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UNIVERSIDAD JUAREZ AUTONOMA DE TABASCO

DIVISIÓN ACADEMICA DE CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

Southern States
Lengua Extranjera

Francisco Liborio Aguilar Chable


Eduardo Balboa Hernández
Emmanuel García Acopa
Aarón Mijail Granados Bautista
Miguel Ángel Méndez Piña
Guillermo Antonio Ramos Macario

Group:

1MCA

Teacher:

Norma Isabel Portilla Manica

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Index

Introduction. 2

History 12

Alabama 15

Arkansas 18

Kentucky. 21

Missouri. 24

Tennessee. 27

Mississippi. 30

Virginia. 32

Georgia. 35

Conclusion. 38

Bibliography. 39

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Introduction.

Southern United States.

The Southern United States (commonly referred to as the American South,


Dixie, Down South, or simply the South) constitutes a large distinctive region in
the south-eastern and south-central United States.

Because of the region's unique cultural and historic heritage, including


Native Americans, early European settlements of English, French, Scotch-Irish,
Scottish, and German heritage, importation of hundreds of thousands of
enslaved Africans, growth of a large proportion of African Americans in the
population, reliance on slave labour, and legacy of the Confederacy after the
American Civil War, the South developed its own customs, literature, musical
styles, and varied cuisines that have profoundly shaped traditional American
culture.

Southtern influence zone.

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Dixie is a nickname for the Southern United States.

1. The word "'Dixie'" refers to privately issued currency from banks


in Louisiana. These banks issued ten-dollar notes, labeled "Dix", French
for "ten", on the reverse side. These notes are now highly sought-after
for their numismatic value. The notes were known as "Dixies" by English-
speaking southerners, and the area around New Orleans and the
French-speaking parts of Louisiana came to be known as "Dixieland".
Eventually, usage of the term broadened to refer to most of the Southern
States.

2. The word preserves the name of a "Mr. Dixy", a kind slave owner
on Manhattan Island, where slavery was legal until 1827. His rule was so
kindly that "Dixy's Land" became famed far and wide as an elysium
abounding in material comforts.

3. "Dixie" derives from Jeremiah Dixon of the Mason-Dixon line


which defined the border between Maryland and Pennsylvania, and, for
the most part, free and slave states.

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4. The term 'Dixie' might also be derived from a family of that name
which resided from Medieval times at Bosworth Hall, Leicestershire,
England.

The states of Dixie include West Virginia, Virginia, Maryland, North and
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas,
Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Kentucky.

Alabama is nicknamed the "Heart of Dixie" due to its geographical location


within the region.

People.

The predominant culture of the South has its origins with the settlement of
the region by British colonists. In the 17th century, most were of English origins
who settled mostly on the coastal regions of the South, but in the 18th century,
large groups of Scots and Ulster-Scots settled in Appalachia and the Piedmont.
According to an 1860 census, "three-quarters of white Southerners had
surnames that were Scottish, Irish or Welsh in origin." 250,000 settled in the
USA between 1717 and 1770 alone.

The other primary population group in the South is made up of the African
American descendants of the slaves brought into the South. African Americans
comprise the United States' second-largest racial minority, accounting for 12.1
percent of the total population according to the 2000 census. Despite Jim Crow
era outflow to the North, the majority of the black population has remained
concentrated in the southern states, and blacks have been returning to the
South in large numbers since the end of formal segregation.

Culture.

Of all the regions of South America is the most different, both in the minds
of its inhabitants and those of the other parts of the country. According to the
attitude of each, and perhaps its latitude, the South and the "idea" of the South
are and / or have been feared, revered, hated, loved, and stereotyped, for better
or for worse. It is scorned by some, and an object of intense closeness and
loyalty to others. Some born in the South reject their history and heritage, while
many northerners moved south to declare frankly that would never, ever, to
colder climates (both literally and metaphorically) of those who came.

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Religion.

Part of the South is known as the "Bible Belt", because of the prevalence
there of evangelical Protestantism and sometimes conservative Catholicism.
Some cities such as Atlanta, Charlotte, Charleston, Dallas, New Orleans,
Memphis, Louisville and Houston also have significant Jewish, and in some of
the latter, significant Islamic communities. Immigrants from Southeast Asia and
South Asia have brought Buddhism and Hinduism to the region as well. Most
Southerners attend church on a regular basis.

The South was influenced by masses of religious revivals that made their
way by traveling preachers from New England. Before the Revolution, some
Virginians became Baptists, and the issue of religious freedom was being
struggled over.

Historically Catholic colonists were primarily those from Spain and France,
who settled in coastal areas of Florida, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas. Today,
there are significant Roman Catholic populations along the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico, which preserve the continuing Catholic traditions of Carnival at the
beginning of Lent in Mardi Gras parades and related customs. Elsewhere in the
region, Catholics are a small minority and of mainly Irish and French ancestry.

In general, the inland regions of the Deep South and Upper South, such as
Arkansas, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama were less attractive to
immigrants and have stronger concentrations of Baptists, Methodists, Church of
Christ and other Protestants. Eastern and northern Texas are heavily
Protestant, while the southern parts of the state have Mexican-American
Catholic majorities.

Cuisine of the Southern United States

The gastronomy of the southern United States is defined as the regional


cuisine of states generally south of the Mason-Dixon line and east of the state
of Texas. This kitchen shows influences from traditions of various indigenous
peoples and settlers who have inhabited this region.
Content

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Origins

The most notable influences come from African cuisine, Native American,
British, Irish, French and Spanish. Soul styles, Creole, Cajun, Lowcountry and
"Floribbean" are examples. In more recent times, elements of Southern cuisine
have spread north, affecting the development of other American cuisine.

The cuisine of the American South is quite multicultural. Many items like
squash, tomatoes, corn and com custom of barbecues on the ground, were
inherited from the native tribes of the southeast, as the Caddo, Choctaw and
Seminole. Many dishes with sugar, flour, milk, eggs are more associated with
Europe. Southern propensity to full breakfast comes from the English breakfast,
but was substantially altered. Much of Cajun and Creole cuisine is based on the
French, and less so in Spanish. The "Floribbean" is more similar to Spanish
with obvious Caribbean influences, while the Tex-Mex has considerable
Mexican.

Evolution of Southern cuisine.

The states in dark red almost always included in modern definitions of


southern cuisine, while those in medium red are usually included. Grated state
only occasionally.

One of the most important occurrences in this period was the interaction
with the peoples of the area and loans from the native Indian cuisine. From this
interaction came one of the main southern diet foods: corn, either raw or
crushed with an alkaline salt to produce nixtamal, using a technology called
Native American during processing. The corn crop was also an essential and
versatile tool for the early settlers. It was used to prepare all kinds of dishes
from the famous cornbread and grits to liquors such as whiskey and moonshine,
which were important trade items.

Although less important, potatoes were also taken from the native cuisine
and used in many ways similar to corn.
Native Americans introduced the first southerners to many other vegetables
have family in the kitchen of the region. Zucchini, squash, many types of beans,
tomatoes, many types of peppers and sassafras settlers arrived by the native
tribes.

There are also lots of fruit in this region. Muscadinias, blackberries,


raspberries and many other wild berries were part of the diet of the settlers.

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The first native also completed its diester with meat from hunting. The deer
meat was an important background for the abundance of white-tailed deer in the
region. The settlers also hunted rabbits, squirrels, opossums and raccoons, all
crop pests. It raised livestock, mainly pigs and cattle, being used after slaughter
the animal. Besides the meat, it was not uncommon for settlers to eat organ
meats such as livers, brains and guts. This tradition is still preserved in dishes
like the Chitterlings or Chitlins (long fried pig intestines), the livermush and pig
brains scrambled.

Much of southern cuisine has evolved from the soul food and African
Americans have played a crucial role in the development of the kitchen. Many
celebrity chefs have been African-American southerners.

Typical Dishes of Creole cuisine.

Literature

Mark Twain had extensive knowledge of


the Mississippi River and the South, and
included in his works the injustice of slavery
and the culture of Protestant public morality.

Perhaps the most famous southern


writer is William Faulkner, who won the
Nobel Prize in Literature in 1949. Faulkner
brought new techniques such as stream of
consciousness and complex techniques to
American writings.

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Other well-known Southern writers include Pat
Conroy, Zora Neale Hurston, Eudora Welty, Thomas
Wolfe, William Styron, Flannery O'Connor, Carson
McCullers, James Dickey, Willie Morris, Tennessee
Williams, Truman Capote, Walker Percy, Barry Hannah,
Alice Walker, Robert Penn Warren, Cormac McCarthy,
John Grisham, James Agee, Hunter S. Thompson,
Wendell Berry, Bobbie Ann Mason, and Harry Crews.

Possibly the most famous southern novel of the


20th century is Gone with the Wind by Margaret
Mitchell, published in 1937. Another famous southern
novel, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, won the Pulitzer Prize after it was
published in 1960.

Music.

The musical heritage of the South was developed by both whites and
blacks, both influencing each other directly and indirectly.

The South's musical history actually starts before the Civil War, with the
songs of the African slaves and the traditional folk music brought from Great
Britain and Ireland. Blues was developed in the rural South by African
Americans at the beginning of the 20th century. In addition, gospel music,
spirituals, country music, rhythm and blues, soul music, funk, rock and roll,
beach music, bluegrass, jazz, zydeco, and Appalachian folk music were either
born in the South or developed in the region.

In general, country music is based on the folk music of white Southerners,


and blues and rhythm and blues is based on African American southern forms.
However, whites and blacks alike have contributed to each of these genres, and
there is a considerable overlap between the traditional music of blacks and
whites in the South, particularly in gospel music forms.

Rock n' roll largely began in the South in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Early rock n' roll musicians from the South include Buddy Holly, Little Richard,
Fats Domino, Bo Diddley, Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, James Brown, Otis
Redding, Carl Perkins and Jerry Lee Lewis, among many others. Hank
Williams, Willie Nelson, Waylon Jennings and Johnny Cash, while generally
regarded as "country" singers, also had a significant role in the development of
rock music. In the 1960s, Stax Records emerged as a leading competitor of

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Motown Records, laying thegroundwork for later stylistic innovations in the
process.

Many who got their start in the regional show business in the South
eventually banked on mainstream national and international success as well:
Elvis Presley and Dolly Parton are two such examples of artists that have
transcended genres.

Many of the roots of alternative rock are often considered to come from the
South as well, with bands such as R.E.M., Pylon and The B-52's forever
associated with the musically fertile college town of Athens, Georgia. Cities
such as Austin, Knoxville, Chapel Hill, Nashville and Atlanta also have thriving
indie rock and live music scenes. Austin is home to the long-running South by
Southwest music and arts festival, while several influential independent music
labels were founded in the Chapel Hill area. Several influential death metal
bands have recorded albums at Morrisound Recording in Temple Terrace,
Florida and the studio is considered an important touchstone in the genre's
development.

There is a large underground heavy metal scene in the Southern United


States. Death metal can trace some of its origins to Tampa, Florida. Bands such
as Deicide, Morbid Angel, Six Feet Under, Cannibal Corpse, among others
have come out of this scene. The Southern United States are also the place
where sludge metal was born and it's where its pioneering acts, Eyehategod
and Crowbar, come from; as well as other notable bands of the style such as
Down[39] and Corrosion of Conformity. Other well known metal bands from the
South include Pantera, Hellyeah, Lamb of God, and Mastodon. This has helped
coined the term southern metal which is well received in the vast majority in
metal circles around the world.

Sports.

While the South has had a number of Super Bowl winning National Football
League teams the region is noted for the intensity with which people follow high
school and college football teams, especially the Southeastern Conference and
in Texas where high school football, especially in smaller communities, is a
dominating activity.

Baseball became popular in the South, with spring training in Florida from
the 1920s, and Major League Baseball teams like the Atlanta Braves and
Florida Marlins being recent World Series victors. Minor league baseball is also
closely followed in the South.

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The South is also the birthplace of NASCAR auto racing. Other popular
sports in the South include golf, fishing, soccer, and the hunting of wild game
such as deer, birds, and raccoons. Atlanta was the host of the 1996 Summer
Olympic Games.

Film.

Many critically acclaimed movies have been set in the cultural background
of the South. A partial list of these films follows – for a more complete listing of
Southern cinema, see list of films set in the Southern United States.

Gone with the Wind (1939)


Song of the South (1946)
All the King's Men (1949)
A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)
The Miracle Worker (1962)
To Kill a Mockingbird (1962)
Deliverance (1972)
The Color Purple (1985)
Mississippi Burning (1988)
Driving Miss Daisy (1989)
Fried Green Tomatoes (1991)
Forrest Gump (1994)
Ghosts of Mississippi (1996)
Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil (1997)
O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000)
Big Fish (2003)
The Notebook (2004)
Ray (2004)
The Curious Case of Benjamin Button (2008)

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Stereotypes of Southerners.

Stereotypes, insults, name calling, discrimination and even defamation of


Southerners is said to be present in U.S. American culture and how this is
originated from the media and historical depictions of Southerners. The issue
about Southerners being portrayed as "non grata" in the upper economic
classes or to other U.S. regions has decreased in the last half of the 20th
century. Many Northerners continually view Southerners as laid-back,
hospitable, jolly and carefree, but most Southerners will disagree on the
newcomers' views on the lifestyle aren't generally accurate or correct, including
the part on happiness with poverty.

A number of TV shows, movies and comedy in forms of comments and


jokes about Southerners are rednecks, hillbillies, white trash, backward,
uneducated, uncouthed, dirty or unhygeinic, poor or impoverished, inbred from
family incest, fanatically religious, racist and xenophobic, sexist and
homophobic, ultraconservative or uberpatriotic, romanticizes slavery, the
antebellum era and the civil war, impolite, heavy drawl accents, loud or
obnoxious, obese or overweight, and even genetically inferior to symbolize a
form of "Yankee/Left Coast" snobbery to dehumanize anyone of Southern
heritage.

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History.

Native American civilization.

The first well-dated evidence of human occupation in the south United


States occurs around 9500 BC with the appearance of the earliest documented
Americans, who are now referred to as Paleo-Indians. Several cultural stages,
such as Archaic (ca. 8000 -1000 BC) and the Woodland (ca. 1000 BC-AD
1000), preceded what the Europeans found at the end of the 15th century —
the Mississippian culture.

The Mississippian culture was a complex, mound-building Native American


culture that flourished in what is now the southeastern United States from
approximately 800 AD to 1500 AD. Natives had elaborate and lengthy trading
routes connecting their main residential and ceremonial centers extending
through the river valleys and from the East Coast to the Great Lakes.

Native American descendants of the mound-builders include Alabama,


Apalachee, Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Guale, Hitchiti,
Houma, and Seminole peoples, many of whom still reside in the South.

The predominant culture of the South was rooted in the settlement of the
region by British colonists. In the 17th century, most voluntary immigrants were
of English origins who settled chiefly along the coastal regions of the Eastern
seaboard.

The French and Spanish established colonies in Florida, Louisiana, and


Texas. The Spanish colonized Florida in the 16th century, with their
communities reaching a peak in the late 17th century.

American Revolution.

The American Revolution provided a shock to slavery in the South. Tens of


thousands of slaves took advantage of wartime disruption to find their own
freedom, catalyzed by the British governor Dunmore of Virginia's promise of
freedom for service. Many others simply escaped. Estimates are that five
thousand slaves escaped from the Chesapeake Bay area, and thirteen
thousand from South Carolina reached the British. "The extent of the loss to the
slave owners in the lower South is indicated by the sharp decline between 1770
and 1790 in the proportion of population made up of black people (almost all of
whom were slaves): from 60.5 percent to 43.8 percent in South Carolina and
from 45.2 percent to 36.1 percent in Georgia."

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Civil War

By 1856, the South was losing political power to the more populated North
and was locked in a series of constitutional and political battles with the North
regarding states' rights and the status of slavery in the territories. The
Republican Party, founded in 1854, pledged to put slavery on the path to
evential extinction. When it elected as president Abraham Lincoln in 1860, the
breaking point had been reached. Seven cotton states seceded and formed the
Confederate States of America. The United States government refused to
recognize the Confederacy, and when the new Confederate President Jefferson
Davis ordered his troops to open fire on Fort Sumter in April 1861, there was an
enormous overwhelming demand, North and South, for war. Only the state of
Kentucky attempted to remain neutral, and it could only do so briefly. When
Lincoln called for troops to suppress the rebellion, four more states seceded
and joined the Confederacy, which moved its capital to Richmond Virginia
Although the Confederacy had large supplies of captured munitions and many
volunteers, it was slower than the Union in dealing with the border states. My
March 1862, the Union largely controlled Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and
Missouri, had shut down all commercial traffic from all Confederate ports, had
prevented European recognition of the Confederate government, and was
poised to seize New Orleans.

20th century.

At the end of the 19th century, white Democrats in the South had created
state constitutions that were hostile to industry and business development.
Banking was limited, as was access to credit. States persisted in agricultural
economies. As in Alabama, rural minorities held control in many state
legislatures long after population had shifted to industrializing cities, and the
legislators resisted business and modernizing interests. For instance, Alabama
refused to redistrict from 1901 to 1972, long after major population and
economic shifts to cities. For decades Birmingham generated the majority of
revenue for the state, for instance, but received little back in services or
infrastructure.[46]

In the early 20th century, invasion of the boll weevil devastated cotton crops
in states of the South. This was an additional catalyst to African Americans'
decisions to leave the South. From 1910 to 1940, and then from the 1940s to
1970, more than 6.5 million African Americans left the South in the Great
Migration to northern and midwestern cities, making multiple acts of resistance
against persistent lynching and violence, segregation, poor education, and
inability to vote. Their movements transformed many cities, creating new
cultures and music in the North. Many African Americans, like other groups,
became industrial workers; others started their own businesses within the

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communities. Southern whites also migrated to industrial cities, especially
Chicago and Detroit, where they took jobs in the booming new auto industry.

Later the southern economy was dealt additional blows by the Great
Depression and the Dust Bowl. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the
economy suffered significant reversals and millions were left unemployed.
Beginning in 1934 and lasting until 1939, an ecological disaster of severe wind
and drought caused an exodus from Texas and Arkansas, the Oklahoma
Panhandle region and the surrounding plains, in which over 500,000 Americans
were homeless, hungry and jobless. [50] Thousands left the region forever to
seek economic opportunities along the West Coast.

World War II marked a time of change in the South as new industries and
military bases were developed by the Federal government, providing badly
needed capital and infrastructure in many regions. People from all parts of the
US came to the South for military training and work in the region's many bases
and new industries. Farming shifted from cotton and tobacco to include
soybeans, corn, and other foods.

After the Civil War, nearly the entire economic infrastructure of the region
was in ruins. As agriculture had been the foundation of the Southern economy,
disruption of slavery by the Civil War meant that planters had to learn to deal
with free labor, a challenge as freedmen wanted most to take care of their own
crops and land. Additionally, since there were few industrial businesses located
in the south, there were not many other possible sources of income. Textile
mills in the Piedmont of Georgia rebuilt rapidly, but it was not until the 20th
century that the region dominated the industry. Some areas rapidly rebuilt—
Atlanta, for example—through railroads.

After World War II, with the development of the Interstate Highway System,
household air conditioning and later, passage of civil rights bills, the South was
successful in attracting industry and business from other parts of the country.
Industry from the Rust Belt region of the Northeast and the Great Lakes moved
into the region because of lower labor costs and less unionization. Poverty rates
and unemployment declined as a result of new job growth. Federal programs
such as the Appalachian Regional Commission also contributed to economic
growth.

While the Southern United States has advanced considerably since World
War II, significant poverty still persists in the more isolated and rural areas.
Areas like the Black Belt, the eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia
areas in Appalachia, the Mexican border area along the Rio Grande in Texas,
and the Deltas of Mississippi and Arkansas suffer the most poverty in the South
today.

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Southern states.

Alabama.
Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of
the United States of America. It is bordered by Tennessee
to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of
Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama
ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of
its inland waterways. The state ranks 23rd in population
with almost 4.6 million residents in 2006.

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many
Southern states, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued
dependence on agriculture. Despite the growth of major industries and urban
centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature until the 1960s,
while urban interests and African Americans were under-represented.
Following World War II, Alabama experienced growth as the economy of the
state transitioned from agriculture to diversified interests in heavy
manufacturing, mineral extraction, education, and technology. In addition, the
establishment or expansion of multiple military installations, primarily those of
the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, added to state jobs.

Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state


bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie". The state tree is the
Longleaf Pine; the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is
Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham. The largest city by
total land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French
colonists.

Geography.

Alabama is the thirtieth largest state in the United States with 52,423 square
miles (135,775 km²) of total area: 3.19% of the area is water, making Alabama
twenty-third in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second largest
inland waterway system in the United States. About three-fifths of the land area
is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the
Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the
Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams,
rivers, mountains, and lakes.
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The states bordering Alabama are Tennessee to
the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south;
and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline
at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge
of the state. Alabama ranges in elevation from sea
level at Mobile Bay to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the
Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest
point is Mount Cheaha, at a height of 2,407 ft (734
m). Alabama's land consists of 22 million acres
(89,000 km2) of forest or 67% of total land area.
Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is
the largest county in the state in both land area and
water area.

Climate.

The state is classified as humid subtropical under the Koppen Climate


Classification. The average annual temperature is 64 °F. Temperatures tend to
be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to the Gulf of
Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian
Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler. Generally, Alabama has
very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the
year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches of rainfall annually and enjoys
a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.

Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high
temperatures averaging over 90 °F throughout the summer in some parts of the
state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of
the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms,
which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and
weaken.

South Alabama reports more thunderstorms than any part of the U.S. The
Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year
with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the
state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per
year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large
hail. Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in
the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita. Sometimes tornadoes
occur. Alabama, along with Kansas, has the most reported EF5 tornadoes than
any other state. An F5 tornado is the most powerful of its kind. The northern
part of the state is one of the areas in the US most vulnerable to violent
tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is
sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the

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Southern Plains. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a
secondary tornado season along with the spring severe weather season.

Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are


throughout most of the southeastern United States,
with average January low temperatures around 40 °F
in Mobile and around 32 °F in Birmingham. Although
snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the
state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of
snow a few times every winter, with an occasional
moderately heavy snowfall every few years.

Demographics.

The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2008, estimated Alabama's


population at 4,661,900, which represents an increase of 214,545, or 4.8%,
since the last census in 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last
census of 121,054 people and an increase due to net migration of 104,991
people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a
net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within the country produced a net
gain of 73,811 people. The state had 108,000 foreign-born, of which an
estimated 22.2% were illegal immigrants.

Religion.

Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt. A majority of people in


Alabama today identify as Protestant. The Mobile area is notable for its large
percentage of Catholics, owing to the area's founding as part of the French
colony of La Louisiane and later history under Spanish rule. As of 2000, the
three largest denominational groups in Alabama are Evangelical Protestant,
Mainline Protestant, and Catholic. The Southern Baptist Convention has the
highest number of adherents in Alabama with 1,380,121, followed by the United
Methodist Church with 327,734 members, and the Catholic Church with
150,647 adherents.

In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the
Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they
possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning.
In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in
churches in the state. In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey,
80% of Alabama respondents reported their religion as Christian, 6% as
Catholic, and 11% as having no religion at all.

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Arkansas.
Arkansas Location Map highlights the exact geographical position of the
state, which lies on the central southwestern part of the United States. The
cities, political zones, tourist areas, and natural reserves are also clearly
indicated in the map. The coordinates of Arkansas state are latitude 33° N to
36° 30' N and longitude 89° 41' W to 94° 42'. Being one of the most densely
populated states of the US, Arkansas is intersected by two major rivers – the
Mississippi and the Arkansas.
Bounded by Mississippi, Tennessee
and Missouri on the eastern side,
Louisiana on the southern part and
Missouri on the north, Arkansas
covers a total area of 53,187 sq.
miles. Characterized by perennial
rivers, Ouachita and Boston
Mountains and many springs,
Arkansas is also called as The
Natural State.

Climate.

Arkansas generally has a humid subtropical climate, which borders on


humid continental in some northern highland areas. While not bordering the
Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas is still close enough to this warm, large body of water
for it to influence the weather in the state. Generally, Arkansas has hot, humid
summers and cold, slightly drier winters. In Little Rock, the daily high
temperatures average around 90°F with lows around 70°F in the month of July.
In January highs average around 49°F and lows around 30°F. In Siloam Springs
in the northwest part of the state, the average high and low temperatures in July
are 89°F and 67°F and in January the average high and lows are 44°F and
23°F.

Annual precipitation throughout the state averages between about 40 and


60 inches; somewhat wetter in the south and drier in the northern part of the
state. Snowfall is common, in the north half of the state, which usually gets
several snowfalls each winter. This is not only due to its closer proximity to the
plains states, but also to the higher elevations found throughout the Ozark and
Ouachita mountains. The half of the state south of Little Rock gets less snow,
and is more apt to see ice storms, however, sleet and freezing rain are
expected throughout the state during the winter months, and can significantly
impact travel and day to day life.

18
Customs and traditions.

Every county and state celebrates their own traditions and customs
annually. Whether it is the form of parade, festival or fair, cultural institutions
instill a regional sense of belonging to the local inhabitants. One place that this
can be seen every year is at the Arkansas state fair grounds in Little Rock,
Arkansas. There you can witness a whole array of events that bring the country
life style out in the capital of this Southern country state. For many people, it is
just the fair but to others, this event has genuine meaning as it celebrates the
unique history and culture of the people of Arkansas.

The Arkansas state fair yields many attractions for people of all ages and
backgrounds. One would be the annual livestock shows. There are two types of
competitions that the 40,000 annual visitors can see. There is the open and the
junior open; each with their own set of rules and guidelines. Some of the
animals that are up for competition are dairy and beef cattle, lambs and sheep,
pigs, dairy and goats, chickens and rabbits. Like any other state fair, the
livestock show is highly competitive.

There are also more enthusiastic shows that involve large crowds. Two of
these attractions would be the rodeo and demolition derby. The Arkansas state
fair also offers a monster truck exhibit where the local patrons can see the big
trucks in the arena. Tickets are twelve dollars for adults and eight dollars for the
kids.

Spoken Language.

In 2000, 2,368,450 Arkansans—95% of the residents five years old or


older—spoke only English at home, a decrease over the 97.2% recorded in
1990.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 census for
language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category
"Other Pacific Island languages" includes Chamorro, Hawaiian, Ilocano,
Indonesian, and Samoan.

19
LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 2,492,205 100.0
Speak only English 2,368,450 95.0
Speak a language other than English 123,755 5.0
Speak a language other than English 123,755 5.0
Spanish or Spanish Creole 82,465 3.3
German 7,444 0.3
French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 7,312 0.3
Vietnamese 3,467 0.1
Chinese 2,529 0.1
Laotian 2,502 0.1
Tagalog 1,627 0.1
Korean 1,250 0.1
Japanese 1,193 0.0
Other Pacific Island languages 1,185 0.0
Italian 1,106 0.0

Population.

Arkansas ranked 33rd in population in the US with an estimated total of


2,710,079 in 2002, an increase of 1.4% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000,
Arkansas's population grew from 2,350,725 to 2,673,400, an increase of 13.7%.
The population is projected to reach 2,750,000 by 2005 and 3.1 million by 2025.
The average population density in 2000 was 51.3 per sq mi.

As of 2000, 14% of the population was age 65 or over, partially reflecting


the large number of retirees who settled in the state during the early 1980s. The
median age was 36, and 25.4% of the population was under 18 years old.

20
Kentucky.

Kentucky is situated on the


eastern part of the south central
United States of America. Occupying
a total area of 40,409 sq mi, and
having a boundary length of 801 sq
mi. Kentucky is surrounded by several
states, Tennessee borders Kentucky
on the south, Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois border the state on the north.

Kentucky shares its western border with Missouri, whereas Virginia borders
the state from the southeast corner, and West Virginia shares the northeast
border of Kentucky.

Climate.

Kentucky has a moderate, relatively humid climate, with abundant rainfall.


The southern and lowland regions are slightly warmer than the uplands. In
Louisville, the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 33°F (1°C) in
January to 76°F (24°C) in July. The record high for the state was 114°F (46°C),
registered in Greensburg on 28 July 1930; the record low, –37°F (–40°C), in
Shelbyville on 19 January 1994.
Average daily relative humidity in Louisville ranges from 58% to 81%. The
average annual precipitation at Louisville (1971–2000) was 44.5 in (113 cm);
snowfall totals about 18 in (46 cm) a year.

Customs and Traditions.

But many also went willingly such as the 'Selkirk Settlers' who left Skye 200
years ago to settle in Prince Edward Island; Canada's smallest province. Last
week saw descendants of the 600 people who left Skye returning to the land of
their forebears and planting an oak tree in commemoration near the ruins of
Leitirfura, a deserted village on a hill above the Sound of Sleat. The visit by the
Canadian party of 18 proved that the blood has remained strong.

Alastair McIntyre is looking forward to meeting friends, both old and new, as
he tours the circuit of Scottish events in the States and to mark American

21
Independence Day, we are supplying a Kentucky feast for him to try before
departure. Kentucky Raisin Pie is appropriate for Alastair as he will be residing
on his arrival in Kentucky.

Religion.

Throughout its history, Kentucky has been predominantly Protestant. A


group of New Light Baptists who, in conflict with established churches in
Virginia, immigrated to Kentucky under the leadership of Lewis Craig, built the
first church in the state in 1781, near Lancaster. The first Methodist Church was
established near Danville in 1783; within a year, Roman Catholics had also built
a church, and a presbytery of 12 churches had been organized. There were 42
churches in Kentucky by the time of statehood, with a total membership of
3,095.

As of 2000, Evangelical Protestantism was predominant with the single


largest denomination within the state being the Southern Baptists Convention
with 979,994 adherents. The next largest Protestant denominations are the
United Methodist Church with 208,720 adherents and the Christian Churches
and Churches of Christ with 106,638 adherents. The Roman Catholic Church
has about 406,021 members. There were an estimated 11,350 Jews in
Kentucky in 2000 and about 4,696 Muslims. Over 1.8 million people were not
counted as members of any religious organization in the 2000 survey.

Language.

Kentucky was a fought-over hunting ground for Ohio Shawnee, Carolina


Cherokee, and Mississippi Chickawaw Indians, Place-names from this heritage
include Etowah (Cherokee) and Paducah (Chickasaw).

Speech patterns in the state generally reflect the first settlers' Virginia and
Kentucky backgrounds. South Midland features are best preserved in the
mountains, but some common to Midland and Southern are widespread.

In 2000, 96.1% of all residents five years old and older spoke only English
at home, down from 97.5% in 1990.

The following table gives selected statistics from the 2000 census for
language spoken at home by persons five years old and over. The category
"Other West Germanic languages" includes Dutch, Pennsylvania Dutch, and
Afrikaans.

22
LANGUAGE NUMBER PERCENT
Population 5 years and over 3,776,230 100.0
Speak only English 3,627,757 96.1
Speak a language other than English 148,473 3.9
Speak a language other than English 148,473 3.9
Spanish or Spanish Creole 70,061 1.9
German 17,898 0.5
French (incl. Patois, Cajun) 12,499 0.3
Chinese 4,608 0.1
Japanese 3,777 0.1
Korean 3,730 0.1
Other West Germanic languages 3,616 0.1
Arabic 3,165 0.1
Serbo-Croatian 3,070 0.1
Vietnamese 3,018 0.1
Russian 2,162 0.1
Tagalog 2,070 0.1

Population.

Kentucky ranked 26th in population in the US with an estimated total of


4,092,891 in 2002, an increase of 1.3% since 2000. Between 1990 and 2000,
Kentucky's population grew from 3,685,296 to 4,041,769, an increase of 9.7%.
The population is projected to reach 4.3 million by 2025. The population density
in 2000 was 101.7 persons per sq mi.

In 2000 the median age was 35.9. Persons under 18 years old accounted
for 24.6% of the population while 12.5% were age 65 or older.

As of 2002, Lexington had replaced Louisville as the state's largest city.


Lexington-Fayette had an estimated population of 263,618, compared with
251,399 for Louisville. Owensboro, with over 50,000 residents, was the state's
3rd most populous city. The population of the Louisville (Ky.-Ind.) metropolitan
area was estimated at 1,005,849 in 1999; the Lexington metropolitan area had
455,617, up from 435,736 in 1995.

23
Missouri.

Location.

Missouri, is a state located in the


Midwestern United States with Jefferson City
as its capital. Lowa is bordered to the north,
east, bordering the Mississippi River to Illinois,
Kentucky, and Tennessee, south to Arkansas,
and west to Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska.

The state nickname is the Gateway to the


West, or the Show Me State, referring to an
expression of a political representative of the
state. The Postal Service abbreviation for the
United States for Missouri is MO.

Climate.

Missouri generally has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and
hot and humid summers. In the southern part of the state, particularly in the
Bootheel, the climate borders on a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa).
Located in the interior United States, Missouri often experiences extremes in
temperatures. Without high mountains or oceans nearby to moderate
temperature, its climate is alternately influenced by air from the cold Arctic and
the hot and humid Gulf of Mexico.

Customs and traditions.

With a large German immigrant population and the development of a


brewing industry, Missouri always has had among the most permissive alcohol
laws in the United States . It never enacted statewide prohibition.

As for tobacco, as of May 2010 Missouri has the lowest cigarette excise
taxes in the United States, and the electorate voted in 2002 and 2006 to keep it
that way. In 2007, Forbes named Missouri's largest metropolitan area, St.
Louis, America's "best city for smokers."

24
Religion.

Of those Missourians who identify with a religion, three out of five are
Protestants. There is also a moderate-sized Roman Catholic community in
some parts of the state; approximately one out of five Missourians are Roman
Catholic. Areas with large Catholic communities include St. Louis , Jefferson
City , Westplex , and the Missouri Rhineland.

The religious affiliations of the people of Missouri according to the


American Religious Identification Survey:

Christian – 77%
o Protestant
 Baptist – 22%
 Methodist – 7%
 Episcopal – 4%
 Lutheran – 4%
 Other Protestant – 12%
o Roman Catholic – 19%
o Latter Day Saint – 1%*

Language.

The majority of people in Missouri speak English. Approximately 5.1


percent of the population reported speaking a language other than English at
home.

Missouri is home to an endangered dialect of the French language known


as Missouri French . Speakers of the dialect, who call themselves Creoles , are
descendants of the French pioneers who settled the area then known as the
Illinois Country beginning in the late 17th century. Once widely spoken
throughout the area, Missouri French is now nearly extinct, with only a few
elderly speakers able to use it.

Population.

In 2009, Missouri had an estimated population of 5,987,580; an increase of


392,369 since the year 2000. From 2000 to 2007, this includes a natural
increase of 137,564 people since the last census, and an increase of 88,088
people due to net migration into the state. Immigration from outside the United
States resulted in a net increase of 50,450 people, and migration within the
country produced a net increase of 37,638 people. Over half of Missourians live

25
within the state's two largest metropolitan areas–- St. Louis and Kansas City .
The state's population density 86.9 in 2009, is also closer to the national
average (86.8 in 2009) than any other state.

Most important places.

Jefferson City is the state capital of Missouri.

The five largest cities in Missouri are Kansas City , St. Louis , Springfield ,
Independence , and Columbia. St. Louis is the principal city of the largest
metropolitan area in Missouri, comprising seventeen counties and the
independent city of St. Louis; eight of those counties lie in the state of Illinois. It
is 16th largest with 2.88 million people.

Some of the major cities making up the St. Louis Metro area in Missouri
include St. Charles, St. Peters, Florissant, Chesterfield, Creve Coeur,
Wildwood, Maryland Heights, O'Fallon, Clayton, Ballwin, Valley Park, and
University City .

Kansas City is Missouri's largest city and the principal city of the fifteen-
county Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area , including six counties in the
state of Kansas . As of 2008, it was the 29th largest metropolitan area in the
nation, with 2.002 million people. Some of the other major cities comprising the
Kansas City metro area in Missouri include Independence, Lee's Summit, Blue
Springs, Raytown, Liberty, and Gladstone .

26
Tennessee.
Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the
Southeastern United States. It has a population of
6,214,888, making it the nation's 17th-largest
state by population, and covers 42,169 square
miles, making it the 36th-largest by total land area.
Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to
the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia,
Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, and
Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The
Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part
of the state, and the Mississippi River forms the
state's western border. Tennessee's capital and
second largest city is Nashville, which has a
population of 626,144. Memphis is the state's
largest city, with a population of 670,902.[5]
Nashville has the state's largest metropolitan
area, at 1,521,437 people.

The official language is the English

Climate.

Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, with the exception of
some of the higher elevations in the Appalachians, which are classified as
having a mountain temperate climate or a humid continental climate due to
cooler temperatures. The Gulf of Mexico is the dominant factor in the climate of
Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's
annual precipitation. Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool
winters with generous precipitation throughout the year. On average the state
receives 50 inches of precipitation annually. Snowfall ranges from 5 inches in
West Tennessee to over 16 inches in the higher mountains in East Tennessee.

Summers in the state are generally hot and humid, with most of the state
averaging a high of around 90 °F during the summer months. Winters tend to be
mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations. Generally, for areas
outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for
most of the state.

27
Religion.

The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee are:

Christian: 82%
Baptist: 39%
Methodist: 10%
Church of Christ: 6%
Roman Catholic: 6%
Presbyterian: 3%
Church of God: 2%
Lutheran: 2%
Pentecostal: 2%
Other Christian: 12%
Islam: 1%
Other religions: 2%
Non-religious: 9%

Customs and Traditions.

Their customs are country western music, Annual World's Biggest Fish Fry,
Strawberry Festival, Cotton Carnival, Tennessee State Fair, Catfish Derby, One
Gallus Fox Hunt and lastly, Bench Show.

Most important places and dates.

The capital is Nashville, though Knoxville, Kingston, and Murfreesboro have


all served as state capitals in the past. Memphis has the largest population of
any city in the state, but Nashville has had the state's largest metropolitan area
since circa 1990; Memphis formerly held that title. Chattanooga and Knoxville,
both in the eastern part of the state near the Great Smoky Mountains, each has
approximately one-third of the population of Memphis or Nashville. The city of
Clarksville is a fifth significant population center, some 45 miles northwest of
Nashville.

1769 The first permanent settlement was established in the Watauga Valley
by people from North Carolina and Virginia.

28
1777 Washington County, North Carolina, was established to provide
governmental jurisdiction over the Watauga settlements. Its boundaries
included all of present-day Tennessee.

1779 Nashville was founded and organized settlement of Middle Tennessee


began.

1784 North Carolina ceded Tennessee to the federal government. Watauga


settlers organized a short-lived "State of Franklin," which was replaced by the
Southwest Territory in 1790.

1796 Tennessee became a state.

1816 The first steamboat reached Nashville.

1861 Tennessee seceded from the Union. It was readmitted in 1866. About
110,000 Tennesseans served in the Confederate armed forces and 30,000 -
mostly from East Tennessee - fought for the Union.

29
Mississippi.

Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the


Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital
and largest city. The name of the state derives from
the Mississippi River, which flows along its western
boundary, which namesake is from the Ojibwe word
misi-ziibi. The state is heavily forested outside of the
Mississippi Delta area, and its catfish
aquaculture farms produce the majority of
farm-raised catfish consumed in the
United States. The state symbol is the
magnolia grandiflora tree.

It has a population of 2,938,618

The official language is English

Climate.

Mississippi has a humid subtropical climate with long summers and short,
mild winters. Temperatures average about 85°F in July and about 48 °F in
January. The temperature varies little statewide in the summer, however in
winter the region near Mississippi Sound is significantly warmer than the inland
portion of the state. The recorded temperature in Mississippi has ranged from -
19 °F, in 1966, at Corinth in the northeast, to 115 °F, in 1930, at Holly Springs in
the north. Heavy snowfall is possible across the state, such as during the New
Year's Eve 1963 snowstorm. Yearly precipitation generally increases from north
to south, with the regions closer to the Gulf being the most humid.

Religion.

86.7% Christian (82% Protestant, 4.7% Catholic), 10.8% No Religion, 2%


Other Religions.

Traditions.

Mississippi’s music and literary traditions have gained the state worldwide
fame.

Contemporary music is rooted in Mississippi. The blues grew out of the


Delta, and other genres of popular music have been strongly influenced by

30
Mississippians – gospel, country, R&B, rock, and jazz. A remarkable number of
writers have emerged from Mississippi – William Faulkner, Eudora Welty,
Tennessee Williams, Margaret Walker Alexander, Richard Wright, Willie Morris,
John Grisham, and the list is ever growing. Richard Ford is the state’s most
recent Pulitzer Prize winner.

Roots of Mississippi traditions can be traced though annual events that


celebrate various influences on our culture – events such as the Choctaw Indian
Festival, the Mississippi State Fair, the Blessing of the Fleet, the Neshoba
County Fair, and the Delta Blues Festival.

Most important places and dates.

Mississippi has many historic landmarks such as the Federal-style Rosalie


Mansion, the Old Mississippi State Capitol and the Okolona Historic District.
The Winterville Mounds used to be a ceremonial site for prehistoric natives and
is a popular tourist attraction. Other places of interest include the Vicksburg
National Military Park, Longwood, Tupelo and the Clarksdale Railroad Depot.

1699 The French established a settlement called Fort Maurepas on Biloxi


Bay.

1716 Fort Rosalie, now Natchez, was established by the French on the
Mississippi River.

1763 France ceded its claims to the Mississippi region to Great Britain.

1783 Britain ceded the Gulf Coast area to Spain. The rest of the Mississippi
region was claimed by Georgia. The boundary was in dispute until 1795, when it
was set at the 31st parallel, about sixty miles north of the coast.

1798 Congress organized the Mississippi Territory. Georgia abandoned


claims to the northern portion in 1802, and the Gulf Coast portion was acquired
from Spain during the War of 1812.

1817 The eastern part of the Mississippi Territory was organized as the
Territory of Alabama. Mississippi became a state.

1861 Mississippi seceded from the Union. It was readmitted in 1870.

31
Virginia.

The Commonwealth of Virginia is a U.S. state on the


Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is
nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother
of Presidents" because it is the birthplace of eight U.S.
presidents. The geography and climate of the state are shaped by the Blue
Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of
its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia
Beach is the most populous city and Fairfax County the most populous political
subdivision.
The state population is nearly eight million. It has a population of 7,882,590.

The official language is English. The spoken languages are English 94.6%,
Spanish 5.9%.

Geography.

Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including


3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area.[9]
Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east;
by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the
south; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Due
to a peculiarity of Virginia's original charter, its boundary with Maryland and
Washington, D.C. does not extend past the low-water mark of the south shore
of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel
north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.

Climate.

The climate of Virginia varies according to location, and becomes


increasingly warmer and humid farther south and east. Virginia experiences
seasonal extremes, from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of
86 °F in July. The moderating influence of the ocean from the east, powered by
the Gulf Stream has a strong effect on the southeastern coastal areas of the
state. It also creates the potential for hurricanes near the mouth of Chesapeake
Bay.

32
Religion.

Christian 76%
Baptist 27%
Roman Catholic 11%
Methodist 8%
Lutheran 2%
Other Christian 28%
Buddhism 1%
Hinduism 1%
Judaism 1%
Islam 0.5%
Unaffiliated 18%

Traditions.

Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia


maintains its own particular traditions. Smithfield ham, sometimes called
Virginia ham, is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can
only be produced in the town of Smithfield. Virginia has launched many award-
winning traditional music artists as well as internationally successful popular
music acts. Ralph Stanley, Patsy Cline, The Statler Brothers and The Carter
Family are award winning Bluegrass and Country music musicians from
Virginia, and Ella Fitzgerald and Pearl Bailey were both from Newport News.
Hip hop and Rhythm and blues acts like Missy Elliott, Timbaland, The
Neptunes, Chris Brown, and Clipse hail from the commonwealth.

Literature in Virginia often deals with the state's extensive, and sometimes
troubled, past. The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with
social inequalities and the role of women in her culture. Glasgow's peer and
close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position
of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen,
A Comedy of Justice.

Most important places and dates.

Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a


population of over 1.2 million. As of 2008, Virginia Beach is the most populous
city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third,
respectively. Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan
area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the

33
world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk. Suffolk, which includes a
portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square
miles (1,111 km2). Fairfax County is the most populous division in Virginia, with
over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat
Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities.

1661: Virginia's fugitive slave law legalizes slavery.

1662: Virginia declares the mother's status determines that of her child.

1670: Virginia repeals a law that allows freed slaves and indentured
servants to vote.

1777: Vermont becomes the first state to abolish slavery.

1827: Gradual emancipation law frees ten thousand when New York
abolishes slavery on July 4th.

1861: Start of the Civil War.

1865: End of the Civil War.

34
Georgia.

Is a state located in the southeastern United States.


Georgia was established in 1732, the last of the original
Thirteen Colonies.

Location.

Georgia is bordered on the south by


Florida; on the east by the Atlantic
Ocean and South Carolina; on the west
by Alabama; and on the north by
Tennessee and North Carolina. The
northern part of the state is in the Blue
Ridge Mountains, a mountain range in
the vast Appalachian Mountains system.

The central piedmont extends from


the foothills to the fall line, where the
rivers cascade down in elevation to the
continental coastal plain of the southern
part of the state. The highest point in
Georgia is Brasstown Bald, 4,784 feet
the lowest point is sea level.

35
Climate

Georgia has a subtropical climate , relatively pleasant in winter and hot in


summer. The temperatures are more pleasant in the proximity of the Atlantic
Ocean . The state's annual average temperature is 18 ° C .

The temperature during winter is reduced as it travels north. Georgia


Southern has a mean of 11 ° C in winter, while the north has an average of 5 °
C. In winter, the average minimum is 7 ° C in the south and 0 ° C in the north.
The average maximum is 17 ° C and 10 ° C respectively. The extremes range
from -10 ° C and 20 ° C. The lowest temperature recorded in Georgia was -27 °
C, 27 January 1940 in Floyd County .

In summer , the temperature variation of the state is minimal, basically


depending on the terrain altitude - the higher the lower the average
temperature. In summer, the average state minimum is 22 ° C, and the average
maximum is 33 ° C. The highest temperature recorded in Georgia was 44 ° C,
recorded on 20 August 1983 , in Greenville .

The rates of precipitation annual average rainfall in Georgia is 127


centimeters per year. The annual average is greater in the northern state
where reaches 150 inches a year, and smaller in the central region of the state,
which receives about 115 inches a year.

Religion.

Percentage of population of Georgia for religious affiliation:

Christianity - 85%
Protestant - 76%
Baptist churches - 39%
Methodist - 12%
Presbyterian - 3%
Pentecostal - 3%
Other affiliations Protestant - 19%
Roman Catholic Church - 8%
Other affiliations Christian - 1%
Judaism - 2%
Other Religions - 2%
Non-religious - 13%

36
Language.

About 90.1% of the population of Georgia with more than 5 years of age
have English as their mother tongue, and 5.6% have Spanish . The French is
the third most spoken language in the state, with 0.6% of the population,
followed by German and Vietnamese , each with 0.4%.

Most important places.

Located on Abercorn Street and Wayne, Calhoun Square was designed in


1851 and named in honor of John C. Calhoun, vice-president under two
presidents: John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson. Calhoun Square is one
of the 21 remaining in the city still has all its original buildings, including a
school and a Methodist church, so it is easily transported from there to the past
and imagine the former residents of Savannah, meeting for a while every
Sunday to discuss their daily problems after going to church or take the kids to
school on weekdays.

Chippewa Square at Bull and McDonough Streets which was designed in


1815 and is known as the Plaza of Forrest Gump as the scenes at the bus stop
film of the same name were filmed in the northern corner of this square.
Savannah offers more than 40 cultural attractions and leisure travel.

Savannah has treasures in regard to historic mansions. An interesting is


the Owens-Thomas House at 124 Abercorn Street. The house dates from 1816
and was designed by architect William Jay in Regency style which is considered
one of the best examples in the United States. Now the mansion is a museum
with a few rooms of slaves preserved intact in the country.

37
Conclusion
The south of the United States is a good region for all the travelers for it´s
history and the places that you can find in. The people is conservative and the
religion is common in the southern states.

There is so much culture in the south states. You can find a lot of
literature from very popular writers like Mark Twain and William
Faulkner. The most famous southern novel is Gone with the Wind
by Margaret Mitchell,this one was published in 1937.

Mark Twain

This region have a big legacy of music too. Is the mother of a lot
of musical genres like the soul, country, rock and roll, rhythm
and blues and singers like Johnny Cash, Hank Williams, Willie
Nelson, Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, James Brown and bands
like ZZ Top and R. E. M.

Elvis Presley

The cuisine of the southern states is other of its customs. They do


recipes like barbecue and the tex-mex cuisine. The drinks in this
site of the United States are legend in the world. Soft drinks like
Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, Mountain Dew, Royal Crown Cola were
born in the southern states.

In conclusion the southern states have unique traditions and customs that don´t
have anyother site in the United States. The region have a big history between
wars and slow progress, an excellent and extensive musical repertory and a
cuisine with a very good taste.

38
Bibliography.

http://eciencia.com/recursos/enciclopedia/Gastronom%C3%ADa_del_sur_d
e_Estados_Unidos

http://www.virginia.org/site/features.asp?featureid=98

http://www.virginia.org/site/features.asp?featureid=98

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Virginia

http://www.shmoop.com/colonial-virginia/timeline.html

http://www.alabama.gov/sliverheader/Welcome.do?url=http://archives.state.
al.us/aaa.html

http://www.alabama.gov/portal/secondary.jsp?id=alabamaFacts

http://www.pocanticohills.org/usa99/tn.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tennessee

http://www.genealogyforum.com/gfaol/resource/TN/Dates.htm

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108232.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi

http://www.sos.ms.gov/links/ed_pubs/pubs/Mississippi_Souvenir_Booklet_S
ection_3.pdf

http://awesomeamerica.com/mississippi/

http://www.placesonline.com/north_america/united_states/mississippi/attrac
tions.asp

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