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Application of wireless sensor networks to aircraft control and health

management systems

Article  in  Journal of Control Theory and Applications · February 2011

DOI: 10.1007/s11768-011-0242-9


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The Ohio State University


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J Control Theory Appl 2011 9 (1) 28–33
DOI 10.1007/s11768-011-0242-9

Application of wireless sensor networks to aircraft

control and health management systems
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus Ohio 43210, U.S.A.

Abstract: Use of fly-by-wire technology for aircraft flight controls have resulted in an improved performance and
reliability along with achieving reduction in control system weight. Implementation of full authority digital engine control
has also resulted in more intelligent, reliable, light-weight aircraft engine control systems. Greater reduction in weight can
be achieved by replacing the wire harness with a wireless communication network. The first step towards fly-by-wireless
control systems is likely to be the introduction of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). WSNs are already finding a variety
of applications for both safety-critical and nonsafety critical distributed systems. Some of the many potential benefits of
using WSN for aircraft systems include weight reduction, ease of maintenance and an increased monitoring capability. This
paper discusses the application of WSN for several aircraft systems such as distributed aircraft engine control, aircraft flight
control, aircraft engine and structural health monitoring systems. A brief description of each system is presented along with
a discussion on the technological challenges. Future research directions for application of WSN in aircraft systems are also
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; Distributed turbine engine control; Fly-by-wireless; Aircraft engine health
monitoring; Aircraft structural monitoring; Communication constraints

1 Introduction nance cost and obsolescence costs. As most of the current

A typical commercial/military aircraft consists of a sensors have double/quadruple redundancy in the form of
number of safety-critical systems, such as aircraft engine sensor hardware and wire harnesses, the use of WSN can re-
control system, aircraft flight control systems and nonsafety sult in huge weight savings. In a recent study, it was shown
critical systems, such as structural and engine health moni- that the use of a wireless communication network can re-
toring systems, aircraft cabin environmental control system, sult in 90 lbs. weight reduction of Cessna 310R control sys-
inflight entertainment system, etc. These systems demand tems, which increases its range by around 10%. Also, in the
a large number of real-time sensors for their optimal op- same study, assuming only a 50% wire reduction, 267 lbs.
eration. Current systems, which are based on wired con- weight saving was shown to be achieved for an SH 60 mili-
nections, are complex, difficult to route, heavy and prone tary helicopter control system [3]. Fig. 1 shows the approx-
to damage and degradation due to wear. The Airbus A380, imate locations of a few typical sensors required for aircraft
for instance, has over 300 miles of cables consisting of ap- flight control systems. As seen in the figure, the sensors are
proximately 98,000 wires and 40,000 connectors [1]. Ca- sparsely located increasing the wire harness length.
ble routing is quite a complex task, as for example, the
power cable and electrical signal cable should be physically
separated to avoid electrical interference and can hinder air-
line customization during manufacturing. Also, inaccessi-
ble sensor access point locations and harsh environmental
conditions impose physical restrictions on the use of a wire
harness. This results in the degradation of wiring causing
catastrophic failures. For example, according to a U.S. Navy
report, 6 aircraft were lost due to electrical failure over a 10
year period, about 78 aircrafts are made nonmission capa-
ble due to wiring faults each year and wiring faults cause
more than 1000 mission aborts each year [2]. Replacement
of the current wire harness-based sensors with a wireless
sensor network (WSN) can help to achieve the goal of in-
creasing the number of sensors as well as increasing the
system redundancy. It will also reduce the aircraft system
weight and lead to improved fuel efficiency and reduced
carbon emissions. Replacing the physical cabling by wire-
less connections also offers significant benefits in flexibility,
interoperability, mass reduction and improved robustness.
Use of WSN also enables reduction in direct costs, mainte- Fig. 1 Typical sensor locations of a commercial aircraft [4].

Received 18 October 2010.

c South China University of Technology and Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011
R. YEDAVALLI et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2011 9 (1) 28–33 29

This paper aims to discuss the various applications of

WSN to aircraft control systems along with addressing the
key technical challenges for their successful implementa-
tion. Future research directions for WSN-based aircraft sys-
tems will also be identified in this paper. The paper is orga-
nized as follows. In Section 2, we will briefly discuss the ap-
plications of WSN for aircraft control systems, specifically
for flight control and aircraft engine control of commer-
cial/military aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
This will be followed by a discussion on the use of WSN for
aircraft engine maintenance & fault diagnostics and also for
aircraft structural health monitoring. Technical challenges
for implementation of WSNs for aircraft systems will be Fig. 2 FADEC based on distributed architecture.
discussed in Section 3. Finally in Section 4, we will con- Distributed engine control allows the implementation of
clude this paper with a discussion on the future research di- advanced engine control technologies, for example, active
rections for aircraft control and health management systems clearance control, active stall and surge control, active com-
based on WSNs. bustion control and adaptive/intelligent control techniques
which will improve aerothermodynamic efficiency, lower
2 Application of WSNs for aircraft systems emissions and also help to reduce the control system weight.
WSNs consist of a cluster of spatially distributed in- The distributed control approach is inherently more pow-
telligent sensors designed to monitor a physical parame- erful, flexible, and scalable than a centralized control ap-
ters, such as vibration, temperature, strain, pressure, etc. proach. Detailed studies of distributed engine control archi-
Each sensor node within the network performs the function tecture can be found in [8∼10]. After successful implemen-
of sensing, data processing and wireless data transmission tation of distributed engine control based on fiber optics/
and is powered by an individual power source. Use of mi- wired communication network, a progression can be made
croelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology enables towards wireless architecture. Initially, WSN can be used
production of low-cost, low-power multifunctional sensors only for the redundant sensors of distributed engine con-
having very small size and light weight. The concepts, ap- trol system. An ideal distributed engine control architecture,
plications and research issues for applications of wireless which will make use of the advantages of WSN, will have
sensor networks are widely discussed in [5,6]. Wireless sen- actuators with wired connections in order to provide a se-
sor networks for aerospace applications such as space struc- cure, reliable control system architecture.
tures, spacecraft and ground testing equipment was studied However, there are major technical challenges to the real-
in [7]. Aircraft systems can be broadly classified as safety- ization of DEC. High temperature electronics, selection of
critical systems and nonsafety critical systems. Failures in appropriate communication architecture, and partitioning of
safety-critical aircraft systems are determined unacceptable the centralized controller are some of them. As the perfor-
and could result in loss of life, damage to the environment mance of the DEC will be dependent on the performance
or significant damage to the aircraft. Safety-critical systems of the communication network, selection of the appropriate
which can benefit from the use of WSN are engine con- communication architecture is very important. Addition of
trol systems and flight control systems for both commer- the serial communication channel will introduce a number
cial/military aircraft as well as for UAV. of communications constraints which must be considered
2.1 Distributed aircraft engine control to obtain the desired functionality of the controller. These
The present aircraft engine control systems are based on constraints include time delays, packet dropouts and bit-rate
a centralized architecture in which all the sensors and ac- limitations. Time delays and packet dropouts can degrade
tuators are individually connected to the engine controller, the controller performance or in worst case, can even desta-
known as full authority digital engine control (FADEC). bilize the system. Hence, it is very important to study con-
Heavily shielded analog wire harnesses are used for these trol of safety-critical distributed systems under these com-
point-to-point connections between sensor/actuator nodes munication constraints. Decentralized distributed full au-
and FADEC. Thermal as well as mechanical shielding of the thority digital engine control was proposed and studied for
current centralized engine control systems imparts a heavy stability under time delays and packet dropouts in [11, 12].
weight penalty. Also, the current centralized architecture As each of the smart nodes will be operating at adverse
has a high obsolescence cost as well as a high maintenance environmental conditions including harsh vibrations and
cost. Before implementing WSN for aircraft engine control, high temperatures, it is necessary to develop reliable elec-
an intermediate step is to move towards a distributed control tronics capable of operating at these harsh conditions with
architecture. In distributed engine control (DEC), the func- low maintenance requirement. Several commercial off-the-
tions of FADEC are distributed at the component level. Each shelf (COTS) electronic components based on silicon-on-
sensor/actuator is replaced by a smart sensor/actuator. These insulator (SOI) are available which can operate at temper-
smart modules include local processing capability to allow atures up to 250 ◦ C. Silicon carbide (SiC)-based electronic
modular signal acquisition and conditioning, and diagnos- components operating upto 500 ◦ C are one of the promis-
tics and health management functionality. Dual channel dig- ing technologies that has to be further developed in order to
ital serial communication network is used to connect these successfully implement WSN-based distributed engine con-
smart modules with FADEC. Fig. 2 shows the schematic of trol. Also, since this is a safety-critical system, the reliability
FADEC based on distributed control architecture. of the energy harvesting techniques needs to be further im-
30 R. YEDAVALLI et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2011 9 (1) 28–33

proved. The use of ethernet and wireless technologies for gent control algorithms, which in turn call for an increase in
on-board systems, remote operational monitoring, testing the number of sensors. Military aircrafts and in particular,
and control of aircraft engine systems are well discussed UAVs will greatly benefit from the use of IFCS. Increas-
in [13, 14]. ing the number of sensors, without a substantial increase in
2.2 WSN for aircraft engine health management weight and complexity, is possible only by implementation
of WSN. WSN will enable integration of several systems
An aircraft engine is a complex system requiring regu-
into one, for example, the use of WSN for both aircraft en-
lar maintenance to ensure flight safety. Engine maintenance,
gine control and aircraft flight control will allow integra-
repair and overhaul (MRO) operations are time consuming
tion between flight control and propulsion control, which
and costly. Hence, in order to improve the time-on-wing
can significantly improve performance of military aircrafts
of aircraft engines, it is desired to perform condition-based
as well as UAVs. Also, there will be greater flexibility for
maintenance, which uses real-time data to schedule main-
adding functionality or improving the performance of the
tenance. Although the current maintenance methods do use
aircraft after initial design and production. One of the other
sensors for monitoring, data is not stored or transmitted on
advantage of using fly-by-wireless flight control systems
a real time basis. This prevents the use of advanced health
based on WSN is that if the pilots or flight deck controls be-
monitoring methods which require real time data analysis.
come inoperable or incapacitated, ground-based air traffic
Use of WSN for aircraft engine health monitoring will en-
control (ATC) or adjacent military aircraft with necessary
able implementation of condition-based monitoring algo-
electronics, can control the aircraft.
rithms due to availability of real-time data. Each of the
sensor nodes of the WSN will communicate with an on- Flight control systems being safety-critical systems are
board diagnostics and health monitoring system, which will of extreme importance to improve the reliability and perfor-
store the data points for the entire flight. Once on ground, mance of WSN in order to obtain flight certification. Perfor-
this data will be transmitted to the maintenance workshop mance of WSN in an electromagnetic and radiation environ-
through wireless communication. This will allow the use of ment and under lightning strikes, which both are prevalent
online as well as offline diagnostic algorithms. Also, since for commercial/military aircraft and UAVs needs to be stud-
the data communication will take place using a wireless net- ied. The effect of signal jamming on robustness of WSN
work, huge infrastructural investments will not be required. has to be studied in depth, in particular for WSN based
As engine health monitoring is not a safety-critical sys- flight control systems of commercial aircrafts. The poten-
tem, certification of WSN-based engine health monitoring tial of WSN-based flight control systems as a backup for
will be less complex than for WSN-based distributed engine FBW flight control systems also needs to be evaluated. For
control systems. However, availability of high temperature high endurance UAV or for UAV having flexible/morphing
electronics will still be one of the major obstacles for suc- wings, a common WSN for both aircraft flight control and
cessful implementation of WSN for engine health manage- aircraft structural control can greatly improve the flight per-
ment. Use of wireless technology for in-flight monitoring formance. Optimum bandwidth reduction algorithms for in-
of the temperature of aircraft gas turbine engines was stud- creasing the number of sensors without a significant in-
ied in [15], and reference [16] provides an overview of an crease in their power requirement also have to be devel-
architecture based on WSN for engine health monitoring. oped. Fig. 3 shows fly-by-wireless flight control systems
with WSN.
2.3 Fly-by-wireless aircraft flight control system
The aircraft flight control systems consist of flight control
surfaces, cockpit controls, sensors and communication link-
ages between cockpit control and flight control actuators. In
the current fly-by-wire (FBW) flight control systems, flight
control computers determine the control action, which is
transmitted to the control actuator through wire harnesses.
FBW flight control systems improves the handling charac-
teristics of an aircraft by providing high-integrity automatic
stabilization of an aircraft over the entire flight envelope and
for all loading conditions. Triple/quadruple channel redun-
dancy increases the safety and reliability of the flight con-
trol systems. Use of FBW flight control systems not only Fig. 3 Fly-by-wireless aircraft flight control system.
reduces the control system weight and reduces maintenance 2.4 WSN for aircraft structural health monitoring
complexities, but also reduces the pilot workload by per-
Because of the increasing use of composite materials for
forming other functions like stall prevention, etc. Imple-
aircraft structures, it is necessary to develop novel methods
mentation of FBW enables to limit the aircraft within its
for aircraft structural health monitoring. Most of the fail-
structural and aerodynamic limitations, which is known as,
flight envelope protection. However, these systems still re- ures of the laminated composite structures originate with
tain the bulky and heavy hydraulic systems for actuating delamination of layers. In case of metal aircraft structures,
the control surfaces. Use of electrical or electro-hydraulic cracks are developed in metal structures which grow over
actuators will further reduce the weight, but will also re- time leading to failures. For both of these cases, visual in-
quire additional sensing elements. Intelligent flight control spection is not a reliable method for failure detection. This
systems (IFCS) are being developed to safely control the calls for a vibration analysis-based failure detection method.
aircraft in the presence of structural damage or failure dur- Current scheduled aircraft structure maintenance methods
ing flight. This requires development of complex and intelli- have a high maintenance cost. Several studies have been
R. YEDAVALLI et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2011 9 (1) 28–33 31

conducted to develop health monitoring algorithms which 3 Technical challenges

use the data from strain sensors embedded into the com- Some of the technological challenges for implementing
posite structure. WSN can be embedded into the composite safety-critical control systems based on WSN are as fol-
structure which will harvest the vibration energy and will lows.
transmit the real-time data to the central health monitoring 3.1 Control under communication constraints
unit. These sensors will be used to monitor the internal pa- The communication between sensors, controllers and ac-
rameters like cracks, strain as well as external parameters tuators for both distributed engine control systems based on
like temperature, load, etc. Use of WSN, powered by en- WSN and fly-by-wireless flight control systems will occur
ergy harvesting techniques will increase the number of sen- through a shared bandwidth-limited wireless network. The
sors as well as their life. Also, real-time data will enable use of a wireless communication channel introduces a num-
the use of condition-based maintenance, thereby preventing ber of communication constraints, which have to be consid-
catastrophic failure of aircraft structures. Although the use ered during the controller design. Two of such communica-
of MEMS is one of the promising technologies for imple- tion constraints that can have significant effects on the per-
mentation of WSN-based aircraft structural monitoring, op- formance of the control system are network-induced time
timum energy harvesting and power management methods delays and packet dropouts. The network-induced delay
for MEMS sensors have to be further improved. The inte- can be further sub-divided into sensor-to-controller delay,
gration of sensors and airframe has to be studied; in particu- controller-to-actuator delay, and the computational delay in
lar, the effect on the structural strength of composite materi- the controller. Sensor-to-controller delay and controller-to-
als due to embedded sensors has to be studied. If the sensor actuator delay will depend on the communication protocol
is to be attached on top of the aircraft structure, its interac- and can be either constant, time varying or random in na-
tion with the air flow needs to be investigated. An aircraft ture. Network congestion and channel quality can also re-
structural health monitoring system based on WSN is de- sult in random network transmission delay. This delay can
scribed in [17] while the structural health monitoring and destabilize a system designed without considering the delay
reporting (SHMR) system, which uses wireless sensors was or can degrade the system performance. Packet dropouts in
proposed and tested in [18]. Use of WSN for aircraft tire wireless communication can occur due to transmission er-
structural health monitoring is studied in [19]. rors, long transmission delays or due to packet collisions.
References [20∼23] provide a brief introduction to net-
2.5 Other nonsafety critical systems worked control systems (NCS) and also present a survey on
Several other nonsafety critical systems that can also ben- the recent developments in stability of NCS under commu-
efit from the WSN technology are discussed below. nication constraints. In wireless communication networks,
 Aircraft hydraulic monitoring systems systems with packet dropouts can be described by stochas-
Hydraulic systems play a very important role in powering tic models. The packet dropping of the wireless network can
primary and secondary flight control systems as well as sev- be modeled as an independent and identically distributed
eral other utility systems including undercarriage, wheel- (i.i.d.) Bernoulli process with a packet dropping probability
brakes, cargo doors, loading ramps, etc. As failures in hy- (PDP). The maximum PDP that a networked control sys-
draulic systems may result in loss of maneuverability of tem can tolerate before becoming unstable is called packet
the aircraft, it is necessary to monitor the temperatures, dropout margin (PDM). By improving PDM, which can be
viewed as a measure of stability robustness for a system
pressures and flow rates of hydraulic fluids. Condition-
with packet dropouts, the stability of networked control sys-
based maintenance methods can also benefit from additional
tems with packet dropouts can be improved. A new frame-
sensors; for example, filter blockage sensors can help the
work, labeled decentralized distributed full authority dig-
ground crew to monitor the condition of filter elements of ital engine control (D2 FADEC) was proposed in [11, 12]
hydraulic systems. By replacing the conventional sensors by and was studied for stability under time delays and packet
WSN, it will be possible not only to display the signals to dropouts. It was shown that the PDM is dependent on a
the gages in cockpit, but also to the ground servicing per- closed-loop system matrix structure and that a controller de-
sonnel for conducting on-wing aircraft engine maintenance. sign based on a decentralized framework further improves
 Environmental control systems the PDM.
Environmental control systems (ECS) provide air supply 3.2 MAC protocols for wireless control systems
with optimum humidity and sufficient oxygen concentra-
Each sensor node within the WSN has limited energy
tion to the passengers and crew and are also used for ther- and computational resources. In order to make optimal use
mal control of the avionics, fuel and hydraulic systems. The of these finite resources, a number of protocols based on
efficiency of aircraft engines is often decreased due to in- medium access control (MAC) have been developed. These
crease in avionics heat load and due to inefficient air supply protocols stress on energy efficiency by reducing the en-
systems. Use of WSN for ECS will help to increase their ergy loss due to wireless medium. Several MAC protocols
reliability as well to improve the efficiency of the aircraft like carrier sense multiple access (CSMA), IEEE 802.15.4,
engines. De-misting, anti-icing systems can also benefit by IEEE 802.11 are discussed in [24]. Since MAC protocols
the use of WSN. focus on energy efficiency and not on reduction in commu-
 Emergency systems nication delay or packet dropouts, the performance of con-
Use of WSN for smoke and fire detection systems, emer- trol systems based on these protocols is limited. Research
gency lighting systems, passenger address systems, etc. can should be conducted to design MAC protocols which are
help to reduce the weight and wiring complexity of these not only energy efficient, but also offer high quality of ser-
systems along with increasing their reliability. vice (QoS) in terms of time delay, bandwidth utilization and
32 R. YEDAVALLI et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2011 9 (1) 28–33

data loss due to packet collisions. A very few studies have existing airplane radio transmitters and transmitters within
focused on this approach. For example, a cross-layer frame- the proposed WSN. There is no worldwide spectrum allo-
work for an integrated design of wireless networks and dis- cated specifically for fly by wireless systems. The new cer-
tributed controllers, which significantly improves the per- tification rules must ensure that WSN are protected against
formance and stability of the controller, is presented in [25]. unauthorized introduction and modification of data, denial
3.3 Dedicated spectrum for wireless aircraft systems or loss of service, gradual degradation of service and in-
Before implementing WSN for safety critical systems, troduction of misleading or false data. The current FAA
it is necessary to ensure that their operability will not be regulations expect physical isolation between safety criti-
compromised due to interference between various wireless cal and other communications networks like passenger en-
networks. The WSNs should not interfere with the aircraft tertainment networks. Use of WSN for the entire aircraft
communication, navigation, and surveillance radio systems makes physical isolation challenging. The new regulations
and the intra-aircraft wireless communication. The effect must also address security threats including safety threats,
of crew/passenger portable wireless electronics devices on business threats, channel jamming attacks, etc.
WSN also has to be considered during design of WSN.
3.4 Optimum power source 4 Conclusions
Powering all the sensors using the conventional batter- The aerospace industry will greatly benefit from the use
ies will not only increase the size and weight of the sys- of WSN. These benefits through weight savings, reduction
tem but will also limit their service life and will require ex- in subsystems design complexity and improved condition-
pensive maintenance. A widely investigated alternative is based maintenance will directly benefit the airlines in terms
to use energy harvesting techniques to generate electrical of additional revenues as well as lower operational and
power for operating these sensors. WSN can operate almost maintenance cost. Use of WSN-based engine health mon-
maintenance free by use of both energy harvesting meth- itoring and aircraft structural health monitoring will enable
ods and by implementing strict power management [26,27]. the development of safety-critical systems such as WSN
based distributed engine control and fly-by-wireless aircraft
Vibration-based harvesting technique is seen as one of the
flight control systems. However, there are a few signifi-
promising techniques for aerospace applications. Current
cant technical challenges for the successful implementation
vibration energy harvesters are constructed as mechanical of wireless sensor networks. Future research should be di-
resonators with a transducer element that converts motion rected in addressing the below given technical challenges.
into electricity. They are further divided into three groups
 Safety-critical distributed control systems should be
of generators based on their physical transduction princi- studied for stability and performance under communication
ple: piezoelectric, electrostatic, and electromagnetic. Piezo- constraints like time delays and packet dropouts. Research
electric vibration-based energy converters deliver the high- should be conducted to reduce the conservativeness of the
est efficiency at lowest cost and increased life cycle. Piezo existing random delay stability conditions. The effect of bit-
ceramic bimorph beams and MEMS-based piezo resonators rate constraints on system stability and performance also
can be used to harvest the energy from vibrations while needs to be evaluated.
bulk ceramic and fiber composites directly bonded to the  Research needs to be conducted in the area of informa-
aircraft structure can be used to harvest strain energy. As tion fusion of wireless sensor networks for aircraft systems.
there is a significant temperature gradient between the cabin  Routing protocols should be developed to make effi-
lining and aircraft shell, thermoelectric generators can also cient use of the limited power supply, limited communica-
be used to harvest this energy. The operation of these ther- tion bandwidth and limited computing power.
moelectric devises is based on Seebeck-effect and it has  Energy harvesting methods needs further improvement
been shown that a MEMS-based thermoelectric generator in the terms of efficiency and reliability.
can be efficiently used to generate sufficient power. Use of  Development of high temperature electronics will en-
MEMS-based steam microturbines to generate electricity able the use of WSN for aircraft engine control and health
from waste heat of engine exhaust should also be investi- monitoring.
gated.  New wireless aircraft certification regulations needs to
3.5 Certification of aircraft wireless systems be developed to address the various security and safety
Use of wireless communication networks for safety crit- threats.
ical functions of an aircraft require a very high degree of  A dedicated global spectrum for WSN for aircraft appli-
safety assurance and certification [28]. The Federal Avia- cations needs to be developed.
tion Administration (FAA) has certified a number of on- References
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[14] H. A. Thompson. Wireless sensor research at the rolls-royce control Aerospace Engineering from the Indian Institute of
and systems university technology centre[C]//Proceedings of the Science, India, and Ph.D. degree from the School
1st International Conference on Wireless Communication, Vehicular of Aeronautics and Astronautics of Purdue Univer-
Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronic Systems sity in 1974, 1976 and 1981, respectively. He is cur-
Technology. New York: IEEE, 2009: 517 – 522. rently a professor in the Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering at the Ohio State Uni-
[15] D. Goldsmith, E. Gaura, J. Brusey, et al. Wireless sensor networks versity, Columbus, OH. He is a fellow of IEEE and
for aerospace applications-thermal monitoring for a gas turbine a fellow of ASME and an associate fellow of AIAA. He is the recipient
engine[C]//Proceedings of Nanotech Conference and Expo. Boca of the O. Hugh Schuck Best Paper Award by the American Automatic
Raton, FL: CRC Press-Taylor & Francis Group, 2009: 507 – 512. Control Council in 2001. Dr. Yedavalli’s research and teaching interests
[16] H. Bai, M. Atiquzzaman, D. Lilja. Wireless sensor network for include robustness and sensitivity issues in linear uncertain dynamical sys-
aircraft health monitoring[C]//Proceedings of the 1st International tems, estimation and fault diagnostics of propulsion systems, control of
Conference on Broadband Networks. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE smart structural systems, networked control systems, dynamics and con-
Computer Society, 2004: 748 – 750. trol of flexible structures, aircraft, spacecraft, automotive, robotic, energy,
[17] T. Becker, M. Kluge, J. Schalk, et al. Autonomous sensor nodes for and other mechanical control systems. E-mail:
aircraft structural health monitoring[J]. IEEE Sensors Journal, 2009,
Rohit K. BELAPURKAR joined the Ohio State
9(11): 1589 – 1595.
University, U.S.A. in 2006 and is currently pursu-
[18] S. W. Arms, J. H. Galbreath, C. P. Townsend, et al. Energy ing Ph.D. degree in the Department of Mechan-
harvesting wireless sensors and networked timing synchronization ical and Aerospace Engineering. He obtained his
for aircraft structural health monitoring[C]//Proceedings of the 1st B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Uni-
International Conference on Wireless Communication, Vehicular versity of Pune, India, in 2006 and M.S. degree in
Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace & Electronic Systems Aerospace Engineering from the Ohio State Uni-
Technology. New York: IEEE, 2009: 16 – 20. versity, in 2008. His research interests include dis-
[19] F. M. Gondal. Embedded Wireless Sensor Network for Aircraft/ tributed aircraft engine control, networked control
Automobile Tire Structural Health Monitoring[D]. M.S. thesis. systems, time delay systems, decentralized control systems, sensor net-
Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, works, nonlinear control theory, and robust control of safety-critical dis-
2007. tributed systems. E-mail:

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