A History of Communication 1

A History of Communication

Project made by:

Antonesei Adina Băncilă Andreea Bărbat Ruxandra Bighian Alexandra Chircă Marina

Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”, Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării, specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice, Linia Română, Anul Universitar 2009/2010

symbols were developed about 30. gave us information about the way of life. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . besides paintings and petro glyphs . And this is how it all started… Symbols – they resulted from the imperfections of speech. beliefs. This is how we found out that 15. which were created with the purpose of communicating through time are cave paintings. activity. Symbols. Pictograms – a pictogram or a pictograph is a symbol representing a concept. these paintings represented every day life “photos” of those times and also. symbols carved in wood ( totems ) and even tattoos ( tribes in the Hawaiian islands) . such as specially arranged stones ( Stonehenge) . known as a form of rock art. the Cro magnons created the first ever calendar. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice.000 BC.000 years ago. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. Human communication was revolutionized with speech about 200. organization of cro magnon people.000 and writing about 7. 000 years to move from cave paintings to the first dated petro glyphs. dating up to the Upper Paleolithic. They were used all over the world since around 9.A History of Communication 2 A History of Communication The history of communication dates back to the earliest signs of human life and it can range from simple processes of exchange to full mass communication. object. It is a form of proto-writing where ideas are transmitted through out drawings. place or event by illustration.000 BC and they were the basis of cuneiform writing and hieroglyphs and began developing into logographic writing systems around 5. are defined as conventional representations of a concept. generally. they are telling a story about an event and can be ordered chronological. Thought very simple as form and not well standardized. The next step in the history of communication is petro glyphs …carvings into a rock surface and from archeological findings we know that it took Homo sapiens almost 20. an idea.000 years ago. I.000 years ago. Linia Română. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. The oldest known symbols. It is very possible that the humans of those times used other forms of communication .

cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms. though a few scholars have questioned the Indus Valley script's status as a writing system. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . and numbers. at first only for logograms. By the 26th century BC. Finally. and Hittite. syllables. The pre-Columbian writing systems of the Americas (including among others Olmec and Mayan) are also generally believed to have had independent origins. and from there to others such as Hurrian. often making it difficult to categorize a system uniquely. Most writing systems can be broadly divided into three categories: logographic. The first writing system is generally believed to have been invented in pre-historic Sumer and developed by the late 3rd millennium into cuneiform. however. and the undeciphered Proto-Elamite writing system and Indus Valley script also date to this era. Scripts similar in appearance to this writing system include those for Ugaritic and Old Persian. out of a late Neolithic Chinese system of proto-writing dating back to c. this script had been adapted to another Mesopotamian language. but developed to include phonetic elements by the 2800 BC. this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts. all three may be found in any given writing system in varying proportions. although some experts have noticed similarities Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. The invention of the first writing systems is roughly contemporary with the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic of the late 4th millennium BC. About 2600 BC cuneiform began to represent syllables of spoken Sumerian language. The original Sumerian writing system was derived from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. syllabic and alphabetic (or segmental). This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs. based on pictographic and ideographic elements. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing was gradually replaced about 2700-2000 BC by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the termcuneiform). 6000 BC. By the end of the 4th millennium BC. Akkadian. using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. Linia Română. The Chinese script may have originated independently of the Middle Eastern scripts.A History of Communication 3 The oldest-known forms of writing were primarily logographic in nature. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. around the 16th century BC (early Shang Dynasty).

plus a vowel (or no vowel) to be supplied by the native speaker. The first pure alphabets (properly.A History of Communication 4 between Olmec writing and Shang writing that seem to suggest that Mesoamerican writing was imported from China [3]. mapping single symbols to single phonemes. although seemingly alphabetic in nature. to transcribe loan words and foreign names. and. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. However. with the sole exception of Korean Hangul. By 2700 BC Egyptian writing had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language. All subsequent alphabets around the world. "abjads". or been inspired by one of its descendants. and was never used by them to encode Egyptian speech. Over the next five centuries this Semitic "alphabet" (really a syllabary like Phoenician writing) seems to have spread north. Linia Română. but by then alphabetic principles had already been incorporated into Egyptian hieroglyphs for a millennium (see Middle Bronze Age alphabets). the original Egyptian unilateralism was not a system. have either descended from it. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms. to write grammatical inflections. In the Middle Bronze Age an apparently "alphabetic" system is thought by some to have been developed in central Egypt around 1700 BC for or by Semitic workers. later. but we cannot read these early writings and their exact nature remain open to interpretation. but not necessarily each phoneme to a symbol) emerged around 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”.

and crusades. and by means of gestures. spreading news and influencing the reputations of warriors. would have to rely on travelling merchants by word of mouth for far-off news. communication for the wealthy and the literate. or to aid in battle). specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. Students too journeyed extensively from place to place in order to sit at the feet of famous masters. The lower classes however. the relics of saints were carried to distant lands to collect alms. medieval society experimented with such forms and methods of communication as symbols. are still in use today. Medieval Communication In the Middle Ages. and troubadours traveled to gain patronage and to extend their repertoire. Lesser officials and messengers traveled on government business.A History of Communication 5 II. Knights sought out tourneys and distant wars to advance their fortunes and reputations. Medieval kings and great nobles were continually on the road. in order to maintain privacy and made sure no one would tamper with their letters. Important news would be spread by bards who would sing ballads (long poetry or songs) at festivals of meal time detailing events such as new marriage. heroes. birth or deaths of important people within the community. Marriage took brides to foreign courts where they served as cultural ambassadors. and kings. Linia Română. Through the use of propaganda. Literacy was largely limited to Latin. or missions we might say. for instance. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. thus elaborating features of communication which. and engaged in international trade. and the manipulation of symbolic objects (thus. and possessed principally by churchmen and nuns so the transmission of ideas occurred mainly through the spoken vernacular word. images. Minstrels. Parchment made from goat or sheep skin would be used and were sealed with wax with a distinct emblem unique to the sender. Merchants and carriers transported goods to regional fairs. however modified. stereotypes. consisted in letters and private messengers in order to tell each other news. to recover possessions appropriated by nobles. Artists were invited to decorate manuscripts and architects to raise buildings. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. and slogans. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . Those who challenged traditional norms also came to rely on the efficiency of communicative systems to expand their ranks with adherents. Christianity stimulated pilgrimages. jongleurs.

The Republic of Genoa equipped their system of watch towers in the Mediterranean Sea with pigeon posts.The "London Gazette" was the first English newspaper. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. Communication between and within countries was tedious and primarily sent word-of-mouth.D. In 1860. This made it relatively easy to breed from the birds that repeatedly found their way home over long distances. who later founded Reuters press agency. The Diamond Sutra. The wild rock pigeon has an innate homing ability. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. this is called pigeon post.The first press in the American Colonies was established in Cambridge.D. Pigeons can only go back to one "mentally marked" point that they have identified as their home. 1738 A. meaning that it will generally return to its own nest and its own mate. Linia Română.D. and some sporting events.Homing Pigeons The homing pigeon is a variety of domesticated Rock Pigeon that has been selectively bred to be able to find its way home over extremely long distances. Paul Reuter. used a fleet of over 45 pigeons to deliver news and stock prices between Brussels and Aachen. This is possible where a message is written on thin light paper (such as cigarette paper) and rolled into a small tube attached to the bird's leg. Homing pigeons are called carrier pigeons when they are used to carry messages. 1828 A. . usually made from Mulberry wood. 1665 A.D. Messenger pigeons were used as early as 1150 in Baghdad and also later by Genghis Khan. science was looked upon with distrust and often.The first comprehensive dictionary was published by Noah Webster. Mass. White homing pigeons are used in Release Dove ceremonies at weddings. the terminals of early telegraph lines.D. Books were a rarity. . .The first daily newspaper was the "Pennsylvania Evening Post and Daily Advertiser". as heresy. . and writing was the province of the powerful. 1539 A. So "pigeon mail" can only work when the sender is actually holding the receiver's pigeons. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . Other books like this were printed with wood blocks. 1639 A. Printed Books The oldest printed book known is a Chinese religious book. The outcome of the Battle of Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. Their average flying speed over moderate distances is around 48 km/h.A History of Communication 6 Civilization progressed slowly. 1150 AD . funerals. .Mexico began using the first printing press in the Western Hemisphere.

Morse’s Code Another main of communication was developed in the last years of the Middle Ages. He discovered how to make a good ink that would print with metal type. because of interest and politics. maybe miles apart. Flights as long as 1800 kilometers have been recorded by birds in pigeon racing competition. When the key is let go very fast. 1844. On May 24.A History of Communication 7 Waterloo was also first delivered by a pigeon to England. it is the oldest full length volume printed. but unfortunately. Germany. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . printing spread all over Europe. "What hath God wrought!" through the telegraph machine. New York and sent the message. Linia Română. Gutenburg was the first to use a press to print the Bible. these dashes and dots would spell out words. it was a screw press that worked very much like a wine press. From Gutenburg's press in Mainz. to Baltimore. printing did not really grow again until the 18th century. the pulse is a dash. Morse stretched wires from Washington D. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”.C. Samuel Finley Breese Morse had the brilliant idea to string a wire between two points. The Printing Press Johann Gutenburg invented an actual printing press in 1450. A key at one end is pressed and it closes the electrical circuit which sends a pulse of electricity through the wire. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. if the key is held down 3 times longer. The telegraph was a success. the pulse of electricity sent through the wire is a dot. Dashes and dots mixed together form different letters of the alphabet and when sent from a person at one end of the wire to another person at the other end of the wire. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice.

Television. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. is still an excellent tool for getting pictures sent quickly.you won’t get anthrax but some e-mails will be as terminal to your office systems if you aren’t careful. Communications are fundamental to business. the biggest danger here is that too few people re-read what has been written before hitting the ’send’ button. and fuelled an expectation of speed of communication which a century ago would have been unthinkable. Technology has added to the possibilities of travel by horse or the quill pen. which is one of the most popular science channel. The Internet has been described as the greatest information giver ever invented. Internet. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . E-mail . You can find out latest news.A History of Communication 8 III. Linia Română.some form of communication is at the heart of every business process whether internal or external. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. relax watching a movie or listening to music or just watch researchers work on Discovery Channel. These latest inventions had influenced people's minds and created a new point of view towards the system of communication in nowadays. Some people think that the major use of this is as a tool for making calls.the last ’big thing’ before e-mail usurped it. Fax . radio are just few of the 20th century inventions. Mobile phone . I don't know how we ever lived without it. Radio is another contemporary invention which provides you with the best music. Also a point of danger for systems . a call to a mobile is to a person.quicker and cheaper than a letter. Modern Communication Today's communication is very developed. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”.if a conventional call is to a location. Television is another information provider.

Paradoxically. New methods of communication were emerging at the time of the Civil War.1 The article analyzes the current state of television systems in a selected group of countries by exploring the political. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 1 Ostertag. television. the successful spread of printing posed another danger. 2006) 2 Ward. cloth. parchment. Television and Public Policy: Change and Continuity in an Era of Global Liberalization (Lawrence Erlbaum. 2007) Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. among others. Stone. David. and technological factors that have shaped the sector in such a short span of time. and news/information. popular music. and the Internet within entertainment.A History of Communication 9 IV. advertising. then write against the Vietnam War. women s rights. that an uncontrollable proliferation of textual materials. indeed. manuscripts lost. Contributors represent countries from all areas of the world. People’s Press: The Journalism of Social Justice Movements (Beacon Press. gay and lesbian issues. magazines. discussions. And the task was not easy in a world in which writing could be destroyed. Photography allowed people to see the war without being there on the battlefront. woman suffrage. Media is represented in books. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. of matter without order or limit. erase. movies. wood. Linia Română. environmentalism. and Arab governments.2 The Internet has presented people in the region with the opportunity to engage in conversations. Not everything written was destined for the archives. Bob. The telegraph allowed messages to be sent electrically over telegraph wires. This was much Movements. and paper all provided media onto which writing was inscribed as a way to ward off loss. or books menaced with destruction. and debates about issues which were previously considered taboo such as religion. and the underground GI press during the fear of oblivion obsessed medieval and early modern Europe. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. much was written on surfaces that allowed one to write. economic. Contemporary Age Ostertag examines the journals and newspapers that grew out of five significant movements: abolitionism. might allow useless texts to multiply and smother thought. People’s .

Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . Photography was relatively new at the time of the Civil War. such as signal towers. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. Cooley. Linia Română. Newspaper reporters traveled by horse and wagon to cover the war. provided communication over short distances. This picture shows a newspaper vendor and cart selling newspapers in a camp. Stories of the war were sent back to their newspaper to be published. These included both newspaper and Army photographers. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. These photographers would travel by horse and wagon to different locations. Traveling to locations with this large camera was not a easy task. Other means of communication. Cameras were much larger than they are today. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice.A History of Communication 10 faster and more reliable than sending messages by horse messenger. Newspaper Vendor and Cart in an Army Camp (Source: Library of Congress) Newspapers not only took news of the war back to the rest of the country. Photographers would often follow armies into battle to get pictures of the battle scene. Department of the South. This picture shows the wagons and camera of Sam A. Taking pictures was a slow and complex process. but also brought news from home to the soldiers.

an artist of Harper's Weekly. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. This photograph shows a group of military telegraph operators. artists would sketch pictures of battlefield. Poles carrying the telegraph wires can be seen leading into the distance. sketching on the battlefield. Linia Română. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. Wood. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. Telegraph Operators during the Civil War (Source: Library of Congress) The telegraph was emerging as a means of sending messages from one location to another electronically. This picture shows Alfred R. Telegraph corps followed troops and erected telegraph poles and wires to provide communication from the battle front. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 .A History of Communication 11 Prior to photography.

Bermuda Hundred. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. Linia Română. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . Virginia. This photograph shows the Butler's signal tower.A History of Communication 12 Signal Tower used during the Civil War (Source: Library of Congress) Tall signal towers were used to send messages short distances.

Table of Contents Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. Linia Română. That didn't stop armies from getting high off the ground to see what the enemy was doing. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . Observation balloons in the sky were used to report on troop movements and battles.A History of Communication 13 Observation Balloon during the Civil War (Source: Library of Congress) Airplanes were not yet invented at the time of the Civil War.

III. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice.page 5 Modern Communication ……………………………………………page 8 Contemporary Communication ……………………………………..page 2 Medieval Communication …………………………………………. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . IV.A History of Communication 14 I. Linia Română. And This Is How It All Started… …………………………………. II.page 9 Bibliography: Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării.

Fernand (1972).uk/viewPage.about. (1992). K..sussexenterprise. Facultatea de Științe Politice Administrative și ale Comunicării.thinkquest. Linia Română. CA: Sage Universitatea “Babeș Bolyai”. Anul Universitar 2009/2010 . J. The Creation of the Media (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University PRess). J.htm viewed at 1st November 2009 Braudel. Comparatively Speaking: Communication and Culture across Space and Time. Blumler. Newbury Park. London: Ed. specializarea Comunicare și Relații Publice.com/library/inventors/bl_history_of_communication.). Susan Emmanuel (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.G. in Economy and Society in Early Modern Europe . & Rosengren.A History of Communication 15 http://www. The Invention of Communication. Armand (1999). 1996). History and Social Science.jsp?id=5541643 viewed at 25th October 2009 http://en. (Eds.wikipedia.org/5729/ viewed at 30th October 2009 http://inventors.co.. Peter Burke E. trans.org/wiki/History_of_communication viewed at 27th October 2009 http://library. McLeod.. E. Mattelart. Paul Starr.

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