countries, not third world countries. Real-time monitoring, not real time monitoring. Today – do not use except in cases such as . . . Engineering News can today report. TSX-V, use in full at the first time of mention – Canadian Toronto Stock Exchange’s Venture Exchange (TSX-V) Trading as should not be abbreviated to t/a. Two, too, to Two means twice one: too has the meaning of also; to is an indication of direction: • The two men went to the factory. He went there too.
Underallocation, not under allocation Under way. Two words. Underused, not under underutilised. One word.
Upon, on Upon should be used when there is a superposition, actual or figurative, according to the rules of grammar: • The copy was laid upon the desk. • She heaped her adjectives one upon the other. However, the choice between upon and on usually depends on euphony. Base your choice on the sound of the words with which the preposition is used, for example, upon my word, depend upon it, but it depends on him, on hearing. The same consideration can be applied to till and until. Uranic contamination, as in contaminated by uranium. Used, not utilised, so underused
Very. To write that a company is ‘very systems based’ is forbidden. It is ‘systems based’. Vice Versa, rather use the other way around. W Web is capped. Web-based is hyphenated. Wellbeing, one word Wellhead, as in wellhead generators for power production – not well head or well-head. Within – in is preferred, unless used as ‘he was within his rights’. Workforce, not work force World War Two, not World War II or World War 2. Whilst Use while, not whilst.
hyphenation examples The hyphen should be used only when its presence assists in the understanding of a word or phrase. If you’re not sure whether to use one or not, consult the dictionary! Use of the hyphen indicates that two or more words should be read as one word. This compound then acquires a meaning of its own, entirely different from that of the individual words, for example: • High-tech • Know-how • Devil-may-care • Out-of-date • State-of-the-art Hyphens are used when forming composite adjectives. If they are omitted, confusion could arise: • A ‘little-known area’ does not mean the same as ’a little known area’. Some words beginning with prefixes need to be hyphenated, for example: • If the prefix is with a capital, as in neo-Darwinism. • f the prefix is used with a vowel, as in pre-empt, semi-illiterate, re-enter or I anti-aircraft. • Do not hyphenate override, withhold and underrate. Hyphens are not used in: • Non, as in nongovernmental Nouns formed from prepositional verbs are hyphenated, for example roll-out and build-up. Some titles also take hyphens, for example, vice-president, director-general and attorney-general, but not deputy director and district attorney. All numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine (except for the single words) need to be hyphenated, as do other compounds formed from numbers, if there is any possibility of ambiguity, for example three-tiered; four-lane; three-legged. Note that it is not necessary to hyphenate numbers above one hundred, for example, four hundred and ninety-six. Fractions are also hyphenated, for example, two-thirds, four-fifths. The quarters of the compass when used as a compound are hyphenated, for example, north-west and south-east. A compound modifier (also called a compound adjective or a phrasal adjective) is an adjectival or adverbial phrase of two or more words. According to modern writing guides, compound modifiers before a noun generally require a hyphen between each word (see exceptions below). Hyphens help prevent confusion; otherwise, a reader might interpret the words separately, rather than as a phrase. One or more hyphens join the words into a single idea.
• • • • • • •
Hard-won victory Better-educated learners “Science-fiction writers write science fiction” Military-history experts A man-eating shark (not “a man eating shark”, the exact opposite meaning) The one-way street is very narrow. A wild-goose chase (not “wild goose chase”, a goose chase that was wild)
exceptions • o not use a hyphen following adverbs that end in -ly, but use one following D adverbs that do not end in -ly: “a well-known actress”. • ost phrases that need hyphens as compound modifiers should not be M hyphenated if they come after the noun they describe: “a contract for a long term.” Creamer Media style may differ from other house styles and this is often most evident in hyphenation. Generally, hyphenation rules and exceptions are subject to a writer’s judgment and may be applied differently, but the overarching aim is to avoid confusion. The Times Online Style Guide suggests using the hyphen “when the phrase would otherwise be ambiguous”. The Chicago Manual of Style now takes the position that “the hyphen may be omitted in all cases [of adjectival compounds] where there is little or no risk of ambiguity or hesitation”. Examples of noncompound modifiers • A new looking glass (not to confuse with a new-looking glass, looking glass being a rather old-fashioned term for a mirror) • Oxygen free radicals (in chemistry, free radicals that contain oxygen, not to confuse with oxygen-free radicals, radicals which are free of oxygen, or oxygen-consuming radicals, nonconformist chemists given to expounding their views at length.) Hyphenation examples: • lack economic-empowerment group and Broad-Based Black Economic B Empowerment Act of 2003 • Broad-based black economic-empowerment initiative • challenge imports head-on • coal-fired power station • community-owned and –operated factory • Consul-General • Cost-effective solution • Deep-water discovery, not deepwater discovery • Demagnitising, not de-magnitising • demand-side management • irector-General (but Botswana Democratic Party secretary-general Daniel D Kwelagobe) • Eco-trails, use hyphen • Electricity intensive mines
• • • • • •
Environmental-impact assessment environmental-impact assessment report environmental- and social-impact assessment study Exchange-traded funds (lowercased), not Exchange Traded Funds End-users, not end users, for example: a n evolutionary path that will increasingly provide end-users the functionality they need • ex-Soviet Union • fibre-optic cables but fibre optics (no hyphen) • Gold-miner Mintails • Gold-, platinum-, coal-, diamond- and copper-mining sectors • Greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions • hand-held drilling • gold-mining and exploration company Newcrest • heavy-metal-free materials, not heavy metal free materials • high-cost, uneconomic mines • life-of-mine • ill-considered proposal • in-house design, not inhouse design • iron-ore, not iron ore, both noun and adjectival use: • use: an iron-ore-mining licence South Africa’s biggest iron-ore-miner • Long-term growth • Lost-time-injury frequency rate • Lower-grade ore • low- and medium-carbon commercial grades • low-, medium- and high-alloy steels • Materials-handling systems • mid-1920s • nine-million-ton-a-year mine, but a nine-million ton a year greenfield openpit mine • One-liner • On-reef and off-reef • Open-cycle gas-turbine project • Pebble-bed nuclear reactor, but the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor Company • per-kilowatt-hour payment • platinum-mining, for example, ‘. . . successfully used in platinum-mining.” • roject-managed, not project managed ie ‘ . . . plants DRA designed and projectp managed’. • Precious-metals-miner (JSE-listed precious-metals-miner Village Main Reef) • Plural-sounding company names • Public- and private-sector entities • ramp-up of production
• renewable-energy technology
• • • • • • • •
rigid-pillar system Run-of-mine production state-of-the-art computer sub-Saharan Africa Twentieth-century technology value-added tax or value-added service Vice-Admiral Well-thought-out structure
Hyphenation in Numbers: • ractions should be hyphenated when spelled out in full, for example, two-thirds, F even when the number is higher than ten. The same applies to figures used as adjectives: He gave a tenth (not 10th) of his salary to the poor. • t is acceptable to have 22 000 but million and billion must be written out in full I and with a hyphen, for example, R22-million. • o not use a hyphen in place of ‘to’ when using two figures: the project will take D 12 to 18 months (not 12-18 months) to complete. • hen million is used, for example one-million tons, it has to be written out in full if W the number is below 11. Do not use 1-million tons. However, 3,2-million tons and 1 t is acceptable, as is 4 c/t. use: • The 555-km 24-inch trunk-line from Durban • 20-million-ton-a-year processing plant • 150-m-wide x 500-m-long north-west-trending corridor • 180-mm × 80-mm × 40-mm unit • 26%-owned by . . . • ISO 9002-, 14001- and 18001-listed plant • multimillion-rand turnkey project • twenty-fifth year of service; not 25th • en-million-tons-a-year iron export project, but a ten-million-ton a year iron export T project. The plural or singular ‘tons’ or ‘ton’ is governed by the use, or not, of either ‘a’ or ‘an’ before the figure. • 100-t-capacity wagon, not 100-t capacity wagon • 300-t/h Laixin plant • 2,7-m-diameter Koepe winder, not 2,7-m diameter Koepe winder • 12-million-ton-a-year dense medium separation (DMS) plant • three fifty-four-hole golf courses • 25-m-high crusher tips • 144-m-long tunnel section • iftieth not 50th anniversary, however, if the number is too long, for example thirtyf thousandth, rather use 30 000th. • two-and-a-half years • 24/7 services, not twenty-four-seven services • 24 hours a day (no hyphens), but 24-hour-a-day facility
hyphenation exceptions • 20- to 30-million tons per annum (a quote) • care and maintenance, unless used adjectivally • co-chairperson • coordinate • cooperate • email • Energy efficient system, do not hyphenate the adjectival use of ‘energy efficient’. • Mideighties not mid-eighties • Midsized, not mid-sized • Midtier, not mid-tier • Online not on-line • Preadjusted not pre-adjusted • Preassembly, not pre-assembly • Preapproval capital expenditure • Reoptimised, not re-optimised • Short to medium term, unless used adjectivally
THE GOVERNMENT Of SOUTH AfRICA: OVERVIEW The National Government of South Africa is comprised of Parliament, Cabinet and various Departments. These components carry out functions as outlined in the Constitution and in legislation enacted by Parliament. • The National Government Departments • The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa • The South African Parliament • Cabinet • Overview of South Africa THE NATIONAl GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS The Departments that make up the national administration are charged with implementing legislation and providing services to the public. In 2003, an overall budget of R334 billion was made available for this purpose. Department of Agriculture, Forestry & Fisheries Department of Arts & Culture Department of Basic Education Department of Communications Department of Cooperative Governance & Traditional Affairs Department of Correctional Services Department of Defence & Military Veterans Department of Economic Development Department of Energy Department of Education Department of Health Department of Higher Education and Training Department of Home Affairs Department of Human Settlements Department of International Relations and Cooperation Department of Justice and Constitutional Development Department of Labour Department of Mineral Resources Department of Public Enterprises Department of Public Service and Administration Department of Public Works Department of Rural Development and Land Affairs Department of Science and Technology Department of Social Development Department of Sport and Recreation Department of Safety Department of State Security Department of Tourism Department of Trade and Industry Department of Transport
Department of Water and Environmental Affairs Government Communication and Information System (GCIS) Independent Complaints Directorate National Treasury Statistics South Africa THE CONSTITUTION Of THE REPUblIC Of SOUTH AfRICA The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996) came into effect on 4 February 1997. This is the highest law in South Africa and no other law or government action can overrule the Constitution or be in conflict with it. South Africa’s Constitution is one of the most progressive in the world and is based on the values of dignity, equality and freedom. Chapter 2 of the Constitution contains the Bill of Rights. THE SOUTH AfRICAN PARlIAMENT The South African Parliament is responsible for creating and amending the countries laws in accordance with the Constitution. It consists of two parts, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The National Assembly consists of 400 elected representatives who meet at the Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, to debate issues and create legislation. The National Council of Provinces consists of 54 permanent members and 36 special delegates representing the nine provinces. The NCOP represents provincial interests in the national sphere of government. CAbINET The executive arm of national government is headed up by the Cabinet which consists of the President, the Deputy President and various Ministers appointed by the President from the National Assembly. The President also determines which functions each of the Ministers will perform. The Cabinet members currently are: • Jacob Zuma – President • Petrus Kgalema Motlanthe – Deputy President • Tina Joemat-Pettersson – Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries • lulama Xingwana – Arts and Culture • Angie Motshekga – Basic Education • Siphiwe Nyanda – Communications • Sicelo Shiceka – Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs • Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula – Correctional Services • Dr lindiwe Sisulu – Defence and Military Veterans • Ebrahim Patel – Economic Development • Dipuo Peters – Energy • Pravin Gordhan – Finance • Dr Aaron Motsoaledi – Health • Dr blade Nzimande – Higher Education and Training
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Dr Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma – Home Affairs Tokyo Sexwale – Human Settlements Maite Nkoana-Mashabane – International Relations and Cooperation Jeff Radebe – Justice and Constitutional Development Membathisi Mdladlana – Labour Susan Shabangu – Mineral Resources Nathi Mthethwa – Police barbara Hogan – Public Enterprises Richard baloyi – Public Service and Administration Geoff Doidge – Public Works Gugile Nkwinti – Rural Development and Land Reform Naledi Pandor – Science and Technology Edna Molewa – Social Development Makhenkesi Stofile – Sport and Recreation Siyabonga Cwele – State Security Marthinus van Schalkwyk – Tourism Dr Rob Davies – Trade and Industry Sibusiso Joel Ndebele – Transport buyelwa Sonjica – Water and Environmental Affairs Noluthando Mayende-Sibiya – Women, Youth, Children and People with Disabilities • Trevor Manuel – Minister in The Presidency (National Planning Commission) • Collins Chabane – Minister in The Presidency (Performance Monitoring and Evaluation and Administration in the Presidency) the president’s wives and financée President Zuma has three wives: Sizakele Khumalo (MaKhumalo), Nompumelelo Ntuli (MaNtuli) and Tobeka Madiba (KaMadiba). He has a fiancée, bongi Ngema. note to suBs: In the isiZulu culture, married or adult women whose surnames begin with “Ma” automatically inherit the prefix “Ka” instead of “Ma” to avoid tautology, which is why Madiba Zuma is not referred to as “MaMadiba”. OVERVIEW Of SOUTH AfRICA South Africa covers 1 219 090 km² at the southern most tip of Africa. There is a population of approximately 44,8 million people. South Africa is characterised by the diversity of its people in terms of race, culture and religion. This is reflected in the 11 national languages protected by the South African Constitution. The country is divided into nine provinces, each with its own provincial legislature and administration. The nine provinces are: • Western Cape • Eastern Cape • Free State • Gauteng • KwaZulu-Natal
• • • •
Limpopo (formerly Northern Province) Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape.
South Africa’s political parties Represented in parliament following the 2009 elections: 1. African Christian Democratic Party (ACDP) (3 seats, 0.81% of vote) 2. African National Congress (ANC) (264 seats, 65,9%) 3. African Peoples’ Convention (APC) (1 seat, 0,2%) 4. Azanian Peoples Organisation (AZAPO) (1 seat, 0,22%) 5. Congress of the People (COPE) (30 seats, 7,42%) 6. Democratic Alliance (DA) (67 seats, 16.66%) 7. Freedom Front Plus (Vryheidsfront+, FF+) (4 seats, 0,83%) 8. Independent Democrats (ID) (4 seats, 0<92%) 9. Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) (18 seats, 4,55%) 10. Minority Front (MF) (1 seat, 0,25%) 11. Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (1 seat, 0,27%) 12. United Christian Democratic Party (UCDP) (2 seat, 0,37%) 13. United Democratic Movement (UDM) (4 seats, 0,85%) For more information on South Africa, consult the South Africa Yearbook. WEBSITE: www.gov.za The Department of Water and Environmental Affairs While we all understand that Buyelwa Sonjica is Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs, we are not the only ones confused about the structure of her Ministry. A Parliamentary Monitoring Group summary of a strategic plan meeting on February 23, 2010, stated: “The committee noted that the Department still referred to itself as the Department of Environmental Affairs. The committee was of the understanding that it should be the Department of Water and Environmental Affairs. “The department informed Members that there were two different departments. The Department of Environ-mental Affairs was appropriated by Parliament and there was a proclamation by the National Treasury that gave a vote for the DEA and the DWA. This committee is dealing with two departments under one Ministry.” it further stated: Ms Nosipho Ngcaba, director-general: Department of Environmental Affairs, gave and overview of the functions of the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), which included environmental quality and protection, biodiversity and conservation, and oceans and coastal management.
Annexure three Abbreviations of units of measurement
Units of measure are written in lower case (for example, kg, km, m), unless they are derived from the name of a person (for example, W, kJ, kW, Hz). When used with figures, these abbreviations should follow with a space (for example, 11 kg, 15 km, 35 mm) and when used adjectivally, a hyphen is necessary: a 15-km journey. However, two abbreviations together must be separated with a space. When beginning a sentence, figures and units of measurement should be written out in full (for example, eight kilograms, seventy-seven hectares). Abbreviation Ah B bar (unit) Unit of Measurement Ampere hour Byte T he bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar), centibar (symbol cbar), and millibar (symbol mbar or mb) are units of pressure. The bar is widely used in descriptions of pressure because it is only about 1% smaller than atmospheric pressure, and is legally recognised in countries of the European Union. Except for the power of ten, the definition of bar fits in the sequence of SI pressure units (Pa, kPa, MPa), namely, 1 bar ≡ 100,000 Pa = 100 kPa = 0.1 MPa. This is in contrast to the well-known unit of pressure, atmosphere, which now is defined to be 1.01325 bar exactly. As a rule of thumb, a bar is almost equal to an atmosphere. b ank cubic meter (BCM) a traditional unit of volume in coal mining. A bank cubic meter represents the contents of a cubic meter of rock in place, before it is drilled and blasted. billion cubic feet barrel barrels Symbol for the becquerel, an SI unit of radioactivity Computer-aided design Computer-aided manufacture cubic centimetre C entimetre. Use for clothing and textiles, otherwise use millimetres (mm). raw gold (cm) grams a ton Carat/s carats per hundred ton Carbon dioxide equivalent K inematic viscosity is sometimes expressed in terms of centistokes (cSt or ctsk), named after George Gabriel Stokes. degrees Centigrade direct current
BCM bcf bl bbl Bq Cad Cam cc3 cm cmg/t ct cpht CO2-e cSt ˚C dc
Abbreviation dB dm DWT fl oz drm g Gb Gb/s GB GHz GJ Gt gr gro GWd/t GWh/y ha hl Hz hp J K KB kgf/mm2 kg kHz kl km kN kNm kV kVA kW kWh ℓ m mA Mbit/s MB mcm
Unit of Measurement decibel decimetre deadweight ton fluid ounces dr gram Gigabits (network or internal circuits) Gigabits a second Gigabyte (high transmission) gigahertz gigajoule gigatons grain gross Gigawat days a ton Gigawat hours a year hectare hectolitre Hertz horsepower joule Kelvin kilobyte Kilogram force a square millimetre kilogram kilohertz kilolitre kilometre kilonewton kilonewton metres kilovolt kilovolt-ampere kilowatt kilowatt-hour Litre (“ℓ” symbol in mathematical font) metre milliampere Megabit a second M egabyte, which is the amount of data transferred, as opposed to Megabits, which is the speed of transfer m illion cubic metres, a unit of volume, but write out 36-million cubic metres of water a day
Unit of Measurement meganewton microgram microns, micrometre milligram megahertz Megajoule millilitre megalitre millimetre milliseconds metric ton M Pa is a metric (SI) unit for pressure, or force per unit area. Pa is the Pascal, which is one Newton of force applied to one square meter of area (1 N/m2). MPa is a mega-Pascal, or one million Pascals. Since atmospheric pressure is 101 000 pA, or 101 kPa (approximately 14.7 psi), this is approximately 9 atmospheres (around 150 psi). MVA megavolt-ampere MW megawatt MWdc megawatt direct current MWe Megawatt electrical MWt Megawatt thermal Nano billionth nm nautical miles Nm N ewton meter (Unit of Torque) 1 Nm = 0.737 lb-ft ns nanosecond Ω o hm, the derived SI unit of electrical resistance; the resistance between two points on a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 V between them produces a current of 1 A. oz ounce. Troy ounces – The troy ounce is the only measure of the troy weighting system that is still used in modern times. It is used in the pricing of metals such as gold, platinum and silver. When the price of gold is said to be US$653/oz, the ounce being referred to is a troy ounce, not a standard ounce. oz3 cubic ounces pH A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution picovolt a unit of potential equal to one trillionth of a volt ppm parts per million ppb parts per billion psi pounds per square inch rpm or rev/min revolutions a minute
Abbreviation MN µg µm mg MHz MJ ml Mℓ mm ms mt MPa
t Tb tcf Tcm TCu TDS TJ TWh V VAC W Wp
Unit of Measurement T he international system of units of measurement. SI is used to reduce the number of zeros shown in numerical quantities. For example, one-billionth of an ampere (a small electrical current) can be written as 0.000000001ampere. In symbol form, this is written as 0.000000001A. Using an SI prefix, this is equivalent to 1 nanoampere or 1 nA. ton terabyte trillion cubic feet trillion cubic metres Total copper Total dissolved solids Terajoule Terrawatt hour Volt Volts of alternating current Watt W att-peak, a measure of power output, most often used in relation to photovoltaic solar energy devices. Related units such as kilowatt-peak or kilowatts-peak (kWp) and megawatts-peak are also used, and in the context of domestic installations kWp is the most common unit encountered. a n abbreviation for “weight by volume,” a slightly confusing phrase used in chemistry and pharmacology to describe the concentration of a substance in a mixture or solution. The weight by volume is the mass (in grams) of the substance dissolved in or mixed with 100 millilitres of solution or mixture. For example, the concentration of fluoride in toothpaste is usually about 0.15% w/v, meaning that there is 0.15 gram of fluoride for each 100 millilitres of toothpaste. Thus 1% w/v is equal to 1 gram a decilitre (g/dℓ) or 10 grams a litre (g/ℓ). a n abbreviation for “by weight,” used in chemistry and pharmacology to describe the concentration of a substance in a mixture or solution. Properly speaking, 2% w/w means that the mass of the substance is 2% of the total mass of the solution or mixture. The metric symbol g/g has the same meaning as w/w.
Commonly used scientific elements and their abbreviations Scientific elements must be spelled out in full on first appearance and referred to thereafter by their periodic symbol for example, carbon dioxide (CO2). Abbreviation 4E pgm 3 PGE+Au 6 PGE+Au Å CO CO2 CH4 CFCs DUF6 NOx Nm Nm3 Scientific Element (platinum, palladium, gold and rhodium) platinum group metals Three platinum group elements and gold Six platinum group elements and gold angstrom carbon monoxide carbon dioxide methane chlorofluorocarbons Depleted uranium hexafluoride Oxides of nitrogen Newton metre (Nm or N·m), a unit of torque T he similar symbol Nm3 stands for ‘normal cubic metres’, a unit of volume (Normal in this context means at standard temperature and pressure), although it also stands for “newton cubic metres” in SI notation. plutonium-239 uranium oxide uranium-238
P-239 U3O8 U-238
list of Periodic Table
Name Actinium Aluminium Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Cesium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Symbol Ac Al Am Sb Ar As At Ba Bk Be Bi Bh B Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs Cl Cr Co Cu Cm Db Dy Es Er Eu Fm F Fr Gd Ga Ge Au Hf Hs He
Elements Sorted by Element Name Name Symbol Holmium Ho Hydrogen H Indium In Iodine I Iridium Ir Iron Fe Krypton Kr Lanthanum La Lawrencium Lr Lead Pb Lithium Li Lutetium Lu Magnesium Mg Manganese Mn Meitnerium Mt Mendelevium Md Mercury Hg Molybdenum Mo Neodymium Nd Neon Ne Neptunium Np Nickel Ni Niobium Nb Nitrogen N Nobelium No Osmium Os Oxygen O Palladium Pd Phosphorus P Platinum Pt Plutonium Pu Polonium Po Potassium K Praseodymium Pr Promethium Pm Protactinium Pa Radium Ra Radon Rn Rhenium Re Rhodium Rh
Name Symbol Rubidium Rb Ruthenium Ru Rutherfordium Rf Samarium Sm Scandium Sc Seaborgium Sg Selenium Se Silicon Si Silver Ag Sodium Na Strontium Sr Sulphur S Tantalum Ta Technetium Tc Tellurium Te Terbium Tb Thallium Tl Thorium Th Thulium Tm Tin Sn Titanium Ti Tungsten W Uranium U Vanadium V Xenon Xe Ytterbium Yb Zinc Zn Zirconium Zr
Commonly used abbreviations These should be written out in full at the first time of mention, followed immediately by the abbreviation in brackets. Abbreviations that form words that can change or confuse the meaning of sentences, for example, tons of oil equivalent (toe), should be written in upper case (TOE). * indicates that it is not necessary to use in full at the first time of mention ** indicates that capitals must be used African National Congress African National Congress Youth League African Rainbow Minerals analogue to digital converter alternating current Asymmetrical digital subscriber line Aktiengesellschaft (German or Swiss public limited company). In common with Pty and Ltd, this abbreviation is not used when mentioning company names in text for Creamer Media purposes, for example, do not use Glass Company Ltd, Glass Company will suffice. alternative investment market Accelerated Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa automatic teller machine b black economic empowerment broad-based black economic empowerment C carats per hundred tons central processing unit Coal of Africa Limited (include ‘Limited’ as it is used in the acronym) computer-aided design computer-aided manufacture computer numeric control or computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining Congress of the People Congress of South African Trade Unions D dense medium separation
ANC* ANCYL Arm ADC ac ADSL AG
Aim Asgisa ATM BEE BBBEE cpht CPU CoAL Cad Cam CNC Cope Cosatu DMS
Director-general deputy director-general digital versatile disc Deutsches Institut für Normung E earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortisation Engineering Council of South Africa engineering, procurement and construction engineering, procurement and construction management environmental-impact assessment European Commission European Union Enhanced video connector f front-end engineering and design G General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade General Export Incentive Scheme geographical information system global systems mobile gross domestic product Group of Eight Group of Twenty growth, employment and redistribution Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (German or Swiss limited private company) I Independent Power Southern Africa intelligent network input-output J Joint Ore Reserves Committee l large-coal dense-medium separator lost-time injury frequency rate per million hours worked light-emitting diode London Metal Exchange
DG DDG DVD DIN Ebitda ECSA** EPC EPCM EIA EC EU EVC Feed Gatt Geis GIS GSM GDP G8 G20 Gear GMBH Ipsa IN I/O Jorc larcodem separator LTIFR LED LME
Member of Parliament Member of the Executive Council Movement for Democratic Change Multiyear price determination N Nondistributive reserves O original equipment manufacturer P platinum-group metals preliminary economic assessment printed circuit board programmable logic controller proportional integral derivative R random access memory Rare earth element read only memory renewable-energy feed-in-tariff request for proposal research and development
MP MEC MDC MYPD NDR OEM PGMs PEA PCB PLC Pid Ram REE Rom Refit RFP R&D SMS* Sens Samrec SADC Sanral SMMEs Sim* Scada 3-D system
S short message service Stock Exchange News Service South African Code for the Reporting of Meneral Resources and Mineral Reserves South African Development Community South African National Roads Agency Limited (include ‘Limited” as it is used in the acronym small, medium and micro-sized enterprises (SMMEs) subscriber identity module supervisory control and data acquisition T Three dimensional system
United Kingdom uninterruptible power supply United Nations upper-group two V very important person W World Wide Web Z Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front
UK, use ‘in the UK’ UPS UN UG2 VIP WWW Zanu-PF*
Commonly used plastics Name acrylonitrile butadienestyrene ethylene propylene dymonomer ethylene propylene monomer fluorinated ethylene propylene high-density polythene low-density polythene polyamide Polycrystalline-silicon polyethylene terephthalate polymethyl methacrylate polypropylene polytetrafluoroethylene polyvinyl chloride PTFE (Teflon) PVC polysilicon PET Abbreviation ABS EPDM EPT FEP HDPE LDPE
Glossary of standards authorities While ISO is in common usage and does not have to be written out in full, the rest are not well known to our readers and would have to be written out in full. APLAC ARSO Beltest BIPM BKO/OBE BMwA CNACL CNLA COFRAC DANAK DAR DKD DTI EA EMAS ENC EU FINAS FRIDGE HOKLAS IAAC IAF IANZ IATCA IEC ILAB ILAC IPQ ISO JAB JNLA KOLAS MLA Asian Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation Africa Regional Standards Organisation Belgisch Accreditatiesysteem; Testen en Keuring Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Paris Belgische Kalibratie Organisatie Austria China National Accreditation Committee for Laboratories Chinese National Laboratory Accreditation Comité Français; Accréditation Dansk Akkreditering Deutscher Akkreditierungsrat Deutsch Kalibrierdienst Department of Trade and Industry European Cooperation for Accreditation European Eco-Management and Audit Scheme Entidad Nacional de Acreditatión European Union Finnish Accreditation Service F und for Research into Industrial Development Economic Growth and Equity Hong Kong Accreditation Service Inter American Accreditation Cooperation International Accreditation Forum International Accreditation New Zealand International Audit and Training Certification Association International Electrotechnical Commission Irish National Accreditation Board International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation Instituto Português da Qualidade International Organisation for Standardisation Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment Japan National Laboratory Accreditation System Korean Laboratory Accreditation Service Multilateral Agreement/Arrangement
MOU MRA NA NATA NEDLAC NEPAD NCS NLA NMISA OECD RAAF RvA SAATCA SABS SADC SADCA SANAS SAQI SANS SAS SINCERT SIT SWEDAC UNIDO UKAS
Memorandum of Understanding Mutual Recognition Agreement Norwegian Accreditation National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia National Economic Development and Labour Advisory Council The New Partnership for Africa’s Development National Calibration Service, South Africa National Laboratory Accreditation Service, South Africa National Metrology Institute of South Africa O rganisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Representative Accreditation Advisory Forum Raad voor Accreditatie South African Auditor and Training Certification Association South African Bureau of Standards Southern African Development Community Southern African Development Committee for Accreditation South African National Accreditation System South African Quality Institute South African National Standard Swiss Accreditation Service Accreditamento Organisi Certificazione Italy Servizio Italiano di Taratura S wedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment United Nations Industrial Development Organisation United Kingdom Accreditation Service
glossary of Mining terms Acid treatment Acid treatment is the process of soaking activated carbon granules in a dilute hydrochloric acid solution to dissolve calcium carbonate and other impurities that have become absorbed in the carbon, and that, thereby, reduce the ability to adsorb gold. Adit An adit is a type of entrance to an underground mine and is horizontal or nearly horizontal. Adits are usually built into the side of a hill or mountain, and often occur when a measure of coal or an orebody is located inside the mountain but above the adjacent valley floor or coastal plain. In cases where the mineral vein outcrops at the surface, the adit may follow the vein until it is worked out. The use of adits is generally called drift mining. Adjusted gross margin Adjusted gross profit (loss) divided by gold sales including realised nonhedge derivatives. Adjusted gross profit (loss) Gross profit (loss) excluding unrealised nonhedge derivatives and other commodity contracts. Adjusted headline earnings Headline earnings excluding unrealised nonhedge derivatives, fair value adjustments on the option component of the convertible bond, fair value gain (loss) on interest rate swap, adjustments to other commodity contracts and deferred tax thereon. Assay A chemical test performed on a rock sample to determine the amount – or grade – of valuable metal contained. Artisanal and small-scale mining Low tech, labour intensive mineral processing and excavation activity, which is an economic mainstay in rural sub-Saharan Africa, providing direct employment to over two million people. Small-scale mining falls into two broad categories: the mining and quarrying of industrial minerals and construction materials on a small scale; and the mining of relatively high-value minerals, notably gold and precious stones. The first is mostly for local markets and exists in every country. Regulations to control and tax these mines and quarries are often in place, and the existence of informal or illegal operations at this level is generally attributable to a lack of inspection and the lax enforcement of regulations rather than to the lack of a legal framework, much the same as for small manufacturing plants. The output from the second category of small-scale mines is generally exported. The size and character of small-scale mining of this type has often made what laws there are impossible to apply or has highlighted their inadequacy. The vast majority of the
diggers are very poor, exploiting marginal deposits in harsh and sometimes dangerous conditions – and having considerable negative impact on the environment. Artisanal diamond mining To a large extent, artisanal diamond mining is a livelihood strategy adopted primarily by rural and small village populations for whom it appears to be the most promising income opportunity. Almost all artisanal miners are unregistered, unregulated and unprotected. Most work for nothing except what they are lucky enough to find. Their work is dirty, hard, sometimes dangerous, and it produces little more than a couple of hundred dollars a year for most diggers. In fact, the competitive scramble in a largely informal economy only serves to drive prices down at the pit level, creating a lucrative business for middlemen. Children are widely involved; residents of the mining areas complain of environmental degradation, water pollution, and the influx of a migrant labour force with high rates of prostitution and HIV/Aids. Family and societal violence follow. And most alluvial diamond diggers lead hard, insecure, dangerous and unhealthy lives. With average earnings of less than a dollar a day they fall squarely into the broad category of “absolute poverty”. Among initiatives aimed at addressing the issues surround artisanal diamond mining is the Diamond Development Initiative, which aims to gather all interested parties into a process that will address, in a comprehensive way, the political, social and economic challenges facing the artisanal diamond mining sector in order to optimise the beneficial development impact of artisanal diamond mining to miners and their communities within the countries in which the diamonds are mined. backfill Waste material used to fill the void created by mining an orebody to provide both regional and localised support below collar A distance below the surface elevation of a shaft. bIf Banded ironstone formation – a chemically formed iron-rich sedimentary rock. blast furnace A shaft furnace in which solid fuel (coke) is burned with an air blast to smelt ore in a continuous operation. block caving An inexpensive method of mining in which large blocks of ore are undercut, causing the ore to break or cave under its own weight bord-and-pillar mining (see room-and-pillar) breast stoping A method of stoping employed on veins where the dip is not sufficient for the broken ore to be removed by gravity. The ore remains close to the working face and must be loaded into cars at that point.
brownfield The term brownfield is used in mining, construction and development to reference land that at some point was occupied by a permanent structure. In a brownfield project the structure would need to be demolished or renovated or rebuilt from an existing one. bulk sample A large sample of mineralised rock, frequently hundreds of tons, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the potential orebody being sampled. Used to determine metallurgical characteristics on an industrial scale. by-product A secondary metal or mineral product recovered in the milling process or any products that emanate from the core process of producing gold, including silver, uranium and sulphuric acid. Calc-silicate rock A metamorphic rock consisting mainly of calcium-bearing silicates such as diopside and wollastonite, and formed by metamorphism of impure limestone or dolomite. Capital employed Equity plus minority interests, interest-bearing debt, less loans and cash. Where average capital employed is referred to, this is the average of the figures at the beginning and the end of the financial year. Capital expenditure Total capital expenditure on tangible assets, which includes stay-in-business and project capital. Captive mine A mine that produces coal or mineral for use by the same company Carbon columns Any vertical cylindrical vessels used to contain granules of activated carbon for processes such as the extraction of gold from solution, elution or acid treatment. Carbon-in-leach (CIl) Gold is leached from a slurry of gold ore with cyanide in agitated tanks and adsorbed on carbon granules in the same circuit. The carbon granules are separated from the slurry and treated in an elution circuit to remove the gold. Carbon-in-pulp (CIP) Gold is leached conventionally from a slurry of gold ore with cyanide in agitated tanks. The leached slurry then passes into the CIP circuit where carbon granules are mixed with the slurry and gold is adsorbed on the carbon. The granules are separated from the slurry and treated in an elution circuit to remove the gold. Cash costs Cash costs include site costs for all mining (excluding deferred development costs), processing and administration, but are exclusive of royalties, production taxes, amortisation and rehabilitation, as well as corporate administration, capital and exploration costs.
Cash gross margin Cash gross profit (loss) divided by, for example, gold sales, including realised nonhedge derivatives. Cash gross profit (loss) Adjusted gross profit (loss) plus amortisation of tangible and intangible assets less noncash revenues. Channel width The total thickness of all reef bands, including internal waste mined as one unit. Coke Coke is a solid carbon fuel and carbon source used to melt and reduce iron-ore Cokemaking The processes used to make coke. The process begins with pulverised, bituminous coal. The coal is fed into a coke oven, which is sealed and heated to very high temperatures for 14 to 36 hours. After completion, the coke is moved to quenching towers and stored until it is needed. Comminution is a group of mineral processing techniques used in extractive metallurgy to reduce rock sizes through crushing or grinding. Comminution processes are used to pulverise rocks for further processing. The machinery used for comminution is usually divided into classes based on the size of the fragments produced, crushers producing coarse material and grinders producing finer particles. It would therefore be correct to refer to a company producing this machinery as a comminutions company. (See also ‘Milling’) Competent person A Competent Person’s Report (CPR) is a Techno-Economic Report. It represents the opinions on a deposit of a registered professional, independent of the client and its subsidiaries. By reason of his/her education, professional associations and past relevant work experience, the person is deemed as qualified to form an opinion of the deposit. A full CPR is required for listing on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange Securities Exchange and will also be accepted for listing on the London Stock Exchange’s AIM. The technical equivalents of the CPR are the NI43-101 Technical Report and the JORC Qualified Person’s Report. Concentrate A fine, powdery product separated in the milling process that contains a high percentage of valuable metal. Concentrator A process where iron-ore is upgraded to a higher iron content. Contained gold The total gold content of the orebody (tons multiplied by grade), irrespective of
economic potential and without deduction for mining and processing losses prior to recovery. Crushing The process of breaking up large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel or rock dust. Crushing is an essential part of mining, reducing run-of-mine ore to a size that can be easily transported or processed. Cupola furnace Cupola furnaces are tall, cylindrical furnaces used to melt iron and ferroalloys in foundry operations. Alternating layers of metal and ferroalloys, coke and limestone are fed into the furnace from the top. Cut-and-fill A method of stoping in which ore is removed in slices, or lifts, and then the excavation is filled with rock or other waste material (backfill), before the subsequent slice is extracted. Cutoff grade The estimated lowest grade of ore that can be mined and treated profitably in a mining operation, for example, a cutoff grade of 20% iron (Fe) implies that any material containing less than 20% Fe will be uneconomical to mine. If the average mine grade drops below the cutoff grade, the mine will operate at a loss. Debt Borrowings including short-term portion, plus debentures. Decline A sloping, underground opening for machine access from level to level or from surface; also called a ramp. Depletion The decrease in quantity of ore in a deposit or property resulting from extraction or production. Development The process of accessing an orebody through shafts and/or tunnelling in underground mining operations. • Development reef – all development on the reef horizon. • Development waste – all development in country rock. Dilution Mixing of ore grade material with nonore grade waste material in the mining process. Dilution reduces the overall grade of the ore. Direct-reduced iron (DRI) Produced from the direct reduction of iron-ore (in form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal. Direct-reduced iron is richer in iron than pig iron, typically 90%-94% total iron, as opposed to about 93% for molten pig iron, and an excellent feedstock for the electric furnaces used by mini mills, allowing them to use lower grades of scrap for the rest of the charge.
Diorite An igneous rock formed by the solidification of molten material. Discontinued operation A component of an entity that, pursuant to a single plan, has been disposed of or abandoned or is classified as held-for-sale until conditions precedent to the sale have been fulfilled. Dividend cover Headline earnings before unrealised hedging activities for each ordinary share divided by dividends for each ordinary share. Drill bit Drill bits are cutting tools used to create cylindrical holes. Bits are held in a tool called a drill, which rotates them and provides torque and axial force to create the hole. Specialised bits are also available for noncylindrical-shaped holes. The other end of the drill bit is the shank. Drill bits come in standard sizes. The term drill can refer to a drilling machine, or can refer to a drill bit for use in a drilling machine. For clarity, use drill bit or bit throughout to refer to a bit for use in a drilling machine, and drill refers to refer to a drilling machine. Ebitda Operating profit (loss) before amortisation of tangible and intangible assets, impairment of tangible and intangible assets, profit (loss) on disposal of assets and investments and unrealised nonhedge derivatives, plus the share of associates’ Ebitda. Effective tax rate Current and deferred taxation as a percentage of net profit before taxation. Electric arc furnaces (EAfs) Electric arc furnaces are often used in large steel foundries and steel mills. The metal is charged into the furnace, with additives to make recovery of slag easier, and heat to melt the metal is produced with an electric arc from three carbon or granite electrodes. Frequently mills producing steel with EAF technology are called minimills. Electrowinning Recovery of metal from solution by electrolysis. A process of recovering gold from solution by means of electrolytic chemical reaction into a form that can be smelted easily into gold bars. Elution Recovery of the gold from the activated carbon into solution before zinc precipitation or electrowinning. Energy optimising furnace (EOf) The EOF was developed to replace the electric arc and other steelmaking furnaces. The EOF is an oxygen steelmaking process. Carbon and oxygen react to preheat scrap metal, hot metal and/or pig iron. Environmental baseline studies The environmental monitoring work completed before a production decision is taken
on a mining project, examining the existing state of the environment and the potential effects that proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings. The studies will include ground water (lakes, streams, rivers etc), wildlife (plants and animals), potential noise levels from construction and mining operations, potential impacts from ongoing mining operations such as dust and vibration levels etc. Environmental-impact study A written report, compiled prior to a production decision that examines the effects proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings. Equity Shareholders’ equity adjusted for other comprehensive income and deferred taxation. Where average equity is referred to, this is calculated by averaging the figures at the beginning and the end of the financial year. Exploration Activities associated with ascertaining the existence, location, extent or quality of mineralised material, including economic and technical evaluation of mineralised material. Feasibility study (Bankable feasibility study) A detailed engineering study which defines the technical, economic, social and legal viability of a mining project with a high degree of reliability, identifying and quantifying any risks and providing sufficient information to determine whether or not the project should be advanced to the final engineering and construction stage. A bankable feasibility study forms the basis on which banks and other lenders provide the capital necessary to build the mine(s). fines Material that passes through a standard screen on which coarser fragments are retained. flotation A milling and concentration process in which valuable mineral particles are induced to become attached to bubbles and float away from the waste particles in a solid/ solution pulp. Specific chemicals are added to either float (foam off) particular minerals or to depress the flotation of other minerals. Several stages of processing are generally involved with rough bulk flotation products being subjected to additional flotation steps to increase product purity. free cash flow Net cash inflow from operating activities less stay-in-business capital expenditure. Gangue The worthless minerals in an ore deposit. Grade The metal content of ore measured in grams a ton or per cent. For example: • he company additionally reviewed grab samples of ore currently being exploited T by local artisanal miners that returned between 4 g/t and 22 g/t gold, while veins sampled graded between 1 g/t and 3 g/t gold, with significant grades of silver also reported. One sample of lead-zinc-silver ore returned 24% zinc and 105 g/t silver.
• agara noted that the ore produced so far was outside the indicated and inferred K resource estimate of 1,15-million tons grading 4,6% nickel Greenfield The term greenfield is used in mining, construction and development to reference land that has never been used, where there is no need to demolish or rebuild any existing structures. Greenschist A schistose metamorphic rock whose green color is due to the presence of chlorite, epidote or actinolite. Gross margin percentage Adjusted gross profit (loss) as a percentage of, for example, gold income including realised nonhedge derivatives. Hanging wall The rock on the upper side of a vein or ore deposit. Head grade A general term referring to the grade of ore delivered to the processing plant. Heap leaching A process whereby valuable metals (usually gold and silver) are leached from a heap, or pad, of crushed ore by leaching solutions percolating down through the heap and are collected from a sloping, impermeable liner below the pad. Hedging The sale of a commodity at fixed future prices in order to guard against price uncertainty and guarantee revenue streams. Commonly practised in the gold market. An unhedged company is one that is not hedging its prices. A dehedging company is one that was previously hedged, but is reducing its hedging. Hematite The mineral form of Iron oxide (Fe2O3); one of several iron oxides. Illustrative dividend rate For illustrative purposes, a US dollar dividend value has been provided based on the rate of exchange ruling on the date of declaration. Induction furnaces Induction furnaces are the most widely used type of furnace for melting iron and are increasingly popular for melting nonferrous metals (USEPA, 1992). They are popular because they provide excellent metallurgical control and are relatively pollution free. in situ deposit The original natural state of the orebody before mining or processing of the ore takes place. The reserves are still in the ground. Interest cover
Ebitda divided by finance costs and unwinding of obligations. Internal waste Any waste within the reef channel. Intrusive event The intrusion of an igneous body into older rocks. Ironmaking During ironmaking, iron-ore, coke, heated air and limestone or other fluxes are fed into a blast furnace to produce molten iron that is free from impurities. Iron-ore Rocks or deposits containing compounds from which iron can be made. leaching Dissolution of gold from crushed or milled material, including reclaimed slime, prior to absorption on activated carbon. ledging The phase of mining of ore before stoping operations level The workings or tunnels of an underground mine which are on the same horizontal plane. life of mine (lOM) Number of years that the operation is planning to mine and treat ore, and is taken from the current mine plan. longwall mining An underground high-productivity mechanised mining system for extracting panels or blocks of mineral, usually coal. Market capitalisation Number of ordinary shares in issue at close of business on December 31 multiplied by the closing share price as quoted on the JSE. Metallurgical plant Processing plant used to treat ore and extract the contained metals. Magnetic separation A process in which a magnetically susceptible mineral is separated from waste or undesirable minerals by applying a strong magnetic field; ores of iron are commonly treated in this way. Magnetite Fe3O4, iron oxide – a dense metallic grey ore mineral of iron. Metallurgical plant A processing plant erected to treat ore and extract gold or other metal. Metallurgy The study and practice of removing valuable metals from an ore and refining the extracted raw metals into a purer form.
Mill A processing plant which crushes and treats ore for the purpose of upgrading the mineral content into a higher-grade product called a concentrate, or to produce metal. Milling The comminution of the ore, although the term has come to cover the broad range of machinery inside the treatment plant where the mineral is separated from the ore. Essentially, milling reduces broken ore to a size at which concentrating can be undertaken. (See also ‘comminution’). Mine call factor The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the total quantity of recovered and unrecovered mineral product after processing with the amount estimated in the ore based on sampling. The ratio of contained gold delivered to the metallurgical plant divided by the estimated contained gold of ore mined based on sampling. Mineable That portion of a mineralised deposit for which extraction is technically and economically feasible. Mineralogy The study of the chemistry and physical properties of ore and gangue minerals within mineral deposits. Mineral deposit A mineralised body, which has been delineated by appropriately spaced drilling and/ or underground sampling to support a sufficient tonnage and average grade of metal. This material or deposit does not qualify as a reserve until a comprehensive evaluation, based on costs, grade, recoveries and other factors, demonstrates economic feasibility. Consequently, although the potential exists, there is no assurance that this mineral deposit will ever become an ore reserve. Mineral reserve A mineral reserve is the economically mineable material derived from a measured and/or indicated mineral resource. It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of, and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified. Mineral reserves are subdivided in order of increasing confidence into probable mineral reserves and proven mineral reserves Mineral resource A mineral resource is a concentration (or occurrence) of material of economic interest in or on the earth’s crust in such form, quality and quantity that there are reasonable and realistic prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, grade, continuity and other geological characteristics of a mineral resource are known,
estimated from specific geological evidence and knowledge, or interpreted from a well-constrained and portrayed geological model. Mineral resources are subdivided, in order of increasing confidence in respect of geoscientific evidence, into inferred, indicated and measured categories Mineral resource classification There are several classification schemes worldwide, however the Canadian CIM classification (NI 43-101), the Australasian Joint Ore Reserves Committee Code (JORC Code), and the South African Code for the Reporting of Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves (SAMREC) are the general standards. An inferred mineral resource has a lower level of confidence than that applied to an indicated mineral resource. An indicated mineral resource has a higher level of confidence than an inferred mineral resource but has a lower level of confidence than a measured mineral resource. 1. Inferred mineral resource – An inferred mineral resource is that part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a low level of confidence. It is inferred from geological evidence and assumed but not verified in terms of geological and/or grade continuity. It is based on information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes that may be limited or of uncertain quality and reliability. 2. Indicated mineral resource – An indicated mineral resource is the part of a mineral resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a reasonable level of confidence. It is based on exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are too widely or inappropriately placed to confirm geological and/or grade continuity but are spaced closely enough for continuity to be assumed. 3. easured mineral resource – A measured mineral resource is that part of a M mineral resource for which tonnage, densities, shape, physical characteristics, grade and mineral content can be estimated with a high level of confidence. It is based on detailed and reliable exploration, sampling and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes. The locations are spaced close enough to confirm geological continuity. further classification: • robable mineral reserve – A probable mineral reserve is the mineable material P derived from a measured and/or indicated mineral resource. It is estimated with a lower level of confidence than a proved mineral reserve. It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of, and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These
assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified. • roven mineral reserve – A proven mineral reserve is the economically mineP able material derived from a measured mineral reserve. It is estimated with a high level of confidence. It is inclusive of diluting materials and allows for losses that may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, including consideration of and modification by, realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction is reasonably justified.
Minimills Steel production plants that rely on steel scrap as a base material rather than on ore. Products do not have the tight chemical composition of integrated plants and have narrower product lines. Mining rights (South Africa) Mining companies that hold old-order mining rights have to convert those rights to new-order mining rights (which can be issued for up to 30 years) to continue mining in South Africa. The principal requirement of the Mining Charter is black ownership of 15% by 2009 and 26% by 2014. • hen writing about mining licence applications for projects, it is not necessary W to use “ the submission for the new-order mining rights application”, when “the submission for the mining rights application” is better. Monetary asset An asset that will be settled in a fixed or easily determinable amount of money. Net asset value per share Total equity in the balance sheet divided by the shares in issue. Net capital employed Equity as defined above plus minority interests and interest-bearing borrowings, less cash and cash equivalents and other cash investments. Where average net capital employed is referred to, this is the average of the figures at the beginning and the end of the financial year. Net debt Borrowings less cash and cash equivalents and other cash investments. Net operating assets Mining assets, inventories, trade and other receivables (excluding value-added taxation), less trade and other payables. Net operating assets Tangible assets, the current and noncurrent portion of inventories, current and noncurrent trade and other receivables (excluding recoverable tax, rebates, levies and duties), less current and noncurrent trade and other payables and deferred income (excluding unearned premiums on normal sale extended contracts).
Net smelter return (NSR) A royalty payment made by a producer of metals based on gross metal production from the property, less deduction of certain limited costs including smelting, refining, transportation and insurance costs. Net tangible asset value per share Total equity in balance sheet less intangible assets, divided by the number of ordinary shares in issue. Nonhedge derivative and other commodity contract gain (loss) Derivatives that are neither designated as meeting the normal sale exemption under IAS 39, nor designated as cash flow hedges and other commodity contracts. • he company said loss on nonhedge derivatives and other commodity contracts T was R11,22-billion or US$1,42-billion compared with gain on nonhedge derivatives and other commodity contracts of R148-million or US$92-million last year. Normal purchase normal sale exemption (NPSE) Hedge contracts designated as meeting the exemption criteria under IAS 39. NI 43-101 (National Instrument 43-101) A set of reporting and disclosure standards imposed by regulators on Canadianlisted mining and exploration companies that govern how issuers report scientific and technical information about their mineral projects to the public anywhere in the world. It covers oral statements as well as written documents and websites, and it requires that all disclosure be based on advice by a “qualified person”. Nonrefractory ore Ore that is relatively easy to treat for recovery of the valuable substances. Nugget A small mass of previous metal, found free in nature. Openpit A mine that is entirely on surface. Also referred to as an opencast mine. Operating margin % Operating profit as a percentage of product (gold) income. Ore A mixture of valuable minerals and gangue minerals from which at least one of the minerals can be extracted at a profit. Ounce (plural ounces) abbreviation oz. 1. n avoirdupois ounce, weighing 1/16 of an avoirdupois pound, or 28,3495 A grams. 2. A troy ounce, weighing 1/12 of a troy pound, or 480 grains, or 31,1035 grams. 3. US fluid ounce, with a volume of 1/16 of a US pint, 1,804 687 cubic inches or A 29,573 531 millilitres. 4. British imperial fluid ounce, with a volume of 1/20 of an imperial pint, 1,733871 A cubic inches or 28,413063 millilitres. Overburden Soil, rock and other material that has to be removed to access the economic mineral in opencast mining.
Pay limit The grade of a unit of ore at which the revenue from the recovered mineral content of the ore is equal to the total cash cost including ore reserve development and stay-inbusiness capital. This grade is expressed as an in situ value in grams a ton or ounces a short ton (before dilution and mineral losses). Pellet A small, round, marble-sized ball of iron-ore manufactured as feed for blast furnaces. Pelletising The process by which iron-ore is crushed, ground into a powder, rolled into balls and fired in a furnace to produce strong, marble-sized pellets that contain 60% to 65% iron. Raw iron-ore pellets are generally manufactured within certain size cate-gories and with mechanical properties high enough to maintain usefulness during the stresses of transference, transport and use. Both mechanical force and thermal processes are used to produce the correct pellet properties. Pig Iron The intermediate product of smelting steel ore with coke and resin. Pig iron has a very high carbon content, typically 3.5% to 4.5%, which makes it very brittle and not useful directly as a material except for limited applications. Pig iron is typically poured directly out of the bottom of the blast furnace through a trough into a ladle car for transfer to the steel plant in liquid form, referred to as hot metal. Pillar mining The mining of scattered blocks of reef of variable size usually associated with older shafts, which have been left behind and are now being mined in the final clean-up stage of the mine’s orebody. Precipitate The solid product of chemical reaction by fluids such as the zinc precipitation referred to below. Prefeasibility study A relatively comprehensive analysis that is qualified by the availability and accuracy of fundamental criteria and assumptions to the degree that it cannot be the basis for final decisions. This is a preliminary assessment of the economic viability of a deposit and forms the basis for justifying the completion of a more expensive feasibility study. A prefeasibility study summarises all geological, engineering, environmental, legal and economic information accumulated to date on the project. The prefeasibility study should have error limits of about 25%. Prestripping Removal of overburden (waste rock) in advance of beginning operations to remove ore in an openpit operation. Price received ($/oz and R/kg) Attributable gold income including realised nonhedge derivatives divided by attributable ounces/kilograms sold.
Productivity An expression of labour productivity based, for example, either on the ratio of grams of gold produced a month to the total number of employees or area mined (in square metres) a month to the total number of employees in underground mining operations. Project capital Capital expenditure (Capex) to either bring a new operation into production; to materially increase production capacity; or to materially extend the productive life of an asset. Pyrite flotation This is the addition of a suite of chemicals to a mixture of ground ore and solution in such a way that a froth rich in pyrite, which also contains gold, floats to the surface for collection. Qualified person (also see competent person) A qualified person (QP) is defined in NI43-101 (see above definition) as an individual who is an engineer or geoscientist with at least five years of experience in mineral exploration, mine development or operation or mineral project assessment, or any combination of these; has experience relevant to the subject matter of the mineral project and the technical report; and is a member of good standing of a professional association. The QP must warrant the accuracy and completeness of a company’s technical reports and public disclosures such as press releases or presentations and retains professional responsibility for the contents of the report. Realised nonhedge derivatives Represents the current year income statement effect of nonhedge derivatives that were settled during the current year. Reclamation In the South African context, reclamation describes the process of reclaiming slimes (tailings) dumps using high-pressure water cannons to form a slurry which is pumped back to the metallurgical plants for processing. Recovered/ Recovery grade The actual grade of ore realised after the mining and treatment process. The recovered mineral content for each unit of ore treated. Reef A gold-bearing sedimentary horizon, normally a conglomerate band that may contain economic levels of gold. Refining The final purification process of a metal or mineral. Rehabilitation The process of reclaiming land disturbed by mining to allow an appropriate postmining use. Rehabilitation standards are defined by country-specific laws including, but not limited to, the South African Department of Mineral Resources, the US Bureau of Land Management, the US Forest Service, and the relevant Australian mining authorities, and tackle, among other issues, ground and surface water, topsoil, final
slope gradient, waste handling and revegetation issues. The impact on neighbouring communities is of vital importance. Related party Parties are considered related if one party has the ability to control the other party or exercise significant influence over the other party in making financial and operating decisions. Resource calculation The mathematical or statistical process of calculating or estimating the amount of material in a mineral deposit, using drill hole information in combination with a variety of geological data. Resources are generally quoted in terms of tons of rock present which contain a specified grade of metal(s), for example 98-million tons at 43% iron. Return on equity Adjusted headline earnings expressed as a percentage of the average equity, adjusted for the timing of acquisitions and disposals. Return on net capital Adjusted headline earnings before finance costs and unwinding of decommissioning and restoration obligations expressed as a percentage of average net capital employed, adjusted for the timing of acquisitions and disposals. Rod and tube mills These are types of circular grinding mills used to break the ore down into fine particles in preparation for dissolving out the gold by means of cyanide. Room-and-pillar (also called bord-and-pillar) A mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane while leaving pillar of untouched material to support the overburden leaving open areas or rooms underground. It is usually used for relatively flat-lying deposits, such as those that follow a particular stratum. Royalty An amount of money paid at regular intervals by the lessee or operator of an exploration or mining property to the owner of the ground. Generally based on a certain amount a ton or a percentage of the total production or profits. Also, the fee paid for the right to use a patented process. Secondary gold recovery Any scavenging process for gold following initial primary gold recovery. Seismic event A sudden inelastic deformation within a given volume of rock that radiates detectable seismic waves (energy). Scoping study The first level of engineering study that is performed on a mineral deposit to determine its economic viability. This is usually performed to determine whether the expense of a full prefeasibility study and later a full feasibility study is warranted. Scoping studies may be completed internally by the company or by independent engineers.
Sinter Pieces or granules of fused iron-ore. Sintering Manufacturing process in which sinter is produced from fine raw iron-ore, small coke, sand-sized limestone and numerous other steel plant waste materials that contain some iron. These fine materials are proportioned to obtain a desired product chemistry and then mixed together. This raw material mix is then placed on a sintering strand, which is similar to a steel conveyor belt, where it is ignited bya gas fired-furnace and fused by the heat from the coke fines into larger-size pieces of 0,5 in to 2,0 in. Significant influence finance: The ability, directly or indirectly, to participate in, but not exercise control over, the financial and operating policy decision of an entity so as to obtain economic benefit from its activities. sustainability: Although a mining entity may feel that its activities do not impact the environment in which a nearby community operates, the use of underground water resources by the mine may deplete community water reserves. The mining company would there be deemed to have a significant influence on the community. Skarn A rock of complex mineralogical composition, formed by contact metamorphism and metasomatism of carbonate rocks. Shaft A shaft provides principal access to the underground workings for transporting personnel, equipment, supplies, ore and waste. A shaft is also used for ventilation, and as an auxiliary exit. It is equipped with a hoist system that lowers and raises conveyances for men, material and ore in the shaft. Slag The vitreous mass separated from the fused metals in the smelting process, for example impurities in the iron-ore that have been captured by limestone or other fluxes. Sliping The widening of an existing excavation, either by mechanical or explosive means, to increase its overall dimensions. Smelting Thermal processing whereby molten metal is liberated from beneficiated ore or concentrate with impurities separating as lighter slag. Stay-in-business capital Capital expenditure to maintain existing production assets, including replacement of vehicles, plant and machinery, ore reserve development and capex related to safety, health and the environment. Steel Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1% carbon which is used most
frequently in the automotive and construction industries or is cast into bars, strips, sheets, nails, spikes, wire, rods or pipes as needed by the intended user. Strip ratio The ratio of tons of overburden waste material to tons of ore in an openpit mine. Stope/s The underground excavation within the orebody where the main production takes place. Stoping The process of mining the orebody on the plane of the reef. Stoping width The sum of the channel width and external waste widths. Strike The direction in which a horizontal line can be drawn on a plane. Syngenetic Formed contemporaneously with the deposition of the sediment. Tailings The portion of the ore from which most of the valuable material has been removed by concentrating and that is, therefore, low in value and rejected. Tailings dam Dams or dumps created from waste material from processed ore after the eco- nomically recoverable metal has been extracted. Thermal processing To give to iron-ore pellets high resistance metallurgic mechanics and appropriate characteristics, the pellets are subjected to thermal processing, which involves stages of drying, daily pay burn, burn, after-burn and cooling (in a cooling tower). The duration of each stage and the temperature that the pellets are subjected to have a strong influence on the final product quality. Thermal regeneration The process of heating activated carbon granules typically to 750 ºC to restore the properties of carbon for the next gold extraction cycle. Thrusting event A period of structural compression in geological time with the generation of low-angle thrust faults. Total cash costs (total cash costs per ounce) A measure of the average cost of producing an ounce of gold, calculated by dividing attributable total cash costs in a period by attributable total gold production (in ounces) over the same period. Total cash costs include site costs for all mining, processing, administration, royalties and production taxes, as well as contributions from by-products but are exclusive of depreciation, depletion and amortisation, rehabilitation, employment severance costs, corporate administration costs, capital costs and exploration costs.
Total production costs (total cash costs per ounce) A measure of the average cost of producing an ounce of gold, calculated by dividing attributable total production costs in a period by attributable total gold production (in ounces) over the same period. Total production costs represent total cash costs, plus depreciation, depletion and amortisation, employee severance costs and rehabilitation and other noncash costs. Ton Wikipedia defines several similar units of mass or volume called the ton: Tonnage Quantities where the ton or tonne is an appropriate unit of measure. Typically used to measure resources and reserves of ore-bearing material in situ or quantities of ore and waste material mined, transported or milled. Quantity Pounds Kilograms long ton “ton” (UK) 2,240.0 1,016.0 short ton “ton” (US) 2,000.0 907.2 tonne, “metric ton” 2,204.6 1000.0 metric ton (US, UK), else “ton” ton 2,240.0 1,016.0 s hortweight ton 2,400.0 1,088.6 ongweight l full name Common name Notes Used in countries such as United Kingdom that use the imperial system, except Canada. Conveniently, the mass is less than 2% different from the metric ton. Used in the United States and Canada. The tonne is also known just as a ton in areas that use the metric measurement system. Used in the iron industry in the 17th century and 18th centuries. Used in the iron industry in the 17th and 18th centuries. The hundredweight was 120 lb.
Tramming width A dimension used to denote the effect of waste tons in the stoping operation, such as from gullies, on the reef tons produced. It is the sum of the channel width plus the impact of waste tonnage in the stoping operations, for example from gullies and extraneous falls of ground, expressed in centimetres.
Tribute agreement A legal agreement between two parties in which one party makes a portion of its mining rights available to the other party for exploitation in consideration for a share in the revenue and costs derived from such mining rights. Troy ounce (see ounce) (Used in imperial statistics) Equal to 31,10348 g. Unrealised nonhedge derivatives and other commodity contracts This represents the change in fair value, including translation differences, of all open nonhedge derivative positions and adjustments to other commodity contracts from the previous reporting date to the current reporting date. Vibroseis survey (3-D survey) Geophysical technique used to generate seismic waves of controlled frequencies. These waves reflect from rock interfaces and are analysed to produce three- dimensional images of the subsurface geological structure with a resolution of around 25. This process facilitates accurate long-term mine planning. Waste Barren rock or mineralised material that is too low in grade to be economically processed. Weighted average number of ordinary shares The number of ordinary shares in issue at the beginning of the year, increased by shares issued during the year, weighted on a time basis for the period during which they have participated in the income of the group, and increased by share options virtually certain to be exercised. yield The amount of valuable mineral or metal recovered from each unit mass of ore expressed as ounces a short ton or grams a metric ton. Zinc precipitation Zinc is the element used to precipitate gold from solution.
A collection of tips, homilies, sermons, fulminations, threnodies and other information Some of you will remember the weekly tips former style guardian Mike Stone used to stick above the printers. We wanted to ensure that these stuck. Over time, we have added and will continue to add material. In essence, this document is a tribute to all contributors. If anyone has any contributions, please share. In Mike’s words taken from his first Friday homily, “It’s been said before, but bears repeating: read, mark, learn and inwardly-digest the style book. You may not agree with everything in it, but if we all follow it we will avoid corrections. “Use your dictionary more often – not just for spellings but also for the meaning of words. You can get an education from this one source alone.” Mike’s Second sermon, “This week we’ll look at George Orwell’s rules for good written English: 1. ever use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech that you are used to N seeing in print. 2. Never use a long word where a short one will do. 3. If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out. 4. Never use the passive where you can use the active. 5. ever use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of N an everyday English equivalent. 6. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.” The six rules are taken from Politics and the English Language (1946), an essay by Orwell criticising “ugly and inaccurate” contemporary written English. A prolific author, Orwell himself sometimes violated these rules and, conceded that he had no doubt violated some of them in the very essay in which they were included. It’s not easy! That said, you are in trouble if: 1. You get the facts wrong. Check if unsure. 2. You get the names wrong. At least, have the courtesy to get the names right. 3. ou quote verbatim and the wording is unclear, confused or bad grammar. Rather Y précis. In Mike’s Third Threnody, he wrote, “In addition to absorbing the style book and using dictionaries, I’d suggest using a thesaurus, especially to avoid over-use of certain worlds – like ‘major’ for anything of any size, and ‘amount’ instead of ‘quantity’, ‘sum’ or ‘number’. On the same note buzz words in vogue at the moment, in conversation and in print, are ‘huge’, ’vast’, ‘basically’, and ‘key’. Please avoid them.” There was more in Mike’s Fourth Fulmination: “After last week’s threnody, when I suggested greater use of thesauri to avoid the overuse of certain worlds, I realised that I’ll be using the world ‘avoid’ quite often. “I say this because, with language, except in specific cases, I don’t believe in total bans on worlds and usages.
“Thus, when seeking an alternative for ‘important’, ‘serious’, ‘significant’ or ‘the greater part of’ it’s acceptable to use ‘major’, or if for ‘keep away’ or ‘refrain from’ you may say ‘avoid’.” A return to buzz words “This week I’d like to revisit vogue words or, as one writer described them, ‘rubberstamp’ words. “These are words often used carelessly and which frequently obscure the meaning of what is meant. “Some current favourites are: • ‘Amount’ instead of ‘quantity’, ‘sum’ or ‘number’ • ‘Minimal’ instead of ‘less’, ‘small’, ‘little’, ‘few’ or ‘insignificant’ • ‘Capability’ is nearly always used in place of ‘ability’ • And ‘vast’, ‘huge’ and ‘tremendous’ should be avoided. The use of dictionaries featured again in “A piece of serendipity’: ‘I keep exhorting you all to use your dictionaries more – a dictionary is a wonderful world of words and their meanings. “This week, while researching something to speak about today, quite by chance I came across the American word for petrol – gasoline. Its abbreviation, gas, is used in English only in ‘step on the gas’ meaning ‘to make haste’. Further reading told me that the original noun ‘gas’ was the invention of JB van Helmont (1577–1644), suggested by the Greek word ‘chaos’, and is one of the most successful of invented words. We revisit overused words “Another much overused word is ‘capability’, when any of a number of alternatives could be used, such as ability, skills, expertise, accomplishments, talents, capacity, aptitude or proficiency – and I could go on. In Mike’s fifth Friday Inculcation, he wrote: “ Incessant efforts to break George Orwell’s rule number two – never use a long word when a short one will do – often lead to not-so-subtle changes in meaning. Common are: • Definitively for definitely • Advancement for advance • Fitment for fitting • Capability for ability • Methodologies for methods • Usage for use • Utilising for using • And there’s a world of difference between disassembled and dissembled.” Mike begins to start again deals with a particular favourite – commence! “I once read the following in one of James Clarke’s Stoep Talk columns regarding his use of the word ‘commence’ when he was what used to be known as a ‘cub’ reporter: ‘Commence!’ exploded his editor. ‘Nothing ever commences in my newspaper – it starts or begins.’
“My book says this: Commence, in its ordinary meaning of begin, is a wholly unnecessary word and its use is to be discouraged. Perhaps it was once a genteelism but it is idiomatic today. Please also note that using “embarked” instead of “commenced” is also unacceptable. Don’t even think about using “proceeded”. “Along similar lines, my book says ‘purchase’ is inferior to ‘buy’. But then what is bought becomes a ‘purchase’. “Many people confuse ‘consist’ and ‘comprise’: • ‘Consist of’ is correct • ‘Comprise’ is correct • ‘Comprise of’ is nonsense.” More moans from Mike stated: “I get a bit fed up with people who, I assume, don’t know the difference between ‘continuing’ and continuous’ and as a consequence always use ‘ongoing’ for both, whereas a truer meaning for ongoing is ‘current’ or ‘in process’. “This week someone used the word ‘offing’, which was misspelt ‘offering’. Out of interest I looked it up: it means ‘that part of the sea that can be seen from the shore’. Thus, in its second sense, ‘in the offing’, it means ‘likely to occur soon’.” Another of Mike’s Admonishments dealt with spelling: “For people who earn a living writing English, all too many of you can’t distinguish between the following spellings: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Suit and suite Rein and reign Lead and led (and lead) Principle and principal Analysis and analyses Media and medium Licence and license Practice and practise Course and coarse Alternate and alternative Datum and data Affluent and effluent Vain and vein/vane and vain Meter and metre Complimentary and complementary Woman and women (!) Finish and Finnish Lose and loose Company’s and companies Peel and peal Heel and heal
“I’ve also seen: • Illicit for elicit • Formally for formerly “Also, none of you know the difference between: • effect and affect (and can’t be bothered to find out) – and resort to such ungrammatical constructions as: • Impact on, and • Negatively impact.” He added in A few further (or should that be farther or even father) notes: • Block and bloc • Biannual and biennial • Disc and disk • Loss and loose (again) • Creek and creak • Except and expect • Vagaries and vagrancies • Weary and wary • Site and sight (again) • Born and borne • Area and Arena • Competence and competency • Sewage and sewerage “If you work here your really should find out the difference between silicon and silicone, and ‘presently’ is creeping back in – read the style book.” “Find the word ‘preventative’ in a dictionary.” A cautionary notice drew attention to writers who had not checked the dictionary. “Last week I mentioned in my first law of proofreading: ‘If in doubt, check it out’. This week I’d like to give you some recent examples of writers so sure of themselves that they chose words having not remotely the meaning they wanted: • Diffuse instead of defuse • Appraisal for praise • Predicate instead of predict • Extremities for extremes • Eschew instead of discharge. “Further, a fitting becomes a fitment (noun) only after it has been fitted.” More words sowing (or should that be sewing?) confusion among our literati: • Breadth and breath • Breath and breathe • Brake and break • Berth and birth • Sight and site • Premier and premier
• Plateau and plato • Dependent and dependant • Comprise and compromise • Ratio and ration • Warranty and warrantee • Ringer and wringer I’ve also seen eminent for imminent. A word of warning “In the past, when training others in the art and science of proofreading, I’d admonish them that the rule number one is ‘if in doubt, check it out’, then, in the last week, I had someone render SADC as South African Development Community (which I’ve also had as Southern African Development Corporation) and someone else DBSA as Development Band of South Africa. There is a substantial difference between ’South’ and ‘Southern’ Africa, so when I heard the newsreader on 702 news speak of the Development Bank of South Africa, I thought it time to advise caution when transcribing unfamiliar abbreviations and acronyms.” Mike’s Eighth Admonishment dealt with Americanese. “A couple of hundred years ago an American lexicographer, Noa Webster, compiled the American Dictionary of the English Language (better known these days as Webster’s Dictionary) in which he caused offence to English language purists by simplifying spellings. Some (as in ‘computerese’ with analog and program) we have been forced to accept; others of these abominations (the worst must be ‘nite’) should be avoided at all costs.” In More of Mike’s aversion to Americanese, he wrote, “When you see a familiar word used in an unfamiliar way, let your curiosity be aroused. In this way we might avoid such aberrations as ‘leverage’ having its meaning changed to ‘influence’, ‘intervene’, ‘mediate’ or to bring about’ and its pronunciation changed to leverage.” English Aeroplane Sceptic Analyse Colour Neighbour Grey Tyre Storey Autumn American Airplane Skeptic Analyze Color Neighbor Gray Tire Story Fall
A further caution was, “I’d like to deal with a usage creeping from computerese into proper English with the word ‘access’. In computerese you may access a program or you may access a Website but in proper English you gain access to or may be given access to or have access to somewhere from somewhere else.”
He also pointed out, “Remember that you can get something ‘for nothing’ and you can get something ‘free’ but you cannot get anything ‘for free’. “Why does: • A market always have to be a marketplace? • A record always have to be a track record (and what is a track record)? • A spectrum always have to be broad? • Foreign (or abroad) always have to be overseas? • Proved always have to be proven? • Prompt (or timely) always have to be timeous? • A strike always have to be crippling? • Leaving always have to be exiting? • Buy always have to be purchase? • Start (or begin) always have to be commence? • A test always have to be acid? • Research always have to be intensive? • A year (or a hundred) always have to be ‘one year’ (or ‘one hundred’) • A period always have to be of time?” In a further plea for plain English, Mike wrote, “Not long ago I read the following: One of the most important trends in contemporary language use is the move towards developing a ‘plain’ English in official speech and writing. The main aim of the Plain English campaigns in Britain and the US is to attach the use of unnecessarily complicated language by government departments, businesses, and any other group whose role puts them in linguistic contact with the general public. Application forms, safety instructions, official letters, licences, contracts, insurance policies, hirepurchase documents, guarantees, and other documents, the campaigners argue, should be presented clearly, using language that people are likely to understand. “A week or so later, on a medical aid statement from Fedsure Health, I found this: Please note that from 1 January 2000 members will need to pay providers upfront for any differences in cost between patent medication and MMAP (The Maximum Medical Aid Price – the price of established generic medication) as well as any levy per incident payments and 80% scheme payments. “Is this pretentious obfuscation, gobbledegook or flummery?” Don’t forget it’s: • ‘either or’ • ‘neither nor’ • ‘not only … but also’. further differences between speaking and writing In speech, wrote Mike, the word ‘never’ is frequently used to mean ’did not’, as in ‘I never heard you come in’. This is to be avoided when writing, so, if you think of its meaning, ‘not ever’, you will never use ‘never’ wrongly again. Two examples where ‘did not’ should have been used:
“Earnhardt, known on the track as ‘The Intimidator’ never regained consciousness.” – The Star “The NUM branch manager says the firm never showed any profit’ – MW Possessives are easy if you just remember: The boy’s hat (singular possessive) The boys’ hats (plural possessive) A resumption of hostilities was the title of a blast from Mike about the incorrect usage of: • In excess of’ should not be used indiscriminately for ‘more than’, as in ‘Iron-ore ‘ reserves in excess of a billion tons’ or ‘He drove in excess of a hundred kilometres’. The word ‘over’ may also be used in its sense of above in value, quantity or number. • lot of people spend a lot of time saying (and worse still, writing) ‘A lot’. I can A remember being taught in primary school that this is the sort of language used by small children. Please find an alternative such as `much’, ‘a quantity’ or ‘a great deal’. One for the distaff side was the title of piece about the usage of ‘lady’ or ‘ladies’: “All ladies are women but not all women are ladies so, generally, unless she has a title, call her a woman. “My book says: lady, which has a social – almost a society – connotation, should not be used as a synonym for woman, any more than gentleman should be used as a synonym for man. It is reasonable, though, to use both lady and gentleman in the presence of the persons concerned, as in ‘Please show this lady where to sit’. “And please note the difference in spelling and pronunciation of woman and women. “The word ‘lady’ comes from Old English hlaefdige, literally ‘the bread kneader’.” All writers learn the hard way. There are so many pitfalls and, in testimony: Mike shoots himself in the foot. “Some time ago I was going to say a few words about those abbreviations known as acronyms but, for whatever reason, did not use it. Then, earlier this week, I fell victim to what I warned against, when I changed SNO to Sno and had Terence jumping up and down. “The style book tells us: If an abbreviation can be pronounced, (for example Numsa, Nato, Seifsa and Gatt) then it is written in upper and lower case. In cases where it cannot be pronounced, capitals are used (for example, SABC and GDP). “Note that NUM and DIN are written in capitals because this is the way in which they are commonly referred to. “And that’s where the problems start because, for instance, I’ve never heard an LED called a Led. I can only suggest that, when in doubt, you check with your source.” Never use the term “Pin” number and you will never be guilty of writing Personal identity number number. In Mike dictates a diktat he wrote: “This week someone wrote ‘patients will only need two treatments’, which should
have read ‘patients will need only two treatments’. It happens all the time. “And however hard I try I cannot get everyone to grasp the two meanings of ‘however’. “However can come at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a sentence, but is best positioned immediately after the item that it is held up for contrast: ‘In the morning, however, nothing was done’ (in contrast to the preceding afternoon). It should be surrounded by commas unless it means ‘no matter how’, as in ‘however hard I try . . .’. “I’ve mentioned ‘paradigm’ and ‘quantum’ before. If you don’t know their precise meaning don’t use them. “To recapitulate (not recap): if you don’t know where to put ‘only’ or how to use `however’ or exactly what ‘paradigm’ and ‘quantum’ mean, recast the sentence and leave them out. “I have been wondering – not wandering – how many of you knew the word ‘fillip’, and wondering – not wandering – how many didn’t so looked it up.” Another friday fillip: “A vogue word in recent months has been ‘competency’ where ‘competence’ is meant. Competence means a fairly high degree of ability. Competency’s main meaning is one’s capacity to testify in a court of law. Not long ago I had a reason to look up the word ‘patrol’ in my dictionary and was somewhat surprised to find that it is borrowed from an old French word meaning ‘to paddle in mud’. ‘Inflammable’, I was surprised to find, is a synonym of ‘flammable’, meaning ‘easily set on fire’. Things that will not burn are ‘nonflammable’.” Mike Hyphen-Stone goes into reverse, “This week I’d like to deal with (not address) prefixes. “The Concise Oxford Dictionary has this to say about this hand way of creating new words: ‘Prefix: a verbal element placed at the beginning of a word to adjust or qualify its meaning’. “There are over 100 common prefixes and suffixes in English, some prefixes being: anti-; co-; ex-; re-; sub-; ultra- and un-. “Many writers of English think all prefixes should be followed by a hyphen, whereas, if they took the trouble to look in their dictionaries, they would find that, in most cases, the opposite is true, the exceptions usually suggesting themselves.” Mike-hyphen-Stone’s guide to prefixes sheds more light: “I’m sure many of you will be surprised to find how few prefixes are hyphenated. None of the following are, except where noted: Ante Anti Auto Back Bi Bio
Co Cross is one to take care with Electro Geo Hydro Hyper Inter Mis Multi Non Out Over Post also needs care Pre is hyphenated only where followed by a capital letter, as are Pro and Pseudo Re is hyphened only in re-cover (to cover again) and re-create (to create anew) and when followed by an ‘e’ Self- is an exception that proves the rule by always being hyphened Semi is only before ‘i’ Sub Super Un, under and uni Well- is always hyphened.” More on hyphenation When do you hyphenate: short term, long term, world class? First some basic grammar: a noun is a word that stands for a person or thing. Examples include: John, building, horse and cellphone. An adjective is a word that describes something: friendly, blue, enticing and furry. When a two-word adjective is written before a noun, hyphenation is sometimes used for clarity and to make the sentences easier to read. You can’t hyphenate every adjective that appears in front of a noun. That irritates the reader. In engineering ‘speak’, you will find that when it comes to describing machinery, adjective hyphenation becomes difficult, for example: A low seam twin-boom mobile bolter for coal mining. In fact, ‘twin-boom’ was not hyphenated in the original text. ‘Low seam’ does not describe the ‘bolter’; ‘low’ describes the seam (the noun) in the coal mine and is a one-word adjective, which does not require hyphenation. There are many exceptions to two word adjective hyphenation: • Stock exchange report. • Broad based black economic empowerment. What do you do if you are not sure? Use Google? Google the phrase and check the most common usage. Often you’ll find that an Engineering News or Mining Weekly
reference is shown – use that! Some sources of modern English words “There are really only a few ways of creating new words. Quite a few are simply taken over from other languages; they are called ’borrowings’ or ‘loan words’ (slightly misleading when you consider that the language doesn’t give them back!) Over the next few weeks I’ll list some for you starting with: Afrikaans: aardvark, apartheid, braai, commando, snoek and trek. American Indian languages: moccasin, wigwam, squaw Anglo-Saxon: God, house, rain, sea, beer, sheep, gospel, rainbow, Sunday, crafty, wisdom, understand. Arabic: sultan, sheikh, hashish, harem, ghoul, algebra. Australian: dingo, wombat, boomerang, budgerigar, plonk (cheap wine) french: aunt, debt, fruit, table, challenge, venison medicine, justice, victory, sacrifice, prince, castle, dinner, grotesque, garage, moustache, unique, brochure, police, montage, voyeur. Dutch: frolic, cruise, slim, yacht Eskimo: kayak, igloo, anorak finnish: sauna Gaelic: brogue, galore, leprechaun, banshee German: waltz, hamster, zinc, plunder, poodle, paraffin, yodel, angst, strafe, snorkel. Blitz.” Possessives “A few random alternatives are: manufacturers, producers, operators, partners, entities, contributors and individuals. “Some of you still have trouble with possessives, even easy ones like ‘the boy’s hat’ and ‘the boys’ hats’, but the problems really start where spellings change as in companies (plural – not possessive – of ‘company’) and company’s (singular possessive).” Here, There, This, That,These, Those When do you use any of the above? Here is used for something near to us. “Here is cup of tea.” There is used for something further away. “There are more cups in the kitchen.” This is singular – used to indicate one object. “This cup is cold.” That is also singular and used with there. “That is your cup over there”. These is plural. “These cups are all cold.” Those is plural and used with there. “Those cups over there are all cold.” There, however, can also be used for both singular and plural. “There is one cup on the desk”. ‘There are more cups on those desks over there.” Just remember the cup/s of tea and you’ll get it right!
Ode to a Spellchecker The ‘Ode to a Spellchecker’ was written by Professor Jerrold Zar of Northern Illinois University and published in the January/February 1994 issue of the Journal of Irreproducible Results. It became widely circulated by email and the attribution was lost. Below I have transcribed the poem in its entirety, along with a “translation”. THE POEM TRANSlATION Eye halve a spelling check her; I have a spelling checker; It came with my pea sea. It came with my PC. It plane lee marks four my revue It plainly marks for my review Miss steaks aye kin knot sea. Mistakes I cannot see. Eye ran this poem threw it I ran this poem through it Your sure reel glad two no. You’re sure real glad to know. Its vary polished in it’s weigh, It’s very polished in its way, My checker tolled me sew. My checker told me so. A check her is a bless sing; A checker is a blessing; It freeze yew lodes of thyme. It frees you loads of time. It helps me right awl stiles two reed, It helps me write, all styles to read, And aides me when aye rime. And aids me when I rhyme. Each frays come posed up Each phrase composed upon on my screen my screen Eye trussed too bee a joule; I trust to be a jewel; The checker pours o’er every word The checker pores o’er every word To cheque sum spelling rule. To check some spelling rule. Bee fore wee rote with checkers Before we wrote with checkers Hour spelling was inn deck line, Our spelling was in decline, Butt now when wee dew have a laps, But now when we do have a lapse, Wee are knot maid too wine. We are not made to whine. Butt now bee cause my spelling But now because my spelling Is checked with such grate flare, Is checked with such great flair, Their are know faults with in my cite, There are no faults within my sight, Of nun eye am a wear. Of none I am aware. Now spelling does knot phase me, Now spelling does not faze me, It does knot bring a tier; It does not bring a tear; My pay purrs awl due glad den My papers all do gladden With wrapped words fare as hear. With wrapped words fair as here. To rite with care is quite a feet To write with care is quite a feat Of witch won should be proud; Of which one should be proud; And wee mussed dew da best wee can And we must do the best we can Sew flaws are knot aloud. So flaws are not allowed. That’s why eye brake in two averse That’s why I break into a verse Cuz eye dew want too please. Cause I do want to please. Sow glad eye yam that aye did bye So glad I am that I did buy This soft wear four pea seas. This software for PCs.
Jerrold Zar Northern Illinois University DeKalb, IL 60115-2864 http://www.bios.niu.edu/zar/zar.html Based on opening lines suggested by Mark Eckman. By the author’s count, 127 of the 225 words of the poem are incorrect (although all words are correctly spelled). Published January/February 1994, on page 13, in Journal of Irreproducible Results c/o Wisdom Simulators, Inc. P.O. Box 380853 Cambridge, MA 02238 The title Ode to a Spellchecker was not original, but seems appropriate. I think that Zar had called it only “A Candidate for a Pullet Surprise.” The poem is as funny today as it was when it was originally published, almost ten years ago. It surely needs no update, except perhaps a new verse of ‘IM speak’, full of its-it’s errors and abrv 4U! Zar is a professor of biostatistics. I suspect he gives amusing lectures. Annexure 10 The currencies’ guide The correct spelling of currencies and usage of their symbols has attracted considerable debate among members of the Creamer Media team. We are, therefore, guided by The Economist usage. Country Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Currency afghani lek Algerian dinar kwanza peso dram Aruban florin Australian dollar euro manat Bahamian dollar Bahraini dinar taka Barbadian dollar rubel euro
Symbol Af Lk AD Kz Ps Dram Afl A$ € Manat B$ BD Tk Bd$ BRb €
Country Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia & Hercegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Chile China Colombia Comoros Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Dem. Rep. of) Costa Rica Côte d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominican Republic Dubai East Timor Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia
Currency Belize dollar CFA franc Bermuda dollar ngultrum boliviano convertible marka pula real (pl. reais) Brunei dollar/ringgit lev CFA franc Burundi franc riel CFA franc Canadian dollar Cape Verde escudo CFA franc CFA franc Chilean peso yuan/renminbi Colombian peso Comorian franc CFA franc Congolese franc Costa Rican colón CFA franc kuna Cuban peso Cyprus pound/Turkish lira koruna Danish krone Djibouti franc Dominican Republic peso UAE dirham US dollar US dollar Egyptian pound El Salvador colón CFA franc nafka kroon birr
Symbol Bz$ CFAfra Bda$ Nu Bs KM P R Br$ Lv CFAfr Bufr CR CFAfr C$ CVEsc CFAfr CFAfr Ps Rmb Ps Cfr CFAfr FCNZ C CFAfr HRK Ps C£/TL Kc DKr Dfr Ps Dh US$ US$ £E C CFAfr Nfa EEK Birr
Country Fiji Finland France Gabon The Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Greece Grenada Guatemala Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Honduras Hong Kong Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran Iraq Ireland Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kirgizstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Laos Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libya Lithuania
Currency Fiji or Fijian dollar euro euro CFA franc dalasi lari euro cedi euro East Caribbean dollar quetzal Guinean franc CFA franc Guyanese dollar gourde lempira Hong Kong dollar forint krona Indian rupee rupiah rial New Iraqi dinar euro New Israeli shekel euro Jamaican dollar yen Jordanian dinar tenge Kenya shilling som won or North Korean won won or South Korean won Kuwaiti dinar kip lat Lebanese pound loti (pl. maloti) Liberian dollar Libyan dinar litas
Symbol F$ € € CFAfr D Lari € C € EC$ Q Gnf CFAfr G$ G La HK$ Ft Ikr Rs Rp IR NID € NIS € J$ ¥ JD Tenge KSh Som Won W KD K LVL L£ M L$ LD LTL
Country Luxembourg Macau Macedonia
Currency euro pataca denar
Symbol € MPtc Den
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