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Rizza 4/19/2007

Equations for Spur Gears

by

Associate Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Milwaukee School of Engineering

1025 N. Broadway

Milwaukee, WI 53202

(414) 277-7377

Fax:(414) 277-2222

Email: rizza@msoe.edu

http://people.msoe.edu/~rizza

The equations are believed to be correct. But, if you find any errors please let me know by

writing to rizza@msoe.edu.

1

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Nomenclature

Symbol* Meaning

a Addendum length

b Dedendum length

c Clearance

C Gear and Pinion center distance

Cf (or ZR) Surface condition factor

CH Hardness factor

Cma Mesh alignment factor

Cmc Load correction factor

CP (or ZE) Elastic coefficient

Cpf Pinion proportion factor

Cpm Pinion proportion modifier

d Pitch diameter

E Young’s modulus

hu Working depth

ht=a+b Whole depth

F Face width

Fn Transmitted load

Fr Radial load

Ft Tangential load

I Surface Geometry factor

φ Pressure angle

m Module

J Bending Strength Geometry Factor

KB Rim thickness factor

KM (CM) Load distribution factor

Ko Overload factor

KR Reliability factor

KS Size factor

KT Temperature factor

KV Dynamic Factor

MG Gear ratio (never less than 1)

mB Backup ratio

Mp Contact ratio

Mv Angular velocity ratio

n Number of revolutions per minute

N Number of teeth

ν Poisson ratio

ω, ωarm Angular velocity, Angular velocity of the arm

Pb Base Pitch

Pc Circular Pitch

Pd Diametral Pitch

Qv Quality index

r Pitch circle radii

t Tooth thickness

ρ Radii of curvature

TF Oil film temperature

Sb Allowable bending stress

Sc Allowable surface contact stress

Sfb Bending fatigue strength

Sfc Surface fatigue contact strength

T Torque

tR Rim thickness

Vt Velocity along the pitch circle

YN Stress cycle factor for bending

z Length of action

ZN Stress cycle for pitting resistance

* Subscripts p and g are used to indicate the pinion and g for some of these parameters.

2

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

KINEMATICS

Fundamental Relationships

ωout r N T 1

mV = = in = in m A = out =

ωin rout N out Tin mV

πd N

Pc = Pd = Pb = Pc cos φ

N d

d

m=

N

( rp + a p ) − ( rp cos φ ) ( rg + a g ) − ( rg cos φ )

2 2 2 2

z= + − Csin φ

Pd z

MP =

π cos φ

3

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Standard Gears

Tables 1, 2, 3 (Norton tables 11-1, 11-2 and 11-3, or Shigley 13-1 to 13-3)

Table 1 (Norton Table 11-1, Shigley Table 13-1): Standard Gear Parameters

Parameter Coarse Pitch (Pd < 20) Fine Pitch (Pd > 20)

φ 20 or 25 degrees 20 degrees

a 1.000/ Pd 1.000/ Pd

b 1.250/ Pd 1.250/ Pd

hu 2.000/ Pd 2.000/ Pd

ht 2.250/ Pd 2.200/ Pd +0.002 in

t 1.571/ Pd 1.571/ Pd

Fillet radius 0.3000/ Pd Not standardized

Minimum basic clearance 0.250/ Pd 0.200/ Pd +0.002 in

Minimum width of top 0.250/ Pd Not standardized

land

c 0.350/ Pd 0.350/ Pd +0.002 in

Table 2 (Norton Table 11-2, Shigley Table 13-2): Standard Diametral Pitches

Coarse Pitch (Pd < 20) Fine Pitch (Pd > 20)

1.25 20

1.5 24

1.75 32

2 48

2.5 64

3 72

4 80

5 96

6 120

8

10

12

14

16

18

4

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

m (mm) Equivalent Pd (1/in)

0.3 84.67

0.4 63.50

0.5 50.80

0.8 31.75

1 25.40

1.25 20.32

1.5 16.93

2 12.70

3 8.47

4 6.35

5 5.08

6 4.23

8 3.18

10 2.54

12 2.12

16 1.59

20 1.27

25 1.02

Table 4 Minimum Number of Teeth Required for Avoiding Interference in a 20° Full-Depth

Pinion and Full-Depth Gear (Norton Table 11-5).

17 1309

16 101

15 45

14 26

13 16

Table 5 Minimum Number of Teeth Required for Avoiding Interference in a Full-Depth Pinion

and a Full-Depth Rack (Norton Table 11-4).

Pressure Angle (φ) Minimum Number of Teeth.

14.5 32

20 18

25 12

5

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Gear Trains

=

ωin product of the number of teeth of output gears

2. Planetary Gears

=

ωF − ωarm product of the number of teeth of output gears

Stresses

Transmitted Loads

Ft = Fn cos φ

Fr = Fn sin φ = Ft tan φ

⎧ πdn πNn

⎪ = (in FPM)

12 12Pd

⎪⎪

Vt = ⎨ πdn ( in in/s n in rps ) (See also Norton Table 11-7)

⎪ πmNn ( in m/s, n in rps )

⎪

⎪⎩

Bending Stress

FP

σb = t d K o K m K v KS K B English Units

FJ

Ft

σb = K o K m K v K SK B SI units

FmJ

For values of J see Norton Tables 11-8 to 11-15 or Shigley Figure 14-6 below.

6

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

7

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Dynamic Factor

⎧ 50 + Vt

⎪K v = (Vt in ft/min)

⎪ 50

For Q v ≤ 5 (Vt ≤ 2,500 ft/min (13m/s)) ⎨

⎪ 50 + 200Vt

⎪⎩ K v = (Vt in m/s)

50

⎧ ⎛ A + Vt ⎞

B

⎪K = ⎜ ⎟ (Vt in ft/min)

⎪ v ⎜ A ⎟

⎪ ⎝ ⎠

⎪ B

⎪⎪ ⎛ A + 200Vt ⎞

For 6 ≤ Q v ≤ 11 Kv = ⎜ ⎟ (Vt in m/s)

⎨ ⎜ A ⎟

⎪ ⎝ ⎠

⎪ A=50+56 (1-B )

⎪

⎪ 2

⎪B = (12 − Q v ) 3

⎪⎩ 4

2

Vt max = ⎡⎣ A + ( Q v − 3) ⎤⎦ ( in ft/min )

2

⎡ A + ( Q v − 3) ⎤⎦

Vt max = ⎣ ( in m/s )

200

8

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Load distribution factor, KM

In general keep 8/Pd < F < 16/Pd. Km may be calculated by using Shigley equation 14-30:

(

K m = 1 + Cmc Cpf Cpm + Cma Ce )

⎧1 for uncrowned teeth

Cmc = ⎨

⎩ 0.8 for crowned teeth

⎧ F

⎪ − 0.025 F ≤ 1 in

10d

⎪

⎪ F

Cpf = ⎨ − 0.0375 + 0.0125F 1 <F ≤ 17 in

⎪ 10d

⎪ F 2

⎪10d − 0.1109 + 0.0207F − 0.000228F 17 <F ≤ 40 in

⎩

⎧ F

⎪ − 0.025 F ≤ 25 mm

10d

⎪

⎪ F

Cpf = ⎨ − 0.0375 + 0.000492F 25 <F ≤ 432 mm

⎪ 10d

⎪ F −7 2

⎪10d − 0.1109 + 0.000815F − (3.53 x 10 )F 432 mm <F ≤ 1020 mm

⎩

Cpm = ⎨

⎩1.1 for straddle mounted pinion with S1 / S ≥ 0.175

9

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

(Shigley Figure 14-11 may also be used)

Condition A B C

Open gearing 0.247 0.0167 -0.765(10-4)

Commercial, enclosed 0.127 0.0158 -0.093(10-4)

units

Precision, enclosed 0.0675 0.0128 -0.926(10-4)

units

Extraprecision 0.0030 0.0102 -0.822(10-4)

enclosed gear units

Ce = ⎨

⎩ 1 for all other conditions

10

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Table 6: Suggested size Factors

Diametral pitch, Pd Metric module, m Size factor, Ks

≥5 ≤5 1.00

4 6 1.05

3 8 1.15

2 12 1.25

1.25 20 4.00

⎧ 2.242

⎪1.6 ln m m B ≤ 1.2

t ⎪ B

mB = R , KB = ⎨ See also Shigley Figure 14-16

ht ⎪ 1.0 m B > 1.2

⎪⎩1.0 solid gear

Overload factor Ko

Driving Machine Driven Machine

Uniform Moderate Shock Heavy Shock

Uniform (electric 1.00 1.25 1.75 or higher

motor, turbine)

Light Shock 1.25 1.50 2.00 or higher

(Multicylinder

engine)

Medium shock 1.50 1.75 2.25 or higher

(Single-cylinder

engine)

11

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Surface Stress

⎧ K m Cf

⎪ CP Ft K o K v K s US units

⎪ dF I

σc = ⎨

⎪ Z F K K K K H ZR SI units

⎪ E t o v s dF ZI

⎩

For the value of d use the pitch diameter of the smaller of the two gears in contact.

⎧ cos φ sin φ M G

⎪ external gears

⎪ 2 MG + 1

I=⎨

⎪ cos φ sin φ M G internal gears

⎪⎩ 2 MG − 1

1

Cp =

⎡⎛ 1 − ν 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1 − ν 2 ⎞ ⎤

⎢ p g ⎥

π ⎜ ⎟+⎜ ⎟

⎢⎜ E p ⎟ ⎜ E g ⎟ ⎥

⎣⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎦

See also Norton Table 11-18 (Shigley Table 14-8) for ν=0.3.

Cf=1 for conventional manufactured gears, higher for rougher finishes.

Fatigue Strength

YN

Sfb = St

KT KR

For values of St, see Tables 8 and 9 (Shigley tables 14-3 and 14-4).

12

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

7

Table 8 (Shigley Table 14-3) St at 10 cycles and 0.99 Reliability for Steel Gears

Material Heat Treatment Minimum Allowable Bending Stress Number St

Designation Surface Psi

Hardness Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3

Steel Through- Fig 14-2 Fig 14-2 Fig 14-2 -

hardened

Flame or AGMA Table 8 45,000 55,000 -

induction

hardened with

type A pattern

Flame or AGMA Table 8 22,000 22,000 -

induction

hardened with

type B pattern

Carburized and AGAM Table 9 55,000 65,000 or 70,000 75,000

hardened (bainite and

cracks limited to

grade 3 levels)

Nitrided 83.5 HR15N Fig 14-3 Fig 14-3 -

(through

hardened steels)

Nitralloy 135M Nitrided 87.5 HR15N Fig 14-4 Fig 14-3 Fig 14-4

Nitralloy N,

and 2.5%

chrome (no

aluminum)

13

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

14

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Table 9 (Shigley Table 14-4) Applied Bending Strength St for Iron and Bronze Gears at 107

Cycles and 0.99 Reliability

Material Material Heat Treatment Typical Allowable

Designation Minimum Bending Stress

Surface Hardness Number, St (psi)

ASTM A48 gray Class 20 As cast - 5000

Class 30 As cast 174 HB 8500

Class 40 As cast 201 HB 13,000

ASTM A536 Grade 60-40-18 Annealed 140 HB 22,000-33,000

ductile (modular) Grade 80-55-06 Quenched and 179 HB 22,000-33,000

Iron Tempered

Grade 100-70-03 Quenched and 229 HB 27,000-40,000

Tempered

Grade 120-90-02 Quenched and 269 HB 31,000-44,000

Tempered

Bronze Sand cast Min. Tensile 5700

strength 40,000

psi

ASTM B-148 Heat treated Min. Tensile 23,600

Alloy 954 strength 90,000

psi

15

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Temperature factor, KT

⎧1 TF ≤ 250 o F

⎪

K T = ⎨ 460 + T From Norton not Shigley

⎪

F TF > 250 o F

⎩ 620

Reliability factor, KR

KR = ⎨

⎩ 0.50 - 0.109ln(1-R) 0.99 ≤ R ≤ 0.9999

Z N CH

Sfc = Sc

KT K R

Hardness factor, CH

a. Through hardness

CH = 1 + A ( M G − 1)

⎧ HBp

⎪0 < 1.2

⎪ HBg

⎪ HBp HBp

⎪

A = ⎨ 0.00898 − 0.00829 1.2 ≤ ≤ 1.7

⎪ HBg HBg

⎪ HBp

⎪0.00698 > 1.7

⎪⎩ HBg

b. Surface hardened Pinion (> 48 HRC)

(

CH = 1 + B 450 − HBg )

⎧0.00075e −0.0112R q (english)

⎪

B=⎨

⎪⎩ 0.00075e−0.052R q (SI)

16

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Table 9 (Shigley Table 14-6) Repeatedly Applied Contact Strength Sc at 107 and 0.99

Reliability for Steel Gears

Material Heat Minimum Allowable Contact Stres Number Sc, Psi

Designation Treatment Surface Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3

Hardness

Steel Through Fig 14-5 Fig 14-5 Fig 14-5 -

hardened

Flame or 50 HRC 170,000 190,000 -

Induction 54 HRC 175,000 195,000 -

hardened

Carburized AGMA Table 180,000 225,000 275,000

and 9

hardened

Nitrided 83.5 HR1 5N 150,000 163,000 175,000

(through 84.5 HR1 5N 155,000 168,000 180,000

hardened

steels)

2.5% Chrome (no Nitrided 87.5 HR1 5N 155,000 172,000 189,000

aluminum)

Nitralloy 135M Nitrided 90 HR1 5N 170,000 183,000 195,000

Nitralloy N Nitrided 90 HR1 5N 172,000 188,000 205,000

2.5% Chrome (no Nitrided 90 HR1 5N 176,000 196,000 216,000

aluminum)

17

R. Rizza 4/19/2007

Table 10 (Shigley Table 14-7) Repeatedly Applied Contact Strength Sc at 107 and 0.99

Reliability for Iron and Bronze Gears

Material Material Heat Treatment Typical Allowable

Designation Minimum Bending Stress

Surface Hardness Number, St (psi)

ASTM A48 gray Class 20 As cast - 50,000-60,000

Class 30 As cast 174 HB 65,000-75,000

Class 40 As cast 201 HB 75,000-85,000

ASTM A536 Grade 60-40-18 Annealed 140 HB 77,000-92,000

ductile (modular) Grade 80-55-06 Quenched and 179 HB 77,000-92,000

Iron Tempered

Grade 100-70-03 Quenched and 229 HB 92,000-112,000

Tempered

Grade 120-90-02 Quenched and 269 HB 103,000-126,000

Tempered

Bronze Sand cast Min. Tensile 30,000

strength 40,000

psi

ASTM B-148 Heat treated Min. Tensile 65,000

Alloy 954 strength 90,000

psi

18

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