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GOLDSMITHS, University of London


AN53023A Anthropology of Development (0.5cu) Autumn Term

READING LIST Autumn 2010

Dr Eliza Darling

Course Requirements

Attendance requirements: The College Regulations state that „Students shall attend on all days
prescribed for their programme unless the College is officially closed.‟ If you are unable to attend due
to illness you must inform the Department Office on the day of the class.

Coursework requirements: one course essay (1,500 typed words), though two essays are

Students who fail to meet the attendance and coursework requirements risk being put on probation.
Please see the Student Handbook for further information.

Course essays are due in as follows in the Autumn Term: essay one (required) at seminars in week
seven, essay two (optional) by the end of term.

No essays will be accepted for marking after the end of the Autumn Term. All essays must be typed.

Mode of assessment: two-question take-home paper (no more than 1,500 words each). Take-
home papers will be available on the Department Office VLE page from 9am on Tuesday 10
May 2011. Take-home papers are due in by 3pm on Tuesday 24 May 2011.

Towards the end of the reading list you will find a guide to writing and presenting course essays and
examined reports. Please study these carefully before you plan and write your coursework essays
and/or any examined reports.

Course Aims and Objectives

Why, sixty years after US President Harry Truman articulated a global imperative to improve the living
standards of the "underdeveloped" world, has development widely been declared a failure, even a disaster?
This course provides a rigorous introduction to critical perspectives in development, positing it as a
profoundly political project born of the Cold War and driven by American imperial ambition, but with deep
ideological roots in the longue durée of modernity from the Enlightenment to the present. We explore both
immanent and transcendent critiques of development, contextualising and evaluating it according to its own
professed objectives as well as its unspoken agendas. And while we view development primarily through the
lens of anthropology and its singular relationship with the subaltern, we also draw on scholarship from
geography, sociology, political science, philosophy, history, political economy, cultural studies, critical race
theory, feminist and postcolonial studies.

The first half of the course introduces students to broad themes in development theory, while the second half
takes a more specific topical approach. We begin with a brief review of the history and politics of applied
anthropology, exploring the uneasy relationship between development anthropology and the anthropology of
development. We then consider the deep history of the development concept, the competing economic
theories underpinning development practice and critique, the spatial aspects of development as a global
relationship, and the role of violence in imposing and resisting development. After the break, we return to
consider topical issues in development, including green, indigenous and participatory development, as well
as the relationship between development and human rights. We conclude the course by exploring the
development process under allegedly "socialist" regimes, comparing and contrasting these approaches to
those of the capitalist core as well as examining the role of development in the transition to post-socialist
Course Structure

The course consists of a series of ten weekly lectures followed by a seminar to further discuss the themes of
the lectures and readings. Four required readings (highlighted in bold under each weekly topic) serve as
common ground for seminar discussions. Please read these carefully before each seminar. Each topic also
contains a substantial number of background readings which students are encouraged to peruse according
to their own particular intellectual interests. A selection of readings from each week is available for download
from the course VLE; others may be found in the library or through electronic access via the University of
London system. Further reading recommendations may be made during the course of the term.

Course Essay Topics

1. Assess the efficacy of the ethnographic method in the formation and evaluation of development policy.
2. Review alternative concepts of historical change in development theory.
3. Provide an evidence-based critique of the “Washington Consensus” policies.
4. Discuss the relationship between race, space and development.
5. Compare and contrast the role of structural versus overt violence in development.
6. Apply the concept of “underdevelopment” to regions within the global “core.”
7. Defend or critique the 1947 AAA “Statement on Human Rights.”
8. Evaluate the significance of performativity in the process of indigenous development.
9. Discuss the role of “the commons” in development.
10. Consider the contention that participation is a new form of tyranny.
11. Explore the relationship between socialism, capitalism, development and modernity.

Week 1
Introduction: Anthropology‟s “Evil Twin?” Development as Applied Anthropology

This lecture serves as a general introduction to the structure and content of the course as well as providing
an opportunity to discuss what it means to take a “critical” approach to the study of development. We review
broad debates around development as a specific form of "applied anthropology" and it use in policy,
advocacy and activism, critically analyzing the relationship between the "anthropology of development" and
"development anthropology." We contextualise our introduction to development by considering the history
and politics of applied anthropology as a mediator between "the west and the rest" at the global scale, from
its advent in the late colonial period with the rise of anthropology as an academic discipline struggling for
both funding and legitimacy, through twentieth-century anthropological involvement in counter-insurgency
politics, to present-day contention over counter-terrorism research and "human terrain systems." We
conclude by positing anthropology as technocracy in preparation for next week's discussion of trusteeship in
the history of development.

Asad, Talal, ed.

1991 Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter. New York: Humanity Books.
Bennett, John W.
1996 Applied and Action Anthropology: Ideological and Conceptual Aspects. Current
Anthropology 37:S23-S53.
Berreman, Gerald
1968 Is Anthropology Alive? Social Responsibility in Social Anthropology. Current Anthropology
Crewe, Emma and Elizabeth Harrison
1998 Whose Development? An Ethnography of Aid. London: Zed Books.
D‟Andrade, Roy
1995 Moral Models in Anthropology. Current Anthropology 36(3):399-408.
Escobar, Arturo
1991 Anthropology and the Development Encounter: The Making and Marketing of
Development Anthropology. American Ethnologist 1991:658-682.
Ferguson, James
1995 Anthropology and Its Evil Twin: Development in the Constitution of a Discipline. In The
Anthropology of Development and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to
Contemporary Neoliberalism. Marc Edelman and Angelique Haugerud, eds. New York:

Garber, Bill and Penny Jenden
1993 Anthropologists or Anthropology? The Band Aid Perspective on Development Projects. In
Practising Development: Social Science Perspectives. Edited by J. Pottier. London and New
York: Routledge.
González, Roberto J.
2008 „Human Terrain:‟ Past, Present and Future Applications. Anthropology Today 24(1):21-27.
Gow, David
2002 Anthropology and Development: Evil Twin or Moral Narrative? Human Organisation
Grillo, Ralph and Alan Rew, eds.
1985 Social anthropology and Development Policy. New York: Tavistock.
Hart, Keith
2002 Anthropologists and Development. Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift 13(1-2):14-21.
Hoben, Allan
1982 Anthropologists and Development. Annual Review of Anthropology 11:349-.
Jorgensen, Joseph G. and Eric R. Wolf
1970 Anthropology on the Warpath in Thailand. The New York Review of Books 15(9):1-13.
Little, Peter and Michael Painter
1995 Discourse, Politics and the Development Process: Reflections on Escobar's “Anthropology
and the Development Encounter.” American Ethnologist 22:602-609.
Malinowski, Bronislaw
1930 The Rationalization of Anthropology and Administration. Africa 3:405-430.
1929 Practical Anthropology. Africa 2:22-38.
Mosse, David
2006 Anti-social Anthropology? Objectivity, Objection, and the Ethnography of Public Policy and
Professional Communities. Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute 12(4):935-956.
2004 Is Good Policy Unimplementable? Reflections on the Ethnography of Aid Policy and
Practice. Development and Change 35:639-671.
Okongwu, Anne Francis and Joan P. Mencher
2000 The Anthropology of Public Policy: Shifting Terrains. Annual Review of Anthropology 29:107-
Ortner, Sherry
1999 Some Futures of Anthropology. American Ethnologist 26(4):984-991.
Price, David
2008 Anthropological Intelligence: The Deployment and Neglect of American Anthropology in the
Second World War. Durham: Duke University Press.
2007 Buying a Piece of Anthropology: Human Ecology and Unwitting Anthropological Research
for the CIA. Anthropology Today 23(3):8-13.
2004 Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI's Surveillance of Activist
Anthropologists. Durham: Duke University Press.
2002 Lessons from Second World War Anthropology: Peripheral, Persuasive, and Ignored
Contributions. Anthropology Today 18(3):14-20.
Rylko-Bauer, Barbara, Merrill Singer and John Van Willigen
2006 Reclaiming Applied Anthropology: Its Past, Present, and Future. American Anthropologist
108(1): 178–190.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy
1995 The Primacy of the Ethical: Propositions for a Militant Anthropology. Current
Anthropology 36 (3):409-420.
Shrestha, Nanda
1995 Becoming a Development Category. In Power of Development. Jonathan Crush, ed.
London: Routledge.
Sider, Gerald M.
2009 Can Anthropology Ever Be Innocent? Anthropology Now 1(1):43-50.
Stirrat, Roderick L.
2008 Mercenaries, Missionaries and Misfits: Representations of Development Personnel.
Critique of Anthropology 28(4):406-425.
Wakin, Eric
1998 Anthropology Goes to War: Professional Ethics and Counterinsurgency in Thailand.
Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for Southeast Asian Studies.

Week 2
The Development of Development: Antecedents and Descendants

While the advent of development as a global industry is widely traced to Truman's 1949 inaugural address,
many of the fundamental ideas which underpin development thinking (progress, science, trusteeship,
evolution) are common to the modernist project in general and predate development as an active strategy,
tracing their roots at least to the mid-Enlightenment period. This week, we consider the longue durée of
development as a concept and its implication in colonial conquest, as well as contextualising development as
a postcolonial project of American empire on the eve of the Cold War, examining theories of development as
communist-containment strategy. We also consider alternative periodicities of development theory in an
attempt to relate technocratic attitudes toward development to the prevailing political economic contexts in
which they have arisen. Finally, we consider the prospects for development theory in the present day in light
of the “post-development” critique, but also within the context of the current recession.

Amin, Samir
1994 Re-Reading the Postwar Period: An Intellectual Itinerary. Michael Wolfers, trans. New York:
Monthly Review Press.
Arndt, Heinz W.
1987 Economic Development: The History of an Idea. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Berman, Marshall
1982 All That Is Solid Melts Into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York: Penguin Books.
Childe, V. Gordon
1950 The Urban Revolution. Town Planning Review 21(1):3-17.
Cooper, Frederick and Randall Packard.
1998 International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of
Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1995 The History and Politics of Development Knowledge. In The Anthropology of Development
and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism. Marc
Edelman and Angelique Haugerud, eds. New York: Blackwell.
Cowen, Michael and Robert Shenton
1996 Doctrines of Development. London: Routledge.
1995 The Invention of Development. In Power of Development. Jonathan Crush, ed.
London: Routledge.
Engerman, David C., eds.
2003 Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War. Amherst: University
of Massachusetts Press.
Esteva, Gustavo
1992 Development. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power.
Wolfgang Sachs, ed. London and New York: Zed Books.
Gardner, Katy and David Lewis
1996 Anthropology, Development and the Crisis of Modernity. In Anthropology, Development and
the Post-Modern Challenge. London: Pluto Press.
Gavin, Francis J.
2004 Gold, Dollars, and Power: The Politics of International Monetary Relations, 1958-1971.
Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Gilman, Nils
2003 Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America. Baltimore: Johns
Hopkins University Press.
Goody, Jack
2004 Capitalism and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hettne, Bjorn
1995 Development Theory and the Three Worlds: Towards an International Political Economy of
Development. Essex: Longman Scientific & Technical.
Hinds, Allister
2001 Britain's Sterling Colonial Policy and Decolonization, 1939-1958. Westport: Greenwood
Hodge, Joseph Morgan
2007 Triumph of the Expert: Agrarian Doctrines of Development and the Legacies of British
Colonialism. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Kothari, Uma
2005 A Radical History of Development Studies: Individuals, Institutions and Ideologies. London
and New York: Zed Books.
Latham, Michael E.

2000 Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and "Nation Building" in the Kennedy
Era. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Leys, Colin
1996 Rise and Fall of Development Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
1995 The Rise and Fall of Development Theory. In The Anthropology of Development
and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary Neoliberalism.
Marc Edelman and Angelique Haugerud, eds. New York: Blackwell.
Price, David
2003 Subtle Means and Enticing Carrots: The Impact of Funding on American Cold War
Anthropology. Critique of Anthropology 23(4): 373-401.
Rapley, John
2002 Understanding Development: Theory and Practice in the Third World. Boulder, Colorado:
Lynee Reinner.
Rahnema, Majid with Victoria Bawtree, eds.
1997 The Post-Development Reader. London and Atlantic Highlands: Zed Books.
Rist, Gilbert
2008 The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith. 3 ed. London: Zed
Said, Edward
1993 Culture and Imperialism. New York: Knopf.
Watts, Michael
1995 A New Deal in Emotions. Theory and Practice and the Crisis of Development. In Power of
Development. Jonathan Crush, ed. London: Routledge.

Week 3
The Political Economy of Development: From Capitalist Triumphalism to Dependency Theory

The development industry is dominated by neoclassical economic theories, from the Keynesian to the
neoliberal, which tout the efficacy of capitalism as a means to improve the quality of life of the desperately
poor. Against this range of theories is set a group of critiques which stand generally united in their contention
that capitalism, far from alleviating widescale impoverishment, produces the very uneven development which
aid policy allegedly seeks to remedy. This week, we examine the economic theories which have underpinned
development theory, from the rise of "stage theory" à la Rostow and Gerschenkron in the 1950s to the
resurrection of Keynesianism engendered by the crisis of neoliberalism in the current "Great Recession." We
pay particular attention to the disparate theories of poverty which have influenced the development paradigm
at different points in postwar history. Finally, we examine critical social scientific perspectives on free market
triumphalism, with a particular emphasis on world systems, dependency and underdevelopment theory.

Abu-Lughod, Janet L.
1989 Before European Hegemony: The World System AD 1250-1350. New York: Oxford
University Press.
Amin, Samir
1974 Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of Underdevelopment. Brian Pear,
trans. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Baran, Paul
1989 The Political Economy of Growth. New York: Monthly Review Press.
1956 The Political Economy of Underdevelopment. Manchester: Manchester School.
Berberoglu, Berch
1992 Theories of Development. In The Political Economy of Development: Development
Theory and the Prospects for Change in the Third World. Albany: State University of
New York Press.
Braudel, Fernand
th th
1984 Civilization and Capitalism, 15 -18 Centuries, Volume 3: The Perspective of the World.
Siân Reynolds, trans. London: Collins.
th th
1982 Civilization and Capitalism, 15 -18 Centuries, Volume 2: The Wheels of Commerce. Siân
Reynolds, trans. London: Collins.
th th
1981 Civilization and Capitalism, 15 -18 Centuries, Volume 1: The Structures of Everyday Life.
Siân Reynolds, trans. London: Collins.
Burkett, Paul and Martin Hart-Landsberg
2000 Development, Crisis, and Class Struggle: Learning from Japan and East Asia. London:
Palgrave Macmillan.

Chew, Sing C. and Robert A Denemark, eds.
1996 The Underdevelopment of Development: Essays in Honor of Andre Gunder Frank.
Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Chilcote, Ronald H.,
1981 Special Issue: Dependency and Marxism. Latin American Perspectives 8(3/4):3-117.
Cristóbal, Kay
1989 Latin American Theories of Development and Underdevelopment. London and New York:
Cockcroft, James D., André Gunder Frank and Dale L. Johnson
1972 Dependence and Underdevelopment: Latin America's Political Economy. Garden City:
Anchor Books.
De Sardan, J.P. Olivier
1999 A Moral Economy of Corruption in Africa? The Journal of Modern African Studies 37(1):25-
Frank, Andre Gunder
1978 World Accumulation, 1492-1789. New York: Monthly Review Press.
1969 Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America: Historical Studies of Chile and Brazil.
New York: Monthly Review Press.
Frank, Andre Gunder and Barry Gills, eds.
1993 The World System: Five Hundred or Five Thousand Years? London and New York:
Harvey, David
2005 Freedom‟s Just Another Word. In A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Klein, Naomi
2007 The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Klein, Naomi and Neil Smith
2008 The Shock Doctrine: A Discussion. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich
1996 Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. London and Chicago: Junius.
Nordstrom, Carolyn
2004 Why Don‟t We Study the Shadows? In Shadows of War: Violence, Power, and International
Profiteering in the Twenty-First Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Peet, Richard and Elaine Hartwick
2009 Theories of Development: Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives. New York: Guilford Press.
Rahnema, Majid
1992 Poverty. In The Development Dictionary. A Guide to Power as Knowledge. Wolfgang
Sachs, ed. London: ZED Books.
Rodney, Walter
1982 How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington: Howard University Press.
Topik, Steven
1998 Dependency Revisited: Saving the Baby from the Bathwater. Latin American Perspectives
Sweezy, Paul M.
1956 The Theory of Capitalist Development. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Wallerstein, Immanuel
2004 World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham: Duke University Press.
1991 Geopolitics and Geoculture: Essays on the Changing World-System. Cambridge and New
York: Cambridge University Press.
1989 The Modern World System III: The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-
Economy, 1730s-1840s. New York: Academic Press.
1980 The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-
Economy, 1600-1750. New York: Academic Press.
1974 The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-
Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.

Week 4
The Globalisation of Apartheid: The Geography of Development

Development is an explicitly spatial relationship on a global scale. At the heart of this relationship lie nation-

states and their geographical boundaries, the policing of which is essential for the maintenance of the
condition of uneven global development. This week - and following on explicitly from the world systems and
underdevelopment theories explored in week 3 - we consider perspectives on the geography of
development, with a special emphasis on borders, nationalism, statelessness, and territorialisation, exploring
the relationship between development and space through the positing of critical questions about the world
order in which development occurs. Is control over immigration intrinsically connected to the reproduction of
global inequality? Why are immigrants and refugees created as a problem and in what sense do they
threaten the "natural order of things?" How and when are borders more permeable to commodity and capital
flows than they are to people? In what ways are immigration controls a new form of global apartheid?

Anderson, Benedict
1983 Imagined Communities. New York: Verso.
Arrighi, Giovanni.
2009 The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times. London and
New York: Verso.
Binford, Leigh
2003 Migrant Remittances and (Under)Development in Mexico. Critique of Anthropology
Bornstein, Avram S.
2002 Borders and the Utility of Violence: State Effects on the `Superexploitation' of West
Bank Palestinians. Critique of Anthropology 22(2): 201-220.
Chock, Phyllis Pease
1994 Remaking and Unmaking “Citizen” in Policy-Making Talk about Immigration. PoLAR: Political
and Legal Anthropology Review 17(2):45-56.
Dahbour, Omar and Micheline R. Ishay, eds.
1999 The Nationalism Reader. New York: Humanity Books.
Fassin, Didier
2005 Compassion and Repression: The Moral Economy of Immigration Policies in France.
Cultural Anthropology 20(3):362-387.
Gellner, Ernest
1983 Nations and Nationalism. London: Blackwell.
Good, Anthony
2004 Undoubtedly an Expert? Anthropologists in British Asylum Courts. Journal of the Royal
Anthropological Institute 10(1):113-133.
Goody, Jack
2006 The Theft of History. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Graeber, David
1995 The Globalization Movement: Some Points of Clarification. In The Anthropology of
Development and Globalization: From Classical Political Economy to Contemporary
Neoliberalism. Marc Edelman and Angelique Haugerud, eds. New York: Blackwell.
Gupta, Akhil
1992 The Song of the Nonaligned World: Transnational Identities and the Reinscription of
Space in Late Capitalism. Cultural Anthropology 7(1):63-79.
Gupta, Akhil and James Ferguson
1992 Beyond “Culture:” Space, Identity and the Politics of Difference. Cultural Anthropology
Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri
1994 Labour of Dionysus: A Critique of the State-Form. Minneapolis and London: University of
Minnesota Press.
Hart, Keith
2006 The Globalisation of Apartheid. At The Memory Bank.
Harvey, David
2003 Globalization and the Spatial Fix. Geographische Review 2:23-30.
Heyman, Josiah
1995 Putting Power in the Anthropology of Bureaucracy: The Immigration and Naturalisation
Service at the Mexico-United States Border. Current Anthropology 36(2):261-287.
Jessop, Bob
1990 State Theory: Putting Capitalist States in Their Place. University Park: The Pennsylvania
State University Press.
Malkki, Lisa
1995 Refugees and Exile: From “Refugee Studies” to the National Order of Things. Annual
Review of Anthropology 24:495-523.
1992 National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity

among Scholars and Refugees. Cultural Anthropology 7(1):24-44.
McGee, T.G.
1995 Eurocentrism and Geography: Reflections on Asian Urbanization. In Power of Development.
Jonathan Crush, ed. London: Routledge.
Medina, Laurie Kroshus
1997 Development Policies and Identity Politics: Class and Collectivity in Belize. American
Ethnologist 24(1):148-169.
Shore, Chris
1997 Ethnicity, Xenophobia and the Boundaries of Europe. International Journal on Minority and
Group Rights 4(3/4:247-262.
Smith, Neil
2008 Uneven Development: Nature, Capital, and the Production of Space. Atlanta: University of
Georgia Press.
Wolf, Eric
1982 Europe and the People Without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Week 5
Violence and Development: Terror, Resistance, Revolution

This week we consider the role of violence - structural and overt - in the development process. We begin by
exploring some of the anthropological literature on violence, considering especially the valorisation and
legitimacy of state versus extra-state violence, particularly through the juxtaposition of "terror" and
"terrorism." Drawing on themes from the previous week's lecture, we consider the violent means through
which the geography of uneven development is both maintained and contested. We go on to examine the
role of organised state violence in the imposition of development, as well as subaltern violence as a means
of resisting or subverting development, and the potential of revolution as an alternative means to
development. Finally, we consider theories which posit poverty, disease and inequality as forms of structural
violence, and consider the competing discourses of development as both forcefully-imposed social change
and potential antidote to the brutality of immiseration. This week we are pleased to welcome Muzna Al-Masri
for a guest lecture on violence and development.

Abu-Lughod, Lila
2002 Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism
and Its Others. American Anthropologist 104(3):783-790.
2000 Veiled Sentiments: Honor and Poetry in a Bedouin Society. Berkeley: University of
California Press.
1990 The Romance of Resistance: Tracing Transformations of Power Through Bedouin
Women. American Ethnologist 17(1):41-55.
Alvares, Claude Alphonso
1995 Science, Development and Violence: The Revolt Against Modernity. Mumbai: Oxford
University Press India.
Anderson, Mary B., ed.
2000 Options for Aid in Conflict: Lessons from Field Experience. Cambridge: The
Collaborative for Development Action, Inc.
Arce, Alberto and Norman Long, eds.
2000 Anthropology, Development, and Modernities: Exploring Discourses, Counter-Tendencies,
and Violence. London and New York: Routledge.
Baines, Stephen Grant
1999 Waimiri-Atroari Resistance in the Presence of an Indigenist Policy of „Resistance.‟ Critique of
Anthropology 19(3):211-226.
1991 Dispatch II. Anthropology and Commerce in Brazilian Amazonia: Research with the Waimiri-
Atroari Banned. Critique of Anthropology 11(4):395-400.
Barabas, Alicia and Miguel Alberto Bartolomé
1974 Hydraulic Development and Ethnocide: The Mazatec and Chinantec People of Oaxaca,
Mexico. Critique of Anthropology 1:74-102.
Bello, Walden F., Shea Cunningham and Li Kheng Poh
1998 A Siamese Tragedy: Development and Disintegration in Modern Thailand. London: Zed
Bello, Walden F., Shea Cunningham and Bill Rau
1994 Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment, and Global Poverty. London: Pluto.

Berry, R. Albert
2004 Participation, Violence, and Development in Four Andean Countries. Latin American
Research Review 39(3):185-204.
Coleman, Laura
2007 The Gendered Violence of Development: Imaginative Geographies of Exclusion in the
Imposition of Neo-liberal Capitalism. British Journal of Politics and International Relations
Earle, Duncan
1991 Measuring the Maya Disconnection: Violence and Development in Guatemala. American
Ethnologist 18(4):793-798.
Escobar, Arturo
2004 Development, Violence and the New Imperial Order. Development 47(1):15-21.
Fanon, Frantz
1963 Concerning Violence. In The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Weidenfeld.
Foucault, Michel
1980 Power and Strategies. In Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-
1977. Collin Gordon, ed. New York: Pantheon.
Kapadia, Karin, ed.
2002 The Violence of Development: The Politics of Identity, Gender and Social Inequalities in
India. London and New York: Zed Books.
Kothari, Smitu, Wendy Harcourt
2004 The Violence of Development: Special Thematic Issue. Development 47(1):1-123.

Lavie, Smadar
1994 The Poetics of Military Occupation: Mzeina Allegories of Bedouin Identity Under Israeli and
Egyptian Rule. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lockhart, Chris
2008 The Life and Death of a Street Boy in East Africa: Everyday Violence in the Time
of AIDS. Medical Anthropology Quarterly 22(1):94-115.
Marchand, Marianne H.
2008 The Violence of Development and the Migration/Insecurities Nexus: Labour Migration
in a North American Context. Third World Quarterly 29(7):1375-1388.
Price, David
1989 Before the Bulldozer: The Nambiquara and the World Bank. Cabin John: Seven Locks
Saldaña-Portillo, María Josefina
2003 The Revolutionary Imagination in the Americas and the Age of Development. Durham: Duke
University Press.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy and Philippe Bourgois, eds.
2004 Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology. Blackwell.
Schrijvers, Joke
1993 The Violence of "Development:” A Choice for Intellectuals. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
Sen, Amartya Kumar
2001 The Perspective of Freedom. Development as Freedom. Oxford and New York: Oxford
University Press.
Shiva, Vandana
1991 The Violence of the Green Revolution: Third World Agriculture, Ecology and Politics.
London: Zed Books.
Sluka, Jeffrey
2000 State Terror and Anthropology. In Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Uvin, Peter
1998 Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford: Kumerian Press.

Week 6
Optional Module: Development and Underdevelopment in the Core

The term "development" as employed in this course invokes a specific meaning of the term, referring
primarily to the political economic relationship between rich and poor nation-states in the postwar era.
Development, in this sense, means "international development." Yet development is a commonplace term
with a far broader meaning in the vernacular of the core. This optional module allows students to explore the

uses of the term "development" when applied to the already-developed world, and more significantly, to seek
out commonalities between this type of development and the international development addressed in the
bulk of this course. The readings below explore such concepts as urban development, rural development,
community development, etc. as they apply to the capitalist "west." Are parts of the allegedly developed
capitalist core in fact "underdeveloped?" Does the core contain within it its own political, economic and
geographical periphery? What commonalities across national borders are masked by the rhetorical
distinction between development types?

Brash, Julian
2004 The Work of 9/11: Myth, History and the Contradictions of the Post-fiscal Crisis Consensus.
Critique of Anthropology 24(1):79-103.
Brenner, Neil and Nik Theodore
2002 Spaces of Neoliberalism: Urban Restructuring in North America and Western Europe.
Oxford: Blackwell.
Brown and Louis E. Swanson, eds.
2003 Challenges for Rural America in the Twenty-First Century. University Park: The
Pennsylvania State University Press.
Castells, Manuel
1989 The Informational City: Economic Restructuring and Urban Development. Oxford: Blackwell
Davis, Mike
1992 City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. New York: Vintage Books.
Dehavenon, Anna Lou, ed.
1996 There's No Place Like Home: Anthropological Perspectives on Housing and Homelessness
in the United States. Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd
1993 U.S. Capitalist Development Since 1776: Of, By, and For Which People? New York: M.E.
DuPuis, E. Melanie
1996 In the Name of Nature: Ecology, Marginality, and Rural Land Use Planning During the New
Deal. In Creating the Countryside: The Politics of Rural and Environmental Discourse. E.
Melanie DuPuis and Peter Vandergeest, eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Edgar, Bill, Joe Doherty and Henk Meert, eds.
2002 Access to Housing: Homelessness and Vulnerability in Europe. Bristol: Policy Press.
Goode, Judith and Jeff Maskovsky, eds.
2001 The New Poverty Studies: The Ethnography of Power, Politics, and Impoverished People in
the United States. New York and London: New York University Press.
Harvey, David
1990 The Condition of Postmodernity. Cambridge and Oxford: Blackwell.
1989 The Urban Experience. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Henderson, George L.
1998 California and the Fictions of Capital. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Lyson, Thomas A. and William W. Falk
1989 Forgotten Places: Uneven Development in Rural America. Wichita: University Press of
Marsden, Terry
2006 The Road Towards Sustainable Rural Development: Issues of Theory, Policy and Practice in
a European Context. In The Handbook of Rural Studies. Paul Cloke, Terry Marsden and
Patrick Mooney, eds. London: Sage.
Marsden, Terry
1993 Constructing the Countryside. London: UCL Press.
Murdoch, Jonathan and Terry Marsden
1996 Reconstituting Rurality: Class, Community and Power in the Development Process. London
and New York: Routledge.
Riches, Graham, ed.
1996 First World Hunger: Food Security and Welfare Politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Smith, Neil
1996 The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. London and New York:
Squires, Gregory D.
1994 Capital and Communities in Black and White: Intersections of Race, Class and Uneven
Development. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Susser, Ida

1996 The Construction of Poverty and Homelessness in US Cities. Annual Review of
Anthropology 25:411-435.
1982 Norman Street: Poverty and Politics in an Urban Neighborhood. New York: Oxford University

Week 7
Development and Human Rights: Universalism and Relativism

In 1986, the United Nations declared development an inalienable human right. This week, we examine the
relationship between development and rights, with a particular emphasis on the concept of "human rights."
We lay the groundwork for this discussion through a review of the problematic treatment of human rights by
the discipline of anthropology, with its historical tendency toward particularism and relativism. In 1947 the
American Association of Anthropologists rejected the first UN Declaration of Human Rights. Why? Are
human rights one more form of Western imperialism? Should there be universal norms and categories for
justice? What are the problems of the cultural relativist position? We then return to the issue of
"development" as a fundamental human right, particularly in the context of the emergent tension between
individual and collective rights. These issues serve as a brief introduction to some of the themes that many
of you will explore further in the Anthropology of Rights course.

Alson, Philip and Mary Robinson, eds.

2005 Human Rights and Development: Towards Mutual Reinforcement. Oxford: Oxford University
Cornwall, Andrea and Celestine Nyamu-Musembi
2004 Putting the “Rights-Based” Approach to Development into Perspective. Third World
Quarterly 28(8):1415-1437.
Cowan, Jane K., Marie-Bénédicte Dembour, and Richard A. Wilson, eds.
2001 Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2001.
Dembour, Marie-Benedict
1996 Human Rights Talk and Anthropological Ambivalence: The Particular Contexts of
Universal Claims. In Inside and Outside the Law: Anthropological Studies of Authority
and Ambiguity. Olivia Harris, ed. London and New York: Routledge.
De Vos, Pol,
2009 Health through People's Empowerment: A Rights-Based Approach to Participation.
Health and Human Rights 11(1):23-35.
Donnelly, Jack
1989 Universal Human Rights In Theory and Practice. New York: Cornell University Press.
Engle, Karen
2001 From Scepticism to Embrace: Human Rights and the American Anthropological
Association from 1947–1999. Human Rights Quarterly 23(3):536–559.
Farmer, Paul
2005 Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley:
University of California Press.
Freire, Germán
2003 Tradition, Change and Land Rights: Land Use and Territorial Strategies among the
Piaroa. Critique of Anthropology 23(4):349–372.
Geertz, Clifford
1984 Anti Anti-Relativism. American Anthropologist 86:263.
Goodale, Mark
2009 Surrendering to Utopia: An Anthropology of Human Rights. Stanford: Stanford University
2006 Toward a Critical Anthropology of Human Rights. Current Anthropology 47(3):485-511.
Goodale, Mark, ed.
2009 Human Rights: An Anthropological Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
Guha-Khasnobis, Basudeb, Shabd S. Acharya and Benjamin Davis, eds.
2007 Food Insecurity, Vulnerability and Human Rights Failure. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jean-Klein, Iris and Annelise Riles
2005 Anthropology and Human Rights Administrations: Expert Observation and Representation
After the Fact. PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 28 (2):173-202.
Johnston, Barbara Rose

1997 Life and Death Matters: Human Rights and the Environment at the End of the Millennium.
Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.
Jordon, Ann D.
2002 Human Rights or Wrongs? The Struggle for a Rights-Based Response to Trafficking
in Human Beings. Gender and Development 10(1):28-37.
Kalny, Eva
2009 Against Superciliousness: Revisiting the Debate 60 Years after the Adoption of the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights. Critique of Anthropology 29(4):371-395.
Karlsson, Beppe, ed.
2005 Human Rights: An Anthropological Enquiry. Chennai: Earthworm Books.
Merry, Sally Engle
2001 Changing Rights, Changing Culture. In Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives.
Cowan, Jane K., Marie-Benedict Dembour and Richard Wilson, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
Messer, Ellen
1993 Anthropology and Human Rights. Annual Review of Anthropology 22: 221-249.
Montgomery, Heather
2001 Imposing Rights? A Case Study of Child Prostitution in Thailand. In Culture and Rights.
Anthropological Perspectives. J. Cowan, Marie Benedict Dembour and Richard Wilson, eds.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moore, Sally F.
2005 Law and Anthropology: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
Nanda, Ved P., George W. Shepherd, Jr. and Eileen McCarthy-Arnolds, eds.
1993 World Debt and the Human Condition: Structural Adjustment and the Right to Development.
Westport: Greenwood Press.
Rajagopal, Balakrishnan
2003 International Law from Below: Development, Social Movements, and Third World
Resistance. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy
2004 Death Squads and Democracy in Northeast Brazil: Mobilising Human Rights Discourses in
the Defense of Children. Paper presented at Law and Disorder Conference, Harvard
Uvin, Peter
2004 Human Rights and Development. West Hartford: Kumerian Press.
Wilson, Richard A.
2003 Human Rights in Global Perspective: Anthropological Studies of Rights, Claims and
Entitlements. London and New York: Routledge.
Wilson, Richard A., ed.
1996 Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives. London and Chicago:
Pluto Press.

Week 8
Indigenous Development: Rights, Sovereignty, Advocacy

This week, we critically explore the rise of an international agenda for the protection and promotion of
indigenous peoples through the concepts of "indigenous rights" and "indigenous knowledge systems," paying
particular attention to the role of anthropologists as advocates and activists for indigenous interests. This
lecture draws on themes from week 7, especially related to collective rights, cultural property and heritage,
but also appeals to themes from week 4 on territorialisation in a critical interrogation of the very concept of
indigeneity. We also consider some of the issues of representation and agency at stake, asking crucial
questions about who speaks for whom and what unintended consequences might result. What are the
problems entailed in speaking about indigenous peoples? Finally, looking forward to week 9, we consider the
relationship between indigenous development and the greening of development, reviewing the concept of
the "ecologically noble savage" and its modern-day function in legitimising particular development strategies.

Albert, Bruce
1997 „Ethnographic Situation' and Ethnic Movements: Notes on Post-Malinowskian Fieldwork.
Critique of Anthropology 17(1):53-65.
Albro, Robert
2005 The Culture of Democracy and Bolivia‟s Indigenous Movements. Critique of Anthropology

Alexander, Catherine
2004 Review of Michael Browne's “Who Owns Native Culture.” PoLAR: Political and Legal
Anthropology Review 27:113-128.
Barnard, Alan
2006 Kalahari Revisionism, Vienna, and the “Indigenous Peoples” Debate (and Discussion on the
Concept of Indigeneity). Social Anthropology 14:1-32.
Baviskar, Amita
2005 In the Belly of the River: Tribal Conflicts over Development in the Narmada Valley. New
Delhi: Oxford University Press.
1996 Reverence Is Not Enough: Ecological Marxism and Indian Adivasis. In Creating the
Countryside: The Politics of Rural and Environmental Discourse. E. Melanie DuPuis and
Peter Vandergeest, eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Benavides, O. Hugo
2004 Anthropology‟s Native „Conundrum:‟ Uneven Histories and Developments. Critique of
Anthropology 24(2):159-178.
Beteille, Andre
1998 The Idea of Indigenous People. Current Anthropology 39:187.
Bowen, John
2000 Should We Have a Universal Concept of “Indigenous Peoples‟ Rights?” Ethnicity and
Essentialism in the Twenty-First Century. Anthropology Today 16:12-16.
Brown, Michael F.
2003 Who Owns Native Culture? Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
1998 Can Culture Be Copyrighted? Current Anthropology 39:193.
Brulotte, Ronda
2009 "Yo soy nativo de aquí": The Ambiguities of Race and Indigeneity in Oaxacan Craft
Tourism. The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 14(2):457-482.
Collier, Jane
1999 Models of Indigenous Justice in Chiapas, Mexico: A Comparison of State and Zinancanteco
Visions. PoLAR 22:94-100.
Conklin, Beth and Laura Graham
1995 The Shifting Middle Ground: Amazonian Indians and Eco-Politics. American
Anthropologist 97(4):695-710.
Karlsson, Beppe
2003 Anthropology and the “Indigenous Slot:” Claims To and Debates About Indigenous People‟s
Status in India. Critique of Anthropology 23(4):403-423.
Kenrick, Justin and Jerome Lewis
2004 The Troubled Politics of “Indigeneity.” Anthropology Today 20:4-10.
Kirsch, Stuart
2002 Anthropology and Advocacy. Critique of Anthropology 22:175.
2005 The Reinvention of Primitive Society: Transformations of a Myth. New York: Routledge.
Kuper, Adam
2003 The Return of the Native. Current Anthropology 44(3):389-402.
Shah, Alpa
2007 The Dark Side of Indigeneity: Indigenous Rights, Politics and Development in India. History
Compass 5(6): 1806-1832.
Stavenhagen, Rodolfo
1996 Indigenous Rights. Some Conceptual Problems. In Constructing Democracy: Human Rights,
Citizenship, and Society in Latin America. Elizabeth Jelin & Eric Hershberg, eds. Boulder,
Colorado: Westview Press.
Sillitoe, Paul
1998 The Development of Indigenous Knowledge: A New Applied Anthropology. Current
Anthropology 39(2):223-252.
Sillitoe, Paul, Alan Bicker, and Johan Pottier, eds.
2002 Participating in Development: Approaches To Indigenous Knowledge. London: Routledge.
Smith, William D.
2004 The Topology of Autonomy: Markets, States, Soil and Self-determination in Totonacapan.
Critique of Anthropology 24(4):403-429.
Stephen, Lynn
1998 Between NAFTA and Zapata: Responses To Restructuring the Commons in Chiapas and
Oaxaca, Mexico. In Privatizing Nature: Political Struggles for the Global Commons. Michael
Goldman, ed. London: Pluto Press.
Warren, Kay

1998 Indigenous Movements and Their Critics: Pan-Mayan Activism in Guatemala. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Willmsen, Edwin
1989 Land Filled with Flies: A Political Economy of the Kalahari. Chicago: Chicago University
Wright, Robin M.
1988 Anthropological Presuppositions of Indigenous Advocacy. Annual Review of Anthropology

Week 9
Green Development: Conservation, Disaster, Sustainability

In this week's lecture, we examine the greening of development and its attendant tropes of sustainability. In
recent years public attention has focused on the protection of natural resources, especially water, forests
and wildlife, from human technological impact. The received wisdom is that our environment is at risk - the
kinds of risk that previous generations did not face. The ecological romanticism at the heart of these
concerns is underpinned by the evolutionist idea that first there was nature and then man‟s technological
advances progressively altered and often destroyed it. But are the images of wilderness that stand for the
last remaining place where civilisation has not yet touched nature a product of human history that say more
about the unexamined longings and desires of its producers than about the so-called preservation of the
natural world? In what sense can we talk of deforestation as a “lie of the land?” What does "sustainable
development" actually seek to sustain?

Adams, W.M.
1995 Green Development Theory? Environmentalism and Sustainable Development. In
Jonathan Crush, ed. Power of Development. London and New York: Routledge.
Braidotti, Rosi
1994 Women, the Environment and Sustainable Development: Emergence of the Theme and
Different Views. In Rosi Braidotti Women, the Environment, and Sustainable
Development: Towards a Theoretical Synthesis. London: ZED Books.
Carruyo, Light
2008 Producing Knowledge, Protecting Forests: Rural Encounters with Gender,
Ecotourism, and International Aid in the Dominican Republic. University Park:
Pennsylvania State University Press.
Chatterjee, Pratap and Matthias Finger
1994 The Earth Brokers: Power, Politics and World Development. London and New York:
Croll, Elisabeth and David Parkin
1992 Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment and Development. London and New
York: Routledge.
Greenberg, James B.
1997 A Political Ecology of Structural-Adjustment Policies: The Case of the Dominican Republic.
Culture & Agriculture 19(3):85-93.
Goldman, Michael
2005 Imperial Nature: The World Bank and Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Helmreich, Stefan
1999 Digitizing 'Development': Balinese Water Temples, Complexity and the Politics of Simulation.
Critique of Anthropology 19:249-265.
Hewitt, Kenneth
1995 Sustainable Disasters? Perspectives and Powers in the Discourse of Calamity. In
Power of Development. Jonathan Crush, ed. London: Routledge.
Katz, Cindi
1998 Whose Nature, Whose Culture? Private Productions of Space and the “Preservation”
of Nature. In Remaking Reality: Nature at the Millennium. Bruce Braun and Noel
Castree, eds. New York and London: Routledge.
Kurian, Priya A.
2000 Engendering the Environment? Gender in the World Bank’s Environmental Policies.
Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate.
Leach, Melissa and Robin Mearns

1996 Environmental Change and Policy: Challenging Received Wisdom in Africa. In The Lie
of the Land: Challenging Received Wisdom on the African Environment. Melissa
Leach and Robin Mearns, eds. London: International African Institute.
Mackenzie, Fiona
1995 Selective Silence: A Feminist Encounter with Environmental Discourse in Colonial Africa. In
Power of Development. Jonathan Crush, ed. London: Routledge.
McAfee, Kathleen
1999 Selling Nature to Save It? Biodiversity and the Rise of Green Developmentalism.
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 17(2):133-154.
Nygren, Anja
1999 Local Knowledge in the Environment-Development Discourse: From Dichotomies to Situated
Knowledges. Critique of Anthropology 19: 267-288.
Peet, Richard and Michael Watts
1996 Liberation Ecology: Development, Sustainability, and Environment in an Age of Market
Triumphalism. In Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movements.
Richard Peet and Michael Watts, eds. New York: Routledge.
Pugh, Cedric
2000 Squatter Settlements: Their Sustainability, Architectural Contributions, and Socio-Economic
Roles. Cities 17(5):325-337.
Rangan, Haripriya
1996 From Chipko to Uttaranchal: Development, Environment and Social Protest in Garwhal
Himalayas, India. In Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movements.
Richard Peet and Michael Watts, eds. New York: Routledge.
Shah, Alpa
2006 Elephants, Indigenous Communities and Environment: The Politics of Claims in India's
Jharkhand. Paper presented at the European Association of South Asian Studies
Conference in Leiden.
Simpson, Edward
2004 Hindutva as a Rural Planning Paradigm in Post-Earthquake Gujarat. In Cultural
Mobilization and the Fragmentation of the Nation in Modern India. J. Zavos, A. Wyatt & V.
Hewitt, eds. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Simpson, Edward and Stuart Corbridgew
2006 The Geography of Things That May Become Memories: The 2001 Earthquake in Kachchh-
Gujarat and the Politics of Rehabilitation in the Prememorial Era. Annals of the Association
of American Geographers 96(3):566–585.
Shiva, Vandana, ed.
1994 Close to Home: Women Reconnect Ecology, Health and Development Worldwide.
Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.
Stocking, Michael and Scott Perkin
1992 Conservation-with-Development: An Application of the Concept in the Usambara Mountains,
Tanzania. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 17(3):337-349.
West, Paige
2006 Conservation Is Our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New
Guinea. Duke University Press.

Week 10
Depoliticising Development: Discursive Deconstruction and the Rhetoric of "Participation"

One result of the critique of top-down, state-led development policies is the move toward “putting the first
last.” In recent years, participation, social capital and empowerment have become new buzz words in
development. These developments have gone hand in hand with the proliferation of NGOs in development
work, ostensibly as a means to reach out to the poor that is more effective and more representative than the
state or the market. In this lecture we will critically explore these trends and their critics. Is participation a new
form of tyranny? Is the new focus on participation actually disempowering? To what extent are NGOs
autonomous from the state and the market? In what ways does social capital obscure relations of class and
“depoliticise development?” At the same time, we examine extant anthropological debates around
development as a "discourse," a legacy of the postmodern turn of the 1980s and 1990s which coincided (not
incidentally) with the rise of the rhetoric of participatory empowerment.

Chambers, Robert
1997 Whose Reality Counts? Putting the First Last. London: Intermediate Technology

1995 Paradigm Shifts and the Practice of Participatory Research and Development. Power and
Participatory Development. Theory and Practice. London: Intermediate Technology
Cooke, Bill and Uma Kothari, eds.
2001 The Case for Participation as Tyranny. In Participation: The New Tyranny? London:
Zed Books.
Escobar, Arturo
1995 Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Ferguson, James
1990 The Anti-Politics Machine: “Development,” Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in
Lesotho. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fisher, William F.
1997 Doing Good? The Politics and Anti-Politics of NGO Practices. Annual Review of
Anthropology 26:439.
Gardner, Katy and David Lewis
2000 Dominant Paradigms Overturned or „Business as Usual?‟ Development Discourse and the
White Paper on International Development. Critique of Anthropology 20(1):15-29.
Grillo, Ralph and Rockerick L. Stirrat
1997 Discourses of Development: Anthropological Perspectives. Oxford: Berg.
Green, Maia
2003 Globalizing Development in Tanzania: Policy Franchising through Participatory Project
Management. Critique of Anthropology 23(2): 123–143.
2000 Participatory Development and the Appropriation of Agency in Southern Tanzania.
Critique of Anthropology 20:67-89.
Harriss, John
2002 Depoliticizing Development: The World Bank and Social Capital. London: Anthem.
Hobart, Mark, ed.
1993 An Anthropological Critique of Development: The Growth of Ignorance. M. Hobart. London
and New York: Routledge.
Kean, Peter
2000 Economic Development in the Siki Settlement Scheme, West New Britain. Critique of
Anthropology 20(2):153-172.
Lazar, Sian
2004 Education for Credit: Development as Citizenship Project in Bolivia. Critique of Anthropology
Li, Tania
2007 The Will To Improve: Governmentality, Development, and the Practice of Politics. Durham:
Duke University Press.
Lister, Sarah
2003 NGO Legitimacy: Technical Issue or Social Construct? Critique of Anthropology 23(2):175-
Mosse, David
1994 Authority, Gender and Knowledge: Theoretical Reflections on the Practice of Participatory
Rural Appraisal. Development and Change 25:497.
Nelson, Nici and Sue Wright
1995 Power and Participatory Development. Theory and Practice. London: Intermediate
Technology Publications.
Parpart, Jane L.
1995 Post-Modernism, Gender and Development. In Power of Development. Jonathan Crush, ed.
London: Routledge.
Phillips, Sue and Richard Edwards
2000 Development, Impact Assessment and the Praise Culture. Critique of Anthropology
Porter, Doug J.
1995 Scenes from Childhood: The Homesickness of Development Discourses. In Power of
Development. Jonathan Crush, ed. London: Routledge.
Putnam, Robert
1993 Social Capital and Institutional Success. In Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in
Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Rahnema, Majid

1992 Participation. In The Development Dictionary: A Guide to Knowledge as Power.
Wolfgang Sachs, ed. London: Zed Books.
Stirrat, Roderick L.
2000 Cultures of Consultancy. Critique of Anthropology 20(1):31–46.
1996 The New Orthodoxy and Old Truths: Participation, Empowerment and Other Buzz
Words. In Assessing Participation: The Debate from South Asia. Sunil Bastian and
Nicola Bastian, eds. New Delhi: Konark Publishers.
Tapscott, Chris
1995 Changing Discourses of Development in South Africa. In Power of Development. Jonathan
Crush, ed. London: Routledge.
Vargas-Cetina, Gabriela
2005 Anthropology and Cooperatives: From the Community Paradigm to the Ephemeral
Association in Chiapas, Mexico. Critique of Anthropology 25(3) 229–251.
Yarrow, Thomas
2008 Paired Opposites: Dualism in Development and Anthropology. Critique of Anthropology

Week 11
"Second World" Development? Socialist and Post-Socialist Approaches

A great deal of development theory focuses on the relationship between what were called, in an older
geopolitical parlance, the "first" and "third" worlds. Yet nation-states operating under the ostensibly socialist
regimes of the "second" world have engaged in their own development discourses and practices, many of
which were not far removed from those of the capitalist regions. In this lecture we explore the concept of
development in "planned economies," as well as taking a brief look at upheaval in the aftermath of post-
socialist transitions to other political economic forms as western-style development begins to flood the
eastern bloc. In particular, we examine development in socialist and capitalist societies as projects of
modernity which not only shared many tropes and practices in common, but were mutually influenced in
significant material ways. This week we are pleased to welcome Catherine Alexander for a guest lecture on
socialist and post-socialist development in Kazakhstan.

Akram-Lodhi, A. Haroon
2007 Land Markets and Rural Livelihoods in Vietnam. In Land, Poverty and Livelihoods in an Era
of Globalization: Perspectives from Developing and Transition Countries. A. Haroon Akram-
Lodhi, Saturnino M. Borras, Jr. and Cristóbal Kay, eds. London and New York: Routledge.
Anderson, Perry
1974 Lineages of the Absolutist State. London and New York: Verso.
Bengelsdorf, Carollee and Alice Hageman
1979 Emerging from Underdevelopment: Women and Work in Cuba. In Capitalist Patriarchy and
the Case for Socialist Feminism. Zillah R. Eisenstein, ed. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Bideleux, Robert
1985 Communism and Development. London and New York: Methuen.
Bruno, Marta
1998 Playing the Cooperation Game: Strategies Around International Aid in Post-Socialist
Russia. In Surviving Post-Socialism: Local Strategies and Regional Responses in
Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Sue Bridger and Frances Pine, eds.
London: Routledge.
Burawoy, Michael and Katherine Verdery, eds.
1999 Uncertain Transition: Ethnographies of Change in the Postsocialist World. Lanham: Rowman
& Littlefield.
1985 The Politics of Production: Factory Regimes under Capitalism and Socialism. London:
Burawoy, Michael and János Lukács
1992 The Radiant Past: Ideology and Reality in Hungary’s Road to Capitalism. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
Chae, SuHong
2003 Contemporary Ho Chi Minh City in Numerous Contradictions: Reform Policy,
Foreign Capital and the Working Class. In Wounded Cities: Destruction and Reconstruction
in a Globalized World. Jane Schneider and Ida Susser, eds. Oxford: Berg.
Creed, Gerald
1998 Domesticating Revolution: From Socialist Reform to Ambivalent Transition in a

Bulgarian Village. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Croll, Elisabeth
1994 From Heaven to Earth: Images and Experiences of Development in China. London and New
York: Routledge.
Feldman, Gregory
2005 Culture, State and Security in Europe: The Case of Citizenship and Integration Policy
in Estonia. American Ethnologist 32(4):676-694.
Ghai, Dharam P., Cristóbal Kay and Peter Peek
1987 Labour and Development in Rural Cuba. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Kautsky, John H.
1968 Communism and the Politics of Development: Persistent Myths and Changing Behavior.
New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Khan, Azizur Rahman
2007 The Land System, Agriculture and Poverty in Uzbekistan. In Land, Poverty and Livelihoods
in an Era of Globalization: Perspectives from Developing and Transition Countries. A.
Haroon Akram-Lodhi, Saturnino M. Borras, Jr. and Cristóbal Kay, eds. London and New
York: Routledge.
Oushakine, Serguei
2000 In the State of Post-Soviet Aphasia: Symbolic Development in Contemporary Russia.
Europe-Asia Studies 52(6):991-1016.
Pine, Frances
2007 Dangerous Modernities? Innovative Technologies and the Unsettling of Agriculture in
Rural Poland. Critique of Anthropology 27(2):183-201.
Ruffin, Patricia
1990 Capitalism and Socialism in Cuba: A Study of Dependency, Development and
Underdevelopment. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Scott, James
1998 Soviet Collectivization, Capitalist Dreams. In Seeing Like a State: How Certain
Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. Yale: Yale University Press.
Seabright, Paul, ed
2000 The Vanishing Rouble: Barter Networks and Non-Monetary Transactions in
Post-Soviet Societies. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Spoor, Max
2007 Land Reform, Rural Poverty and Inequality in Armenia: A Pro-Poor Approach to Land
Policies. In Land, Poverty and Livelihoods in an Era of Globalization: Perspectives from
Developing and Transition Countries. A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi, Saturnino M. Borras, Jr. and
Cristóbal Kay, eds. London and New York: Routledge.
Stiglitz, Joseph E.
2002 Who Lost Russia? In Globalization and Its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton.
Stricker, Pamela
2007 Toward a Culture of Nature: Sustainable Development and Environmental
Policy in Cuba. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Szelényi, Iván
1996 Cities Under Socialism – And After. In Cities after Socialism: Urban and Regional Change
and Conflict in Post-Socialist Societies. Gregory D. Andrusz, Michael Harloe, eds.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Verdery, Katherine
1996 What Was Socialism and What Comes Next? Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Volkov, Vadim
2002 Violent Entrepreneurs: The Use of Force in the Making of Russian Capitalism. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press.
Wallerstein, Immanuel
1995 After Liberalism. New York: The New Press.


Please read these guidelines in conjunction with Section 7.7 Plagiarism in the Undergraduate Student

These guidelines have been designed to ensure that you are aware of the basic expectations of written
coursework and assessed reports. In addition to general comments concerning essay structure, they include
details about how to reference work.

Please note that in the marking of work, both of these issues will be taken into account.

1. General essay guidance

An essay should present a well-organized argument that responds to a set question. It should include a
review and discussion of relevant literature and should also present an argument from your own perspective.
Aim to convince the reader that your angle on the topic is valid, but make sure you demonstrate knowledge
of other possible approaches.

a. The Introduction

You should begin with an introduction setting out the issue(s) to be discussed and tell the reader what your
general approach will be. Avoid wasting space on definitions unless a particular question requires them.
Make a clear argument and proceed from one point to the next so that the narrative builds on what went

b. The main body of the essay

Tell the reader where a line of reasoning you refer to is helpful or flawed and, using your own judgment and
the work of previous commentators, explain why. Keep the essay focused on the argument and avoid
meandering. Critique is appropriate in an essay but unsubstantiated, moralistic and generalized polemic is

You might want to use subheadings to provide structure to the essay and guidance for the reader. Make the
sections build on each other. In general, arguments should not be purely abstract or theoretical, but should
use examples (from ethnography, history, the media and popular culture, and your own experience, where
appropriate). Make sure that the relevance of your examples is clearly stated. Your essay should have a
clear and succinct conclusion.

c. Examples

Ethnographic examples should be taken from their original source and described in sufficient detail so as to
create an impression of complete familiarity. As the basis for an argument, examples like, „As E-P observed
in relation to the Azande, apparently irrational behaviour can be explained in rational terms‟ is simply not
good enough. Encyclopaedia entries may serve as the starting point for your own reading, but they should
not appear in your written work as the culmination of those efforts. Examples should be explored, analysed
and criticised until they make the intended contribution to your overall argument. This kind of scholarly
construction should prevent you from including personal opinion or polemic.

d. Clarity of expression

Keep your essay simple and clear. Avoid padding, such as, „In this section it will be judicious for the author to
consider the effect of such theories upon social anthropology of the 1960s as following‟. Look at each of your
sentences. Change those you can from passive into active voice.

Get rid of anything unnecessary. Do not use ten words when five will do, especially when the extra five
words are things like „it would seem logical to assert perhaps that‟.

e. Conclusion

A conclusion can be a summary of your text as long as it does not merely repeat points you have made in
the essay. Ideally, it should bring together your examples and argument in an analysis of what you have
discovered and what is interesting about the topic.

f. Bad sentences

Many people argue that structural functionalism neglects history. (Who?

When? What is the evidence for their criticism? Is it well founded? Can you provide any criticisms of /
support for this argument from your

I think that he was wrong / he was right. (Explicitly stating opinions in this way is clunky, especially if they are
not supported by any further argument. The reader should be able to track your opinion throughout an essay
in the way that you employ your material to advance an argument.) Replace with „This argument has several
flaws‟, or, better, „As Levi Strauss has argued, this argument has several flaws (1969: 16)‟. Then go on to
describe in precise terms exactly what those limitations are.

Structural functionalists neglected to consider the meaning behind social structure. (Which ones? All of
them? Assess the evidence put forward to support this criticism) Structural functionalists saw society as a
holistic system. (All of them? All the time?)

Anthropologists believe that people are rational. (Do they all mean the same thing?)

Apes should have rights because humans and chimpanzees are over 98% genetically identical. (Is this figure
contested? What does it mean to be 98% genetically similar? How have different anthropologists interpreted
this suggestion? What is the relationship between genetic similarity and the attribution of rights?) Statements
of these kinds are either truisms (all humans breathe air) or contested (all humans are capable of kindness),
and should be argued for in relation to specific ethnographic and theoretical examples.

g. Quotations

Quotes of fewer that fifty words should be contained within inverted commas in the text. If a quote is more
than fifty words long you should put a colon in the text, then hard return and then indent, then hard return
before returning to the text.

h. Footnotes and Endnotes

Footnotes may be used for points of amplification, but are not generally necessary. Endnotes are

i. Proof reading

You should proof read every piece of work you write before you submit it. Spelling errors are distracting for
the reader. Misspelling authors‟ names is particularly off putting.

2. References

Sources listed in the reading list will provide good starting points, but you may introduce other material. You
may locate further references through bibliographies in articles and books that you already have, through
browsing relevant journals, through library catalogues, or through searching the web. Bear in mind that
material on the web is very uneven in quality: you need to make judgements as to whether data are likely to
be accurate, and whether interpretations are justifiable or opinionated. In any event, cite your web sources.

In order to be clear and professional, you should cite and list your sources in a standardized way. In
anthropology, the most common system uses „author-date‟ citations within the text rather than footnotes or
General reference to writer/text within a sentence: for example,
„…as Leach (1972) influentially argued…‟
„…as critics of Said have noted (e.g. Clifford 1988)…‟

Reference to a specific passage/quotation: all direct quotations must be accompanied by
specific page references, for example,
„…Fry and Willis are suspicious of the emphasis they see on traditional Aboriginal artists (1989: 160-62)…‟
„…Myers has suggested that “the appeal of the acrylics is the sense of their rootedness in the world” (1995:

Any quotation longer than three lines should appear as a separate, indented paragraph, without quotation

The Bibliography

Full references should be consolidated in a bibliography at the end of your essay, not in the form of
endnotes. It should be in alphabetical order by author and should include all and only those works cited. It
is important that you include all the information for a reference, and not only date, author and title. Although
there are a number of set bibliographic styles, we strongly recommend that you use the following form:

Taussig, Michael (1987) Shamanism, colonialism and the wild man: a study in terror and healing. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Edited book:
Karp, Ivan and Stephen Lavine (eds) (1991) Exhibiting cultures: the poetics and politics of museum display.
Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Article in journal:
Appadurai, Arjun (1990) „Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy‟. Public Culture 2 (2): 1-

Chapter in book:
Beckett, Jeremy (1998) „Haddon attends a funeral: fieldwork in Torres Strait‟, in Cambridge and the Torres
Strait, Anita Herle and Sandra Rouse, (eds) pp. 23-49. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Harlan County, USA. (1976) Barbara Kopple. Cabin Creek Films, USA. 103 minutes. [name after date is that
of director].

Web pages:
Where appropriate, refer to the specific page, rather than the site in general, and include details of the title
and author of specific material, for example:
Luttwak, Edward (1990) „Capitalism without capital‟,

You will also find guidelines at