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RADAR SYSTEM

DESIGN

Spring 2004

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This course is one of the elements in the agreement
between Delft University of Technology and the
Military Technical Academy of Bucharest in the
context of the European Socrates exchange/mobility
program.

THALES has sponsored this course.

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Course instructor: Prof. Piet van Genderen
•Chair on Radar System Design at the Delft University of
Technology in The Netherlands
•Radar consultant at Thales.
•This course is the second time that the course is presented
in Romania (first time was 27-29 November 1996).

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Objectives of the course:

•Understanding opportunities and challenges in radar.


•Orientation on radarfunction more than on radartechnology
•Technology as an enabling factor for functionality
•Physical phenomena from the point of view of their
consequences for the design and the use of radar
•Thread: Case study ATC radar

“Not trivial”.

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Course material:

•Hand outs (on intranet)


•Computer workshops
•video’s.

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Some coments on the history of radar:
1890: De “Dreadnought”s need an invisible seraclight to find
torpedo boats.
1904: Patent of Christian Hulsmeyer. Civil application.
1930: In the UK Watson Watt performs pathfinding experiments,
initially against the directions of his superiors. In the end this
resulted in the Chain Home
1936: In NL C.H.J.A.Staal performs CW experiments over water,
with poor results. This has lead to the introduction of pulsed
radar.
1939: “Bicycle radar” prototype due to Von Weiler and Gratema.

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June 10, 1904: patent.
•Tested on the river
Rhine near Cologne and
later on the river Meuse
in Rotterdam.
•No industrial benefits.
•Hulsmeyer backed off,
disappointed.

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Chain Home.

High complexity. Phased Array! Time of development: few years.

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Germany:
•Wurzburg
•Freya

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In the Netherlands: initially CW radar, tested from the island
of Texel.

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Bicycle radar

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After WWII:
•Introduction of MTI (coherent radarchains); military
development
•many platforms (ships, vehicles, aircraft, spacecraft)
•Introduction of MTD (filterbanks); civil application
•remote sensing (now: resolution 8cmx8cm); both civil and
military.

•Novel applications: automotive radar; ground penetrating


radar; navigation radar; level gauges; checking trunks of trees
for forestry; security systems; detection of living individuals
burried in rubble (after earth quakes),….

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Case Study:Terminal Area Radar

Radar
Runways

Artificial Island near coast

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Operational requirements of the Terminal Area Radar:

• detection range: 100 NM; Pd=80%; RCS=1 m2; SW1; Pfa=10-6


• accuracy at plot level: 30 m x 0.1º
• resolution at plot level: 150m x 3 º
• accuracy at tracklevel: 15m x 0.05º on uniform rectilinear trajectories
• detection in clutterfree areas independent on radial speed
• antenna revolution time: ≤ 4 secs
• double transmitter; detection range to be based upon 1 transmitter
• minimum range 300m
• cone of silence ≤ 60º
• instrumented range 150 NM
• maximum speed +/- 450 m/sec
• automatic initiation of tracks
• extended clutter: seaclutter upto seastate 5; discrete landclutter of RCS=104 m2; wooded hills at >30km.

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Elements from the description of the air miss:
• air picture compilation
– relative position of aircraft
–identification
– 3D
• manoeuvres
• weather
– separation standards
– safety
– comfort
• (on board equipment)

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Elements from the description of the air miss:
• air picture compilation
– relative position of aircraft
– identification
– 3D
• manoeuvres
• weather
– separation standards
– safety
– comfort
• (on board equipment)

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First: many details on radar principles and technology.
The radar described in the Case Study is the thread in
the course.
At the end: case study that integrates (almost) all
elements from the course into a radar systemdesign.

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