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II. Design Result .................................................................................................................... 7

SHAFT DESIGN PROJECT

I. Design Process

1.1 Purpose Of Design

Project 1.0 is a mini sport utility vehicle (SUV) type car concept that can carry up to
4 passengers. This car is designed to be functional and efficient to drive around the
city as well as strong enough to drive through a mountainous area. Therefore, the car
is designed with a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout (RWD).

Picture 1 Car Engine Layout.

This car is powered by a 3-cylinder 1 litre turbocharged petrol engine that can
produce 95 PS. This car is set to be more powerful, efficient, comfortable and
functional than the already existing mini SUV, Suzuki Jimny.

Engine/Car Project 1.0 Suzuki Jimny

Displacement 1.0 liter (With Turbocharger) 1.3 liter
No. Of Cylinder 3 4
Power 95 PS 84 PS

Table 1 Comparison With Similar Car

However, in order to transmit the power produced by the engine at the front to the rear
wheel, a shaft is required. Thus, the objective of this design project is to design a
transmission shaft that can transfer 95 PS of power and can rotate up to 1000 RPM.
Since the shaft will transmit 95 PS at 1000 RPM, the torque received by the shaft
needs to be calculated with this following equation. (maximum power H = 95 PS,
rotational speed N = 1000 RPM)

𝐻 95
T = 716200 = 716200 = 69039 kgf/mm2
𝑁 1000

1.3 Shaft Material

The material for the shaft is mild steel that has allowable shear stress τa = 2.1 kgf/mm2
and transverse modulus G = 8300 kgf/mm2. The reason for choosing these options is
because the Project 1.0 car is a relatively lightweight car with relatively small power,
so the shaft size would not be so big and heavy. Choosing a more expensive material
would only increase the cost production of the car and make the sales price
uncompetitive.

1.4 Shaft Design Consideration

When designing shaft the main objective is to determine the minimum diameter of the
shaft. Moreover, there are several things to be considered in designing shaft such as :

 Strength : The shaft should have a sufficient strength so it would not be

 Rigidity : The deformation caused by the load acting on the shaft should not
exceed a certain limit. Therefore the shaft should have a sufficient rigidity
(stiffness).
 Vibration : It should be designed to operate at a speed beyond the critical
speed due to the natural vibration of the shaft.
 Thermal stress and thermal expansion : Shaft used at high temperatures,
such as jet engine, steam turbine, etc. should consider the thermal stress and
thermal expansion.
 Corrosion : Shafts that have contact with liquid such as propeller shaft and
pump shaft should consider the corrosion.

Since the shaft is planned only to be used on a road car, the necessary design
consideration will only be strength and rigidity (stiffness).
1.5 Shaft Design By Strength
Shaft design by strength is classified by the kind of load the shaft is receiving such as;
1) Shaft receiving only bending moment; 2) Shaft receiving only twisting moment; 3)
Shaft receiving bending moment and torsional moment at the same time; and 4) Shaft

Since the designed shaft will only receive power from one end and transmit it to the
other, the shaft is will only receive a twisting moment. The required diameter for the
shaft can be obtained by applying the following equation. (twisting moment (torque)
T = 69039 kgf/mm2, allowable shear stress τa = 2.1 kgf/mm2)

3 16𝑇 3 16 𝑥 69039
d = √𝜋 𝜏 = √ = 54.85 mm
𝑎 𝜋 x 2.1

Therefore, the required diameter for the shaft by considering the strength is 54.85 mm.

1.6 Shaft Design By Rigidity (Stiffness)

According to the Bach’s shaft equation, in order to limit the shaft deformation the
shaft’s twisting angle (θ) should be limited by 0.25° per 1 meter length. The required
diameter by considering the rigidity can be obtained with the following equation.
(maximum power H = 95 PS, rotational speed N = 1000 RPM, shaft’s maximum
twisting angle per 1 m θ = 0.25° material’s transverse modulus G = 8300 kgf/mm2,
shaft length l = 1000 mm)

𝐻
5760 (716200 𝑁) 𝑙
θ= 2
𝜋 𝐺 𝑑4

5760 716200 𝐻 𝑙
𝑑4 =
𝜋2 𝐺𝑁θ

5760 716200 𝑥 𝐻 𝑥 1000

𝑑4 =
𝜋2 8300 𝑥 𝑁 x 0.25

4 𝐻 4 95
d = 130 √𝑁 = 130 √1000 = 66.62 mm

Therefore, the required diameter for the shaft by considering the rigidity is 66.62 mm.
1.7 Shaft Dimension
From two calculations, two diameter value for the shaft is obtained. Since 66.62 mm
is greater 54.85 mm, the shaft diameter calculated by considering the shaft rigidity is
considered safer and will be the diameter of shaft. According to KS B 0406, the
closest shaft dimension to 66.62 mm is 70 mm. Therefore, the shaft diameter will be
70 mm and the shaft is solid.

1.8 Solid Shaft And Hollow Shaft Comparison

Hollow shaft is a type of shaft that has a hollow space in the middle. Compared to the
solid shaft, hollow shaft has outer diameter (do) and inside diameter (di). The ratio
between inner diameter and outside diameter is x . Hollow shaft is widely used on an
aircraft due to its lightweight and also used on a ship for transmitting a very large
power. In order to design a hollow shaft with the same strength as the previously
designed solid shaft, the following equation can be applied. (solid shaft diameter d =
70 mm, inner diameter and outside diameter ratio is decided to be x = 0.7)

𝑑𝑜 3 1
= √
𝑑 1 − 𝑥4

3 1
𝑑𝑜 = 𝑑 √
1 − 𝑥4

3 1
𝑑𝑜 = 70 √1−0.74 = 76.71 mm

𝑑𝑖
=x
𝑑0

𝑑𝑖 = 76.71 x 0.7 = 53.70 mm

To obtain the weight ratio between hollow shaft and the solid shaft, the following
equation can be applied.

𝑑𝑜…2 − 𝑑𝑖…2
ε=
𝑑2

76.712 −53.702
ε= = 0.612
702
Therefore, the hollow shaft outer diameter is 76.71 mm and the inner is 53.70 mm.
Moreover, mass of the hollow shaft will only be 61.2% of the solid shaft. However,
due to the difficulty of manufacturing, hollow shaft will cost more than solid shaft. In
case of Project 1.0 car, since the car is already a lightweight car and the transmited
power is relatively small, a hollow shaft will only increase the cost production, thus
will not be necessary.

1.9 Shaft Bearing Design

In order to preserve the shaft’s reliability until 8 years of usage, a bearing will be
required. Bearing’s function is to support the shaft while rotating and carrying the
load. The bearing type will be roller bearing type due to its low friction characteristic.

will be designed through the calculation below. It is assumed that the life span time
for the bearing will be 8 years with 2 hours operating time per day.

𝐿ℎ = 5840 hours

Since the equation of 𝐿ℎ is :

𝐶 106
𝐿ℎ = ( 𝑃 )𝑟 𝑥 60 𝑁

r = 3 for ball bearing

P is the equivalent load received by the bearing. It is assumed that P of the bearing
equals to F of the shaft. Where torque of the shaft T = 69039 kgf/mm2 and shaft
diameter d = 70 mm

2𝑇 2 𝑥 69039
𝐹= =
𝑑 70

𝐹 = 1994 𝑘𝑔𝑓

Hence, the load rating ( C ) of the bearing can be obtained.

3 𝐿ℎ 𝑥 60 𝑁
𝐶= √ 𝑥𝑃
106
3 5840 𝑥 60 𝑥 1000
𝐶= √ 𝑥 1994
106

𝐶 = 14057.7 kgf

According to table 9.20 on the reference book Design of Machine Elements, the
suitable bearing for the shaft is Thrust Ball Bearing number 5314 with 𝐶 = 15100 kgf
and inside diameter of 70 mm.

II. Design Result

From the design process, by considering the strength and the rigidity (stiffness), the
required dimension of the transmission shaft is 70 mm. This shaft will be used on Project
1.0, a mini SUV type car concept to transmit power of 95 PS from the engine at the front
to the rear wheel. The shaft will rotate at the maximum rotation speed of 1000 RPM.

The material used for the shaft is mild steel and the shaft type is solid in order to
minimize the cost production without sacrificing the build quality. Moreover, to preserve
the shaft reability up to 8 years of usage, a thrust ball bearing number 5314 will be
installed.