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A magnetic field is a field of force produced by a magnetic object or particle, or by a changing B y :electrical field and is detected by the force it exerts on other magnetic materials and Atif, moving electric charges. The magnetic field at A 0 9 0 1any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a B . T e c h I n t e r n a t i o n a lvector field……. CSE
Electric currents and moving electrical charges produce magnetic fields. such as the alignment of iron filings in a magnetic field. certain physical phenomena. or by a changing electrical field and is detected by the force it exerts on other magnetic materials and moving electric charges. produces lines in a similar pattern to the imaginary magnetic field lines of the object. Magnets exert forces and torques on each other through the magnetic fields they create.A magnetic field is a field of force produced by a magnetic object or particle. 2 |Page . The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength). as such it is a vector field. Magnetic fields also exert forces on moving electrical charges. Nonetheless. These lines are strictly a mathematical concept and do not exist physically. The complex mathematics underlying the magnetic field of an object is usually illustrated using magnetic field lines. Even the magnetic field of a magnetic material can be modeled as being due to moving electrical charges.
therefore. and the currents and charges that create them. The Earth produces its own magnetic field. Energy is needed to create a magnetic field. is described by the set of Maxwell's equations. located near the Earth's geographical north. this electromagnetic field is understood to be caused by virtual photons. which is important in navigation since the north pole of a compass points toward the south pole of Earth's magnetic field. (See electromagnetism. can be considered as being "stored" in the magnetic field. Most often this quantum description is not needed because the simpler classical theory is sufficient. The value of this energy depends on the values of both B and H. called the electromagnetic field. electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object. This energy can be reclaimed when the field is destroyed and. In view of special relativity. Rotating magnetic fields are utilized in both electrical motors and generators.The magnetic fields within and due to magnetic materials can be quite complicated and is described using two separate fields which can be both called a magnetic field: a magnetic B field and a magnetic H field.) The full relationship between the electric and magnetic fields. An electric field is a field created by an electrical charge and such fields are intimately related to magnetic fields. 3 |Page . The interaction of magnetic fields in electrical devices such as transformers is studied in the discipline of magnetic circuits. Magnetic forces give information about the charge carriers in a material through the Hall effect. a changing magnetic field generates an electric field and a changing electric field produces a magnetic field. In quantum physics. A pure electric field in one reference frame is observed as a combination of both an electric field and a magnetic field in a moving reference frame. Magnetic fields have had many uses in ancient and modern society.
the south pole of that magnet would 4 |Page . The presence of this field causes a compass. produce the magnetic field. to rotate so that the "north pole" of the magnet in the compass points roughly north. if Earth itself is considered as a magnet. The Dynamo theory proposes that these movements produce electrical currents which. placed anywhere within it. in turn. toward Earth's north magnetic pole. One confusion that arises from this definition is that. The geographic north pole of Earth is near the top of the diagram. The south pole of that magnet is deep in Earth's interior below Earth's North Magnetic Pole. The Earth's magnetic field is thought to be produced by convection currents in the outer liquid of Earth's core.Main article: Earth's magnetic field.Earth's magnetic field: A sketch of Earth's magnetic field representing the source of the field as a magnet. This is the traditional definition of the "north pole" of a magnet. the south pole near the bottom. although other equivalent definitions are also possible.
so the north pole of the compass magnet is attracted to the south pole of Earth's interior magnet). Earth's magnetic poles do not coincide exactly with Earth's geological pole. and vice-versa (opposite poles attract. (There is also an East/West component. respectively. There is also evidence to suggest that the poles periodically reverse their orientation in a process called geomagnetic reversal. The north magnetic pole is so-named not because of the polarity of the field there but because of its geographical location. 5 |Page .be the one nearer the north magnetic pole.) The magnetic field can be visualised as a bar magnet buried deep in Earth's interior. the magnetic field has a significant up/down component in addition to the North/South component. For most locations. Earth's magnetic field is not constant — the strength of the field and the location of its poles vary. The north and south poles of a permanent magnet are so-called because they are "north-seeking" and "south-seeking".
by its magnetic field. which deflects most of the charged particles. a stream of energetic charged particles emanating from the Sun. to the Earth's upper atmosphere and 6 |Page .Importance: Simulation of the interaction between Earth's magnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field. Some of the charged particles from the solar wind are trapped in the Van Allen radiation belt. Earth is largely protected from the solar wind. A smaller number of particles from the solar wind manage to travel. as though on an electromagnetic energy transmission line.
and entrained magnetic field strongly affect Earth's local space environment. density. Bright auroras strongly heat the ionosphere. increasing the size of the plasma geosphere.ionosphere in the auroral zones. For example. exposing geosynchronous satellites to the direct solar wind. These phenomena are collectively called space weather. and the shape and location of the magnetopause and bow shock wave upstream of it can change by several Earth radii. and causing escape of atmospheric matter into the solar wind. the levels of ionizing radiation and radio interference can vary by factors of hundreds to thousands. direction. The 7 |Page . causing its plasma to expand into the magnetosphere. and fluctuations in its speed. The solar wind is responsible for the overall shape of Earth's magnetosphere. The only time the solar wind is observable on the Earth is when it is strong enough to produce phenomena such as the aurora and geomagnetic storms. Geomagnetic storms result when the pressure of plasmas contained inside the magnetosphere is sufficiently large to inflate and thereby distort the geomagnetic field.
If the magnetic field of the Earth suddenly changed. Variations in the magnetic field strength have been correlated to rainfall variation within the tropics. These epochs form parallel bands all along the ridge where the rock has stored a fossilized image of the local orientation of the Earth's magnetic field for the last few million years. the effects should be pretty benign. which are ripped off by solar winds. This is most curious because the field reversal ( North magnetic pole shifting to Antarctica and the South magnetic pole shifting to the arctic region in the Northern Hemisphere) one might expect the field to go to zero strength for a century or so.000 years or so.mechanism of atmospheric stripping is caused by gas being caught in bubbles of magnetic field. Even this effect is minimal because we can visit the Arctic and Antarctic and only receive a slight increase in cosmic rays. There have been a dozen of them over the last few million years. The period of field reversal is determined by the rotation rate of the core and its 8 |Page . The Earth's magnetic field is believed to be generated by the rotation of the Earth's molten iron-nickel core. we can see from the fossil record that the past field changes had no significant effect on living organisms. Magnetic field wandering would let the aurora borealis occur at any latitude. For life. This seems not to have had much effect in the past. but other than that there would be no noticeable effects other than changes in the amount of cosmic rays that penetrate to the ground. the consequences would be fascinating. documented in the rock which has emerged and solidified along the mid-Atlantic Ridge where continental plates are slowly separating. and this DOES happen naturally every 250. This would let cosmic rays freely penetrate to the Earth's surface and cause mutations. so we probably don't really know what is going on during these field reversals. So long as the strength of the field remains high during this field wandering event.
that this phenomenon can change abruptly as it did during the 'Little Ice Age' on the Earth a few hundred years ago. A similar 'chaotic' phenomenon may occur with the Earth 'suddenly' losing its magnetic field for a few million years. the familiar 11-year cycle started-up over the course of a few decades.electrical conductivity. geophysicists have begun to notice a decline in the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. suggesting that the next field reversal epoch may be about to start. There were no sunspots observed on the Sun for 50 years or so. We also know from studies of the Sun's magnetic dynamo. ripple. and we don't really know if the decline is just a natural. however. It may.000 year cycle' would be increased or decreased. 9 |Page . then rather abruptly. the field orientation. strength and '250. Already. If you were to change either one of these. take a long time to get here. or the portend of something far more sinister.
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