Organic chemistry

1. Fuels and crude oil
y Sources of energy o Natural gas  Consist mainly of methane o Petroleum  Is a mixture of hydrocarbons Petroleum is separated into fraction by fractional distillation o Petroleum gas  Fuel for cooking and heating o Petrol  Fuel for cars o Naphtha  Feedstock for the chemical industry o Paraffin(kerosene)  Fuel for aircraft engines, cooking and heating o Diesel  Fuel for diesel engine o Lubricating oil  As a lubricant and a source of polishes and waxes o Bitumen  Making road surfaces Naphtha is the main source of hydrocarbons that are used as the feedstock (raw material) for the production of a wide range of organic compounds (plastics, detergents, medicine) Currently, 90% of petroleum is used as fuel, 10% as feedstock. o Thus, there is competition for the use of petroleum o However, petroleum is a finite resource, and must be conserved  Reduce use (use less motor vehicles)  Use alternative energy sources (solar energy, nuclear energy) Homologous series is a group of compounds that o Share a general formula o Have similar chemical properties o Shows a gradation in physical properties, due to an increase in size and mass of molecules.  Melting point, boiling point, viscosity increase  Flammability decrease o Each member of the series differ from the next by CH2

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2. Alkanes
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Alkanes is a homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2

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Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structural formula. Alkanes are generally unreactive, due to them being saturated (C-C and C-H bonds are strong and hard to break), except in terms of burning and substitution by halogens. Combustion o Alkanes burn easily in excess air o Produce carbon dioxide and water vapour (complete combustion). Carbon monoxide(incomplete combustion) o Alkanes are good fuels and they are highly exothermic Substitution reactions o React with halogens under ultraviolet light o A hydrogen atom is replaced by the halogen

3. Alkenes
y Alkenes is a homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n

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Alkenes are manufactured by cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons into smaller molecules o When a catalyst is used, it becomes catalytic cracking.  600oC, AL2O3 or SiO2 catalyst o Alkenes are always produced, hydrogen may also be produced Importance of cracking o Produce short-chain hydrocarbons/ increase availability

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The demand for short-chain hydrocarbons (petrol) exceeds supply Cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons(diesel), which have less demand, to produce these short-chain hydrocarbons o Produce Hydrogen  Hydrogen is the by-product of cracking (sometimes). Saturated o Cannot undergo addition reactions o No C=C bond present o Does not decolourise aqueous bromine Unsaturated o Substance is able to undergo addition reactions o Due to C=C bond present, which disrupts the regular structure lowering the melting point o Decolourises aqueous bromine (addition of bromine) Combustion o Alkenes burn in a excess supply of air o Produce carbon dioxide and water vapour (complete combustion). Carbon monoxide and carbon particles, due to their high percentage of carbon(incomplete combustion) Addition reaction o Addition is a reaction in which an unsaturated organic compound combines with another substance to from a single new compound o Addition of hydrogen  Alkenes react with hydrogen to form alkanes  At 200oC and nickel catalyst  Used to make margarine from vegetable oil o Addition of steam  Alkenes react with steam to give alcohols  At 300oC, 60 atm and H3PO4 catalyst o Addition of halogens  Alkenes can react with halogens to form *name of halogen**name of alkene*  Occurs readily at rtp, as both alkenes and halogens are very reactive. o Addition polymerisation  Alkenes react with themselves to from poly*name of alkene* Food products o Unsaturated fat (plant) is better than saturated fat (animal) o Polyunsaturated is best, as there are more than one C=C bonds in the hydrocarbon chain o Fats are solids, oils are liquids, as have a larger proportion of unsaturated fat molecules  

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o Margarine is formed from the addition of hydrogen to vegetable oil, where just enough C=C bonds are broken up to turn it solid, but still being unsaturated

4. Alcohols
y Alcohols are a homologous series containing the OH group with the general formula CnH2n+1OH

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Combustion o Alcohols burn in air to give carbon dioxide and water vapour o Alcohols can be used a fuels as they are less volatile(less explosive) and cleaner(does not produce soot) Oxidation o Alcohols are easily oxidised to give carboxylic acids o Heat under reflux with acidified potassium dichromate(VI) and H2SO4 o Carboxylic acids and water are produced Alcohols are formed by o Addition of steam to alkenes o Ethanol is produced by fermentation  Yeast acts on glucose to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide  Yeasts contains enzymes that are catalyst that break down glucose  Done at 37oC, absence of light and air (air causes oxidation)  Maximum yield is 15%, as the alcohol kills the yeast  Alcohol is extracted by fractional distillation Uses of ethanol o Ethanol is a good solvent, for those that don t dissolve in water o It is a fuel o In alcoholic drinks

5. Carboxylic acids
y Carboxylic acids are an homologous series containing the COOH group, with the general formula of CnH2n+1COOH

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Carboxylic acids are weak acids o Can react with metals o Can react with carbonates o Can react with bases Ethanoic acid is formed by o Oxidation of ethanol by atmospheric oxygen o Oxidation by acidified potassium dichromate (VI) Esters o Esters are formed when a carboxylic acids reacts with an alcohol. o Heat under reflux with concentrated H2SO4 catalyst o Name: alcohol first o Structure: Acid first Use of esters o Esters are used as solvents (for cosmetics) o Ester are sweet-smelling, thus is used in perfumes and flavorings

6. Macromolecules
y y Macromolecules are large molecules built up from small units Addition polymerisation o Addition polymerisation is a reaction in which many unsaturated organic compound combines with each to from a single new macromolecule, with many repeating structural units o Occurs at high temperature and pressure Uses of poly(ethene) o It is a typical plastic, used to make plastic bags and Clingfilm Condensation polymers o It is a chemical reaction in which many small organic molecules combine to form a large macromolecule , with the elimination of many small inorganic molecules (water) in the process o Nylon  It is a synthetic polyamide, made from dicarboxylic acids and diamine  Amide linkage, -COHN Water is produced  Insert diagram

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o Terylene  It is a synthetic polyester, made dicarboxylic acids and diols  Ester linkage, -COO Water produced  Insert diagram Uses of man-made fibers o Used for clothing o Used as curtain materials o Used as fishing line o Used as parachutes o Used as sleeping bags Problems of plastics o Plastics are non-biodegradable, so they cannot be broken down by action of bacteria. o Disposal by dumping at landfills takes up space and cause land pollution o Disposal by burning produces poisonous gases

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