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R.

Rizza 4/19/2007
Equations for Spur Gears

by

Dr. Robert Rizza


Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Milwaukee School of Engineering
1025 N. Broadway
Milwaukee, WI 53202
(414) 277-7377
Fax:(414) 277-2222
Email: rizza@msoe.edu
http://people.msoe.edu/~rizza

The equations are believed to be correct. But, if you find any errors please let me know by
writing to rizza@msoe.edu.

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Nomenclature
Symbol* Meaning
a Addendum length
b Dedendum length
c Clearance
C Gear and Pinion center distance
Cf (or ZR) Surface condition factor
CH Hardness factor
Cma Mesh alignment factor
Cmc Load correction factor
CP (or ZE) Elastic coefficient
Cpf Pinion proportion factor
Cpm Pinion proportion modifier
d Pitch diameter
E Young’s modulus
hu Working depth
ht=a+b Whole depth
F Face width
Fn Transmitted load
Fr Radial load
Ft Tangential load
I Surface Geometry factor
φ Pressure angle
m Module
J Bending Strength Geometry Factor
KB Rim thickness factor
KM (CM) Load distribution factor
Ko Overload factor
KR Reliability factor
KS Size factor
KT Temperature factor
KV Dynamic Factor
MG Gear ratio (never less than 1)
mB Backup ratio
Mp Contact ratio
Mv Angular velocity ratio
n Number of revolutions per minute
N Number of teeth
ν Poisson ratio
ω, ωarm Angular velocity, Angular velocity of the arm
Pb Base Pitch
Pc Circular Pitch
Pd Diametral Pitch
Qv Quality index
r Pitch circle radii
t Tooth thickness
ρ Radii of curvature
TF Oil film temperature
Sb Allowable bending stress
Sc Allowable surface contact stress
Sfb Bending fatigue strength
Sfc Surface fatigue contact strength
T Torque
tR Rim thickness
Vt Velocity along the pitch circle
YN Stress cycle factor for bending
z Length of action
ZN Stress cycle for pitting resistance
* Subscripts p and g are used to indicate the pinion and g for some of these parameters.

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KINEMATICS

Fundamental Relationships

ωout r N T 1
mV = = in = in m A = out =
ωin rout N out Tin mV
πd N
Pc = Pd = Pb = Pc cos φ
N d

d
m=
N

( rp + a p ) − ( rp cos φ ) ( rg + a g ) − ( rg cos φ )
2 2 2 2
z= + − Csin φ
Pd z
MP =
π cos φ

MG= Mv or MA depending on which is greater than 1

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Standard Gears

Tables 1, 2, 3 (Norton tables 11-1, 11-2 and 11-3, or Shigley 13-1 to 13-3)

Table 1 (Norton Table 11-1, Shigley Table 13-1): Standard Gear Parameters
Parameter Coarse Pitch (Pd < 20) Fine Pitch (Pd > 20)
φ 20 or 25 degrees 20 degrees
a 1.000/ Pd 1.000/ Pd
b 1.250/ Pd 1.250/ Pd
hu 2.000/ Pd 2.000/ Pd
ht 2.250/ Pd 2.200/ Pd +0.002 in
t 1.571/ Pd 1.571/ Pd
Fillet radius 0.3000/ Pd Not standardized
Minimum basic clearance 0.250/ Pd 0.200/ Pd +0.002 in
Minimum width of top 0.250/ Pd Not standardized
land
c 0.350/ Pd 0.350/ Pd +0.002 in

Table 2 (Norton Table 11-2, Shigley Table 13-2): Standard Diametral Pitches
Coarse Pitch (Pd < 20) Fine Pitch (Pd > 20)
1.25 20
1.5 24
1.75 32
2 48
2.5 64
3 72
4 80
5 96
6 120
8
10
12
14
16
18

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Table 3 (Norton Table 11-3, Shigley 13-3): Standard Metric Modules


m (mm) Equivalent Pd (1/in)
0.3 84.67
0.4 63.50
0.5 50.80
0.8 31.75
1 25.40
1.25 20.32
1.5 16.93
2 12.70
3 8.47
4 6.35
5 5.08
6 4.23
8 3.18
10 2.54
12 2.12
16 1.59
20 1.27
25 1.02

Table 4 Minimum Number of Teeth Required for Avoiding Interference in a 20° Full-Depth
Pinion and Full-Depth Gear (Norton Table 11-5).

Minimum Pinion Teeth Maximum Gear Teeth


17 1309
16 101
15 45
14 26
13 16

Table 5 Minimum Number of Teeth Required for Avoiding Interference in a Full-Depth Pinion
and a Full-Depth Rack (Norton Table 11-4).
Pressure Angle (φ) Minimum Number of Teeth.
14.5 32
20 18
25 12

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Gear Trains

1. Simple fixed Gears

ωout product of the number of teeth of input gears


=
ωin product of the number of teeth of output gears

2. Planetary Gears

ωL − ωarm product of the number of teeth of input gears


=
ωF − ωarm product of the number of teeth of output gears

Stresses

Transmitted Loads

Ft = Fn cos φ
Fr = Fn sin φ = Ft tan φ

Velocity of the Pitch Circle

⎧ πdn πNn
⎪ = (in FPM)
12 12Pd
⎪⎪
Vt = ⎨ πdn ( in in/s n in rps ) (See also Norton Table 11-7)
⎪ πmNn ( in m/s, n in rps )

⎪⎩

Bending Stress

FP
σb = t d K o K m K v KS K B English Units
FJ

Ft
σb = K o K m K v K SK B SI units
FmJ

Bending Strength Geometry Factor, J

For values of J see Norton Tables 11-8 to 11-15 or Shigley Figure 14-6 below.

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Mott Figure 9-17 (Shigley Figure 14-6).

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Dynamic Factor
⎧ 50 + Vt
⎪K v = (Vt in ft/min)
⎪ 50
For Q v ≤ 5 (Vt ≤ 2,500 ft/min (13m/s)) ⎨
⎪ 50 + 200Vt
⎪⎩ K v = (Vt in m/s)
50

⎧ ⎛ A + Vt ⎞
B
⎪K = ⎜ ⎟ (Vt in ft/min)
⎪ v ⎜ A ⎟
⎪ ⎝ ⎠
⎪ B
⎪⎪ ⎛ A + 200Vt ⎞
For 6 ≤ Q v ≤ 11 Kv = ⎜ ⎟ (Vt in m/s)
⎨ ⎜ A ⎟
⎪ ⎝ ⎠
⎪ A=50+56 (1-B )

⎪ 2
⎪B = (12 − Q v ) 3
⎪⎩ 4

Experimental results are limited by

2
Vt max = ⎡⎣ A + ( Q v − 3) ⎤⎦ ( in ft/min )
2
⎡ A + ( Q v − 3) ⎤⎦
Vt max = ⎣ ( in m/s )
200

Shigley Figure 14-9 Kv versus Vt.

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Load distribution factor, KM

In general keep 8/Pd < F < 16/Pd. Km may be calculated by using Shigley equation 14-30:

(
K m = 1 + Cmc Cpf Cpm + Cma Ce )
⎧1 for uncrowned teeth
Cmc = ⎨
⎩ 0.8 for crowned teeth

⎧ F
⎪ − 0.025 F ≤ 1 in
10d

⎪ F
Cpf = ⎨ − 0.0375 + 0.0125F 1 <F ≤ 17 in
⎪ 10d
⎪ F 2
⎪10d − 0.1109 + 0.0207F − 0.000228F 17 <F ≤ 40 in

⎧ F
⎪ − 0.025 F ≤ 25 mm
10d

⎪ F
Cpf = ⎨ − 0.0375 + 0.000492F 25 <F ≤ 432 mm
⎪ 10d
⎪ F −7 2
⎪10d − 0.1109 + 0.000815F − (3.53 x 10 )F 432 mm <F ≤ 1020 mm

Note for values F/(10d) < 0.05, F/(10d)=0.05 is used.

⎧1 for straddle mounted pinion with S1 / S < 0.175


Cpm = ⎨
⎩1.1 for straddle mounted pinion with S1 / S ≥ 0.175

Shigley Figure 14-10. Definitions of S1 and S.

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Cma = A + BF + CF2 (Shigley Table 14-9 or Table 5 for values of A, B and C)


(Shigley Figure 14-11 may also be used)

Table 5 (Shigley Table 14-9) Values of A, B and C


Condition A B C
Open gearing 0.247 0.0167 -0.765(10-4)
Commercial, enclosed 0.127 0.0158 -0.093(10-4)
units
Precision, enclosed 0.0675 0.0128 -0.926(10-4)
units
Extraprecision 0.0030 0.0102 -0.822(10-4)
enclosed gear units

⎧0.8 for gearing adjusted at assembly or compatability is improved by lapping or both


Ce = ⎨
⎩ 1 for all other conditions

Shigley Figure 14-11. Variation of Cma with F.

Size correction factor, KS

Most applications KS=1, see Table 6 (Mott, Table 9-6)

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Table 6: Suggested size Factors
Diametral pitch, Pd Metric module, m Size factor, Ks
≥5 ≤5 1.00
4 6 1.05
3 8 1.15
2 12 1.25
1.25 20 4.00

Rim thickness factor, KB

⎧ 2.242
⎪1.6 ln m m B ≤ 1.2
t ⎪ B
mB = R , KB = ⎨ See also Shigley Figure 14-16
ht ⎪ 1.0 m B > 1.2
⎪⎩1.0 solid gear

Shigley Figure 14-11. KB as a function of backup ratio.

Overload factor Ko

Table 7 (Ko Norton Table 11-17 not in Shigley).


Driving Machine Driven Machine
Uniform Moderate Shock Heavy Shock
Uniform (electric 1.00 1.25 1.75 or higher
motor, turbine)
Light Shock 1.25 1.50 2.00 or higher
(Multicylinder
engine)
Medium shock 1.50 1.75 2.25 or higher
(Single-cylinder
engine)
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Surface Stress

⎧ K m Cf
⎪ CP Ft K o K v K s US units
⎪ dF I
σc = ⎨
⎪ Z F K K K K H ZR SI units
⎪ E t o v s dF ZI

For the value of d use the pitch diameter of the smaller of the two gears in contact.

Surface Geometry factor, I (or ZI)

⎧ cos φ sin φ M G
⎪ external gears
⎪ 2 MG + 1
I=⎨
⎪ cos φ sin φ M G internal gears
⎪⎩ 2 MG − 1

Elastic Coefficient, Cp (or ZE) (in (lbf/in2)½ or (N/mm2)½)

1
Cp =
⎡⎛ 1 − ν 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 − ν 2 ⎞ ⎤
⎢ p g ⎥
π ⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟
⎢⎜ E p ⎟ ⎜ E g ⎟ ⎥
⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦

See also Norton Table 11-18 (Shigley Table 14-8) for ν=0.3.

Surface condition factor, Cf (or ZR)

Standard values have yet to be established by AGMA.


Cf=1 for conventional manufactured gears, higher for rougher finishes.

Fatigue Strength

YN
Sfb = St
KT KR

For values of St, see Tables 8 and 9 (Shigley tables 14-3 and 14-4).

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Table 8 (Shigley Table 14-3) St at 10 cycles and 0.99 Reliability for Steel Gears
Material Heat Treatment Minimum Allowable Bending Stress Number St
Designation Surface Psi
Hardness Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Steel Through- Fig 14-2 Fig 14-2 Fig 14-2 -
hardened
Flame or AGMA Table 8 45,000 55,000 -
induction
hardened with
type A pattern
Flame or AGMA Table 8 22,000 22,000 -
induction
hardened with
type B pattern
Carburized and AGAM Table 9 55,000 65,000 or 70,000 75,000
hardened (bainite and
cracks limited to
grade 3 levels)
Nitrided 83.5 HR15N Fig 14-3 Fig 14-3 -
(through
hardened steels)
Nitralloy 135M Nitrided 87.5 HR15N Fig 14-4 Fig 14-3 Fig 14-4
Nitralloy N,
and 2.5%
chrome (no
aluminum)

Shigley Figure 14-2

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Shigley Figure 14-3

Shigley Figure 14-4

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Table 9 (Shigley Table 14-4) Applied Bending Strength St for Iron and Bronze Gears at 107
Cycles and 0.99 Reliability
Material Material Heat Treatment Typical Allowable
Designation Minimum Bending Stress
Surface Hardness Number, St (psi)
ASTM A48 gray Class 20 As cast - 5000
Class 30 As cast 174 HB 8500
Class 40 As cast 201 HB 13,000
ASTM A536 Grade 60-40-18 Annealed 140 HB 22,000-33,000
ductile (modular) Grade 80-55-06 Quenched and 179 HB 22,000-33,000
Iron Tempered
Grade 100-70-03 Quenched and 229 HB 27,000-40,000
Tempered
Grade 120-90-02 Quenched and 269 HB 31,000-44,000
Tempered
Bronze Sand cast Min. Tensile 5700
strength 40,000
psi
ASTM B-148 Heat treated Min. Tensile 23,600
Alloy 954 strength 90,000
psi

Stress cycle factor for bending, YN

Shigley Figure 14-14 Values of YN.


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Temperature factor, KT

⎧1 TF ≤ 250 o F

K T = ⎨ 460 + T From Norton not Shigley

F TF > 250 o F
⎩ 620

Reliability factor, KR

⎧0.658 − 0.0759 ln(1 − R) 0.5 < R < 0.99


KR = ⎨
⎩ 0.50 - 0.109ln(1-R) 0.99 ≤ R ≤ 0.9999

Surface Fatigue Strength

Z N CH
Sfc = Sc
KT K R

Hardness factor, CH

a. Through hardness
CH = 1 + A ( M G − 1)
⎧ HBp
⎪0 < 1.2
⎪ HBg
⎪ HBp HBp

A = ⎨ 0.00898 − 0.00829 1.2 ≤ ≤ 1.7
⎪ HBg HBg
⎪ HBp
⎪0.00698 > 1.7
⎪⎩ HBg
b. Surface hardened Pinion (> 48 HRC)

(
CH = 1 + B 450 − HBg )
⎧0.00075e −0.0112R q (english)

B=⎨
⎪⎩ 0.00075e−0.052R q (SI)

Stress cycle for pitting resistance, ZN

See Shigley Figure 14-15 below.

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Shigley Figure 14-15.

Allowable Surface Contact Stress Sc

See Table 9 and 10 (Shigley Tables 14-6 and 14-7)

Table 9 (Shigley Table 14-6) Repeatedly Applied Contact Strength Sc at 107 and 0.99
Reliability for Steel Gears
Material Heat Minimum Allowable Contact Stres Number Sc, Psi
Designation Treatment Surface Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3
Hardness
Steel Through Fig 14-5 Fig 14-5 Fig 14-5 -
hardened
Flame or 50 HRC 170,000 190,000 -
Induction 54 HRC 175,000 195,000 -
hardened
Carburized AGMA Table 180,000 225,000 275,000
and 9
hardened
Nitrided 83.5 HR1 5N 150,000 163,000 175,000
(through 84.5 HR1 5N 155,000 168,000 180,000
hardened
steels)
2.5% Chrome (no Nitrided 87.5 HR1 5N 155,000 172,000 189,000
aluminum)
Nitralloy 135M Nitrided 90 HR1 5N 170,000 183,000 195,000
Nitralloy N Nitrided 90 HR1 5N 172,000 188,000 205,000
2.5% Chrome (no Nitrided 90 HR1 5N 176,000 196,000 216,000
aluminum)
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Table 10 (Shigley Table 14-7) Repeatedly Applied Contact Strength Sc at 107 and 0.99
Reliability for Iron and Bronze Gears
Material Material Heat Treatment Typical Allowable
Designation Minimum Bending Stress
Surface Hardness Number, St (psi)
ASTM A48 gray Class 20 As cast - 50,000-60,000
Class 30 As cast 174 HB 65,000-75,000
Class 40 As cast 201 HB 75,000-85,000
ASTM A536 Grade 60-40-18 Annealed 140 HB 77,000-92,000
ductile (modular) Grade 80-55-06 Quenched and 179 HB 77,000-92,000
Iron Tempered
Grade 100-70-03 Quenched and 229 HB 92,000-112,000
Tempered
Grade 120-90-02 Quenched and 269 HB 103,000-126,000
Tempered
Bronze Sand cast Min. Tensile 30,000
strength 40,000
psi
ASTM B-148 Heat treated Min. Tensile 65,000
Alloy 954 strength 90,000
psi

Shigley Figure 14-5

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