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Name: ___________________________ Rating: ______

Section: ______________ Date: ________

Worksheet 11
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Engage

According to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention,


Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7), a systolic blood
pressure of 120- 139 mmHg or a diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mmHg is categorized
as “pre-hypertension.” An individual in this category is not hypertensive per se;
however, health- promoting lifestyle modifications are required to prevent
cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The risk of CVD beginning at 115/75 mmHg is doubled
with each increment of 20/10 mmHg.

It pays to know and monitor your blood pressure. Have your BP checked.

Explore

This activity will make you “walk around” the three components of the cardio vascular
system: blood, blood vessels and the heart. It also features the systemic and
pulmonary circulation.

A. Blood

It is the fluid of life. It has two components: the liquid component that is called plasma;
and the solid component that is collectively termed as formed elements or blood cells.
I. Fill in the blanks

Plasma makes up a little more than 50 percent of the blood. It is made up mainly
of ___________ and dissolved substances like _____________, ______________.
Plasma proteins include: __________________ that maintains osmotic pressure of the
blood, _____________________that are related to immune system; and
_______________ that is important in clot formation.

Formed elements include: ______________, also known as erythrocytes, that


contain haemoglobin units; ________________, also known as leukocytes that act as
soldier cells of the body; and ______________, also known as thrombocytes that are
important in clot formation.

II. Differentiate the two groups of WBCs. Name and describe the cells under
each group.

a. Granulocytes-
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____

b. Agranulocytes-

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__

_____________________________________________________________________
_

III. Match the blood cells written inside the table with the descriptions given below.
Erythrocytes Thrombocytes Monocytes Lymphocytes

Leukocytes Neutrophil Eosinophils Basophils

1. Considered as the first line of defense- ________________________

2. Elevated in parasitic infection- ________________________

3. Contain oxygen binding sites- ________________________

4. Secrete histamine and heparin- ________________________

5. Largest formed elements- ________________________

6. Also known as white blood cells- ________________________

7. They are the smallest of the leukocytes ________________________

8. Cellular fragments that start blood clotting ________________________

B. Blood Vessels

The blood vessels run as channels that deliver blood where it is needed. There
are three types of blood vessels:

1. arteries- that generally carry oxygenated blood towards the systems of the
body

2. veins- that generally carry de-oxygenated blood back to the heart

3. capillary- that is the site for gaseous exchange.

Using the three types of blood vessels as choices, match the descriptions below.

1. Pulse is present- _____________________________


2. Semilunar valves may be present- _____________________________

3. Receives greatest pressure- _____________________________

4. Site of diffusion of gas- _____________________________

5. Most superficial of the vessels- _____________________________

6. Made up only of tunica intima- _____________________________

7. Blood may flow passively- _____________________________

8. Form networks of small vessels- _____________________________

9. Aorta is an example- _____________________________

10. Vena cavae are examples- _____________________________

C. Heart

The heart is a hollow, muscular organ about the size of your fist. It lies within the
pericardium and between the lungs. Its orientation is slightly oblique with the base
directed upward, backward, and toward the right while the apex is directed otherwise.

I. Draw and label the heart showing the chambers, the valves and the large veins

and arteries connected to it.


II. Trace the flow of the blood through the heart using the keywords below. Note: Blood is
coming from the tissues of the body and going back to the tissues again. Assign number 1 to
the first destination and 12 to the last destination.

Right atrium Vena cavae Aortic Valve Left Atrium

Tricuspid Valve Aorta Right Ventricle Mitral Valve

Pulmonary Vein Left Ventricle Pulmonary Arteries Pulmonic Valve

Explain

1. Why are the walls of the ventricles thicker than those of the atria?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

2. A friend tells you that her son had an ECG, and it revealed that he has a slight heart
murmur. Should you be convinced that he has a heart murmur? Explain.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Extend

1. Identify the Blood Types related terms that match the statements below.

a. Location of antigens used in blood typing _____________________

b. Location of antibodies against antigens- _____________________

c. Blood type with Antigen A _____________________

d. Antigen(s) in Type AB Blood _____________________


e. Blood type with no antibody _____________________

f. Antibody in Blood type B _____________________

g. Antigen(s) in Blood type O _____________________

h. Universal recipient _____________________

i. Universal donor _____________________

j. More common of the Rh Blood Types _____________________

2. There are a few exceptions in the rule that all arteries carry oxygenated blood while all veins
carry de-oxygenated blood. What are these?

____________________________ and ______________________________

Evaluate

I. Identification:

1. Blood type with antibody B in the plasma. _______________________


2. Plasma protein that is important in blood clotting. _____________________
3. Granulocyte that is elevated in parasitic infection. ____________________
4. Oxygen binding sites in RBC. ________________________
5. Type of anemia caused by Vitamin B12 deficiency. ____________________
6. It converts fibrinogen to fibrin. ________________________
7. This blood type is the universal donor. _____________________
8. It is the normal range of platelet count. _____________________
9. They become plasma cells to produce antibodies. _________________
10. It is the stoppage of bleeding. _____________________
Worksheet 13
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Engage

Clinical Focus

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or crib death, is the most frequent cause of death
of infants between two weeks and 1 year of age. Death results when the infant stops breathing
during sleep. Although the cause of SIDS remains controversial, there is evidence that damage
to the respiratory center during development is a factor. There is no treatment, but at-risk
babies can be placed on monitors that sound an alarm if the baby stops breathing.

Explore

This time, you will be journeying through the respiratory tract and the lungs. You will
also learn the process of respiration and other associated diseases and disorders.

A. Functions of the Respiratory System

Enumerate and briefly discuss the functions of the system.


1._______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3._______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
4._____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

B. Organs of Respiratory System


Identify the organs/ structures as descried below.

1. Primary respiratory organ- __________________


2. Warms & humidifies air- __________________
3. Site of gaseous exchange __________________
4. Connects mouth to larynx- __________________
5. Formed when trachea bifurcates __________________
6. It has two openings called nares __________________
7. It is also known as windpipe __________________
8. It contains the vocal cords __________________
9. Main muscle working during inspiration __________________

C. Ventilation
There are two phases of ventilation:

Identify as described.

1. ____________________- oxygen flows into the lungs

2. ____________________- carbon dioxide flows out from the lungs

D. Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities

Describe the following volumes and capacities and give the normal value for each.

1. Tidal volume- _____________________________________________________


___________________________________________________________
2. Inspiratory reserve volume- __________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
3. Expiratory reserve volume-___________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Residual volume-__________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

1. Functional residual capacity- _________________________________________


___________________________________________________________
2. Inspiratory capacity- ________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________
3. Vital capacity- _____________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
4. Total lung capacity- ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Explain

1. What are the roles of the medulla oblongata and pons in respiration?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. Explain what happens to the shape of the trachea you swallow a large mouthful of food.
Why is this advantageous?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. Explain why a person who breathes rapidly and deeply (hyperventilates) for several
seconds experiences a short period of time in which respiration ceases (apnea) before a
normal breathing occurs.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

Extend

Describe the following disorders of the respiratory system by stating the etiology, signs and
symptoms and treatment or management.

1. Asthma-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
2. Emphysema-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
3. Chronic Bronchitis-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
4. Cystic Fibrosis-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
5. Adult respiratory distress syndrome-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
6. Lung Cancer-
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Evaluate

I. Identification

1. It is the respiratory center. ____________________


2. A mixture of lipoprotein that reduces surface ____________________
tension in the lungs
3. It is where diffusion of gases takes place
____________________ 4. Humidifies and filters the air we
breathe ____________________

II. Encircle the letter of your choice.

1. It is also known as windpipe.

a. trachea b. larynx c. pharynx d. esophagus

2. W hich is true of the right lung?

a. It is longer than the left lung.

b. It has 2 lobes, the upper


and low er.

c. Ingested solid substance is likely to land in it.

d. All of the above

3. W hich of the following does not happen during inspiration?

a. The diaphragm contracts and moves up.

b. The chest wall m oves and


up out.

c. Air rushes into the lungs.

d. The lung tissues distend.

4. Which is not included in the triads of asthma?

a. coughing b. wheezing c. dyspnea d. none of these


5. It is the volume of air moved into and out of the lungs with each quiet breath.
a.TV b. IRV c.ERV d. RV

Name: ___________________________ Rating: ______


Section: ______________ Date: ________

Worksheet 14
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Engage

Solve the crossword puzzle about the organs of digestion.

1 2 3 4

10 11

12
Across

1. It comprises the longest region in the gastrointestinal tract.


6. It is the passage way of food from the throat to the stomach.

9. It is the largest gland in the body.

10. It is a J-shaped organ for temporary storage of food.

12. It is a cartilage that closes the glottis during swallowing.

Down

1. These are glands that secrete the substance that moisten the food in the
mouth
2. It is also called colon
3. It carries sensory organs for taste
4. It is the hardest substance in the body
5. It is known as the throat.
7. It has acinar cells that secrete digestive enzymes.

8. These are the organs for mastication found inside the oral cavity

11. It is the portal of ingestion

Explore

This activity will teach you the digestion process from ingestion to defecation. The main
function of this system is the break down food into organic molecules small enough to be used
by cells.

A. Phases of Digestion:

Fill in the blanks with appropriate terms.

1. ______________digestion: may include some type of grinding mechanism (if this occurs, it
typically happens first) Example: _________________

2. ______________digestion: happens through the aid of chemical substances


Example: _________________________

B. Digestive Organs

Identify the organ being described

1. ______________- it is where food and water are ingested and where initial digestion

happens. Initial digestion of carbohydrates happen here because of the presence of


salivary amylase called ptyalin. Located here are accessory organs for digestion;

Give the importance of each:

a. tongue- _________________________________________

b. teeth- _________________________________________

c. salivary glands- _________________________________________

2. _____________- its rhythmic involuntary contraction, called peristalsis, pushes the

swallowed food down to the stomach.

3. .____________- it is a saclike portion of digestive tract, it is also made up of different

groups of cells like:

Identify the cells as described.

a. __________cells secrete mucus, protecting and lubricating stomach

and facilitating food movement

b. ___________cells in mucosa secrete HCl à gastric juice in stomach · C. c.


___________cells in mucosa secrete pepsinogen, activated to pepsin (a very
active protease) at low pH

4._____________– site of terminal digestion and absorption; it is divided into three

segments:

Describe each and site its specific function.

a. duodenum- ___________________________________________

b. jejunum- ___________________________________________
c. ileum- ___________________________________________

5. ______________ (colon)- actually shorter than small intestine, but wider, with no villi;

its first segment is__________ where the appendix is located; then the _________ ,
__________, and ____________ portions; it ends in _________. It has no digestive
function but a major absorption site of _______, vitamin ______, and_____.

C. Digestion Process

Arrange the following steps enumerated below accordingly, then opposite each step, write the
associated digestive organ.

1. final digestion 2. Ingestion 3. reabsorption of water

4. peristalsis 5. initial digestion of proteins 6. deglutition

1. ___________________- ______________

2. ___________________- ______________

3. ___________________- ______________

4. ___________________- ______________

5. ___________________- ______________

6. ___________________- ______________

Explain

1. There is a sudden shift on pH from the stomach to the small intestines, what is the
clinical significance of this?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

2. Liver, pancreas and gall bladder are accessory organs of digestion. Explain their
function in the digestion process.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Evaluate

I. Encircle the letter that corresponds to your chosen answer.

1. It is the initial portion of large


the intestines where the
appendix is found.

a. sigmoid b. cecum c. jejunum . d. duodenum

2. W hich is NOT true about bile?

a. It is produced by the
liver. b. It is stored in the pancreas.

c. It emulsifies fats. d. both a and b

3. W hich is NOT true about HCI?

a. It is produced by the chief


cells b. It converts pepsinogen pepsin.
to

c. It kills microorganism s d. all of the above

4. All are true of the small intestines,


EXCEPT

a, Its initial portion is jejunum


the b. It's where digestion completed.
is

c. Bile enters the duodenum d. It is where absorption of nutrients happen.

5. . The stomach performs all of following


the functions EXCEPT
a. storage of foodimmediately after a meal b. secretion of hydrochloric
acid
c. mixing of food with gastric
secretion d. secretion of chyme

II. Trace the flow of food from its point of entry up to the point of defecation

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
Name: ___________________________ Rating: ______
Section: ______________ Date: ________

Worksheet 15
URINARY SYSTEM

Engage

Did you know that?

The kidneys can still perform their extremely important role in the maintenance of
homeostasis as long as one third of one kidney remains functional. Isn’t it amazing? However,
if the functional ability of the kidneys fails completely, death will result without special medical
treatment.

Explore

This activity looks at the organs of the urinary system and the process of urine
production and excretion.

A. Functions of the Urinary System

Enumerate its functions and briefly discuss how these functions are performed.

1. ______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2. ______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
3. ______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
5. ______________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
B. Urinary Structures

I. Identify the four major structures of the urinary system by filling in the blanks

The urinary system is composed of the ____________(2), ___________(2)_________ and the


______________

a. ________________.- tubes that are actually an extension of the renal pelvis that

extend to 25 to 30 cm (10 to 12 inches) from the kidney to the urinary bladder

b. ________________.- when filled with urine, is a somewhat pear shaped organ; it has

three openings that form a triangle called _______________

c. ________________- .it is the terminal portion of the urinary system that serves as a

passageway for discharging urine from the body

d. ._______________- main organ of the urinary system where filtration and urine

formation happens

II. Match the kidney structures written inside the table with the descriptions given below.

Renal capsule Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal pelvis

Nephron Glomerulus Bowman’s capsule Renal tubule

1. Deep to cortex and has renal pyramids - ________________________

2. Functional unit of the kidney- ________________________

3. Filtration unit of the nephrons- ________________________

4. Contains the glomerulus- ________________________

5. Superficial region of the kidney- ________________________


6. Tissue surrounding the surface of kidney- ________________________

7. It leaves the Bowman’s capsule- ________________________

8. It is continuous with the ureters- ________________________

9. Collectively called renal corpuscle- ________________________

________________________

C. Urine Formation

Describe the three basic physiological processes in urine formation.

1. Glomerular Filtration- _____________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

2. Tubular Absorption- ______________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

3. Tubular Secretion-_______________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________

Explain

1. What effect does sympathetic stimulation have on the kidneys?


______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. A nursing student did an experiment with his urinary system. He drank 2L of water in 5
minutes and then monitored the rate of urine production and concentration over the
next two hours. What did he observe? Explain the major mechanisms involved.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. How do changes in blood pressure in the glomerulus affect the volume of filtrate
produced?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Extend

I. Compare and contrast the male and female urethra as to their function, length and number of
sphincters present.

a. Male urethra- ________________________________________________


________________________________________________________________

a. Female urethra- ______________________________________________


________________________________________________________________

II. Contrast acidosis and alkalosis.

_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________

III. Match the diseases and abnormalities commonly associated with the urinary system with the
most appropriate description:

A. Incontinence F. Renal Failure

B. Diabetes Insipidus G. Nephrotic Syndrome

C. Renal Ptosis H. Glomerulonephritis

D. Urinary Tract Infections I. Kidney Stones

E. Cystitis

1. Inflammation of the bladder usually occurring secondary to ascending urinary tract infections.

2. Polyuria and polydipsia caused by inadequate secretion of vasopressin (ADH) by the posterior pituitary
gland (Neurohypophysis).

3. A form of nephritis in which the lesions primarily involve the glomeruli.


4. The inability to retain urine, feces, or semen through the loss of sphincter control orbecause of cerebral
or spinal lesions.

5. Crystalline masses are present in the pelvis of the kidney composed primarily of urates, oxalates,
phosphates, and carbonates of varying size.

6. Inflammation of the kidney including the glomeruli, renal tubules, and interstitial tissue.

7. Failure of the kidneys to perform their essential functions. Usually less than 10% o total kidney function.

8. Dropping or drooping of the kidney from its normal position.

9. Infection of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra) by microorganisms

Evaluate

I. Identification

____________________1. It is the functional unit of the kidneys.

____________________2. It is the major blood supply of the kidney.

____________________3. It is the filtration unit of the kidney.

____________________4. It is the apparatus that secretes the enzyme rennin.

____________________5. It is a hallow, muscular tube that carries urine from the renal pelvis.

____________________6. It is the reflex that facilitates urine flow.

____________________7. It is the tube that carries urine to the outside of the body.

____________________8. It is a muscular organ where urine is temporarily stored.

____________________9. It is the term for the condition wherein urine is excreted with blood.

____________________10. It is the medical term for formation of stones in the kidney.

II. Two Tier Test. Encircle the letter corresponding to your chosen answer then rephrase the
chosen statement to make it correct.

1. Which is not true of the micturition reflex?


a. The stimulus is stretching of the rugae of the urinary bladder by accumulating urine

b. From the bladder, sensory impulses travel to the sacral spinal cord

c. The detrusor muscle contracts to eliminate urine

d. The internal urethral sphincter relaxes to permit urination


Rephrase :_____________________________________________________________

2. Which is not true about the effect of hormones on the kidney?


a. ADH increases the reabsorption of water

b. PTH increases the reabsorption of calcium ions

c. Aldosterone decreases the reabsorption of sodium ions

d. ANH increases the excretion of sodium ions

Rephrase: _____________________________________________________________

Name: ___________________________ Rating: ______


Section: ______________ Date: ________

Worksheet 16
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Engage

With the help of medical dictionary, give the definition of the following “foreign-sounding”
terms related to the reproductive system.

1. Cryptorchidism- __________________________________________________
2. Pubertas paecox- _________________________________________________
3. Corpus luteum- ___________________________________________________
4. Corpora Cavernosa- _______________________________________________
5. Zona pellucida- ___________________________________________________
6. Gynecomastia- ___________________________________________________
7. Coitus interruptus- ________________________________________________

Explore

In this last activity, you will be exploring the differences between the male and female
reproductive system. In these differences, you will also learn how they complement each other
as they perform their main biological function that is perpetuate species.

A. Male Reproductive System


I. Fill in the blanks.

The functions of the male reproductive system include the production and transport of
male gametes called ________________, and the production of male sex hormone called
___________________. The primary organs consist of the _______________, which are
suspended within a sac of skin and thin fibromuscular tissue called; a series of ducts; and a
number of glands.

II. Complete the table below with the desired information regarding the organs/structures
of the male reproductive system, their respective anatomy and physiology.

Organs/ Structures Anatomy Physiology

Copulatory organ

Epididymis

Continuation of the tail of epididymis

Paired, convoluted pouchlike

Prostate gland

Bulbourethral gland

B. Female Reproductive System

I. Fill in the blanks.

The primary organ of the female reproductive system is the ______________ that
produces the female germ cell called _____________, and secretes female sex hormones
called ___________________ and _______________.

II. Complete the table below with the desired information regarding the organs/structures
of the male reproductive system, their respective anatomy and physiology.

Organs/ Structures Anatomy Physiology

Copulatory organ
Small masses of erectile tissue

Ovary

Site of fertilization

Uterus

Paired modified sweat glands

Explain

1. Why should the semen be alkaline?


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

2. Birth control pills for women contain estrogen and progesterone compounds. Explain
how these hormones can prevent pregnancy?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

3. Explain the function of the dartos and cremaster muscles in the scrotum.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

4. During menopause, which hormones are reduced in the blood and which are increased?
Explain its effect.
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Extend

Identify and briefly discuss the different methods of preventing or terminating pregnancy
under each category.

A. Behavioral Methods

B. Barrier Methods
C. Chemical Methods

D. Surgical Methods
Evaluate

I. Encircle the letter that corresponds to your chosen answer.

1. It is the opening of the uterus


into the vagina which contracts during delivery.
a. fallopian tube b. cervix c. fimbriae d. ampulla

2. All are true about erection, EXCEPT


a. It is caused by relaxation
of the veins in the penis.
b. As the veins relax, they
become engorged withblood.
c. Stiffening is mediated by thesympathetic nervoussystem

d. All of the above

3. Which is true of the testes?

a. They produce spermatozoa within their seminalvesicles.


b. Produce testosterone intheir Sertolli Cells
c. They are enclosed and
protected by the prepuce

d. All of the above

4. It is the shedding off of the uterine lining as fertilization fails to occur.


a. menstruation b . o vu la tio n c. ligation d. castration

5. It is the site of fertilization.


a. oviduct b. uterus c. ovary d. cervix

II. Essay

Everything is connected to everything else. How is this manifested in the systems of the body?
Account for the interrelationship among the reproductive, endocrine, nervous, cardiovascular
systems.

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________