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Learning Outcomes

i. Calculate the efficiency of pump and turbine;

ii. Determine the discharge and energy head of

pumps in parallel and series; and

iii. Carry out similitude analysis between model and

prototype of pump and turbine.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.1 Turbines

Turbine is a hydraulic machine that utilises the energy of fluids to

move other types of machineries.

hydroelectric power generation plant.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Classification of Turbines

Based on the hydraulic action at the inlet, turbines can be classified as:

a. Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel or turbine) - derives its energy from a jet of

water exiting out of a nozzle and shooting at the blades of turbine.

b. Reaction turbine (Francis turbine or Kaplan turbine) - derives its power

from the equal and

opposite reactive

power of fluid

passing between its

blades.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Pelton wheel

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Based on the direction of flow through the runner, turbines can be classified as:

a. Tangential flow turbine (Pelton wheel)

b. Radial flow turbine (Francis turbine, Thomsen and Girard turbines)

c. Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine)

d. Mixed flow turbine (modern Francis turbine)

Radial

flow

turbine

Mixed

flow

turbine

Pelton wheel Francis turbine Kaplan turbine

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Based on the head of water H, turbines can be classified as:

a. High head turbine (Pelton wheel, H > 250 m)

b. Medium head turbine (modern Francis turbine, 60 m H 250 m)

c. Low head turbine (Kaplan turbine, H < 60 m)

Francis turbines are effective on a very wide range of heads (medium head)

and are very much used in spite of their relatively high cost. Usually work in

radial flow but also in mixed flow.

A Kaplan (propeller) turbine is an axial flow machine with its runner confined in

a closed conduit. A propeller turbine is often set on a vertical axis, and can also

be set on a horizontal axis or a slightly inclined axis. A propeller turbine is

suitable for operation with low head and high discharge.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Based on the specific speed Ns, turbines can be classified as:

a. Low specific speed turbine (Pelton wheel, Ns of 10 to 35)

b. Medium specific speed turbine (Francis turbine, Ns of 60 to 400)

c. High specific speed turbine (Kaplan turbine, Ns of 300 to 1000)

Kaplan turbine

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.2 Pumps

A pump is a hydraulic machine which supplies energy to fluid in

certain operation, e.g. in water distribution system.

Based on the mode of action of conversion of mechanical energy

into hydraulic energy, pumps are classified as:

a. rotadynamic pumps (centrifugal pump) and

b. positive displacement pumps.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Rotadynamic pump

Rotadynamic pumps consist of a rotating device known as an impeller. Fluids

to be pumped enters a casing near the shaft of the impeller. Vanes attached to

the spinning impeller increases the velocity of the pumped fluid and moves

the fluid out through an outlet. The most common rotadynamic pump are

centrifugal pump and propeller pump. Centrifugal pumps produce radial flow

and mixed flow according to the fluid path. Propeller pumps which also

consist of an impeller produces axial flow.

Discharge

Centrifugal pump

Impeller eye

Propeller pump

Casing

Impeller

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.2 Power and Efficiency of Pump

In pump operation, the mechanical energy through the shaft and impeller

is converted to fluid energy. The difference between the total head of

energy between the intake and discharge flanges of the pump is denoted

as net head H developed by the pump. The intake end (flow inlet) of a

pump is commonly known as the suction end and the discharge (flow

outlet) of a pump is the delivery end.

D

S pd

ps Delivery

P zd, Vd

Suction zs, Vs

pd Vd2 ps Vs2

H Hd Hs zd z s

2g 2g

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Discharge through a pump is given as

Q DsBsVfs Dd BdVfd

where, Bs, Bd = widths of the runner at the suction and delivery ends

Vf = velocity of flow through the runner

2N

Ps Pi T T

60

Power delivered at the discharge end Pd (or output power Po)

Pd Po QH

where, Vu = swirl velocity or the rate of shaft rotation in radians per sec

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Efficiency of a pump is given as

power delivered to the fluid

power into the shaft

Po

Pi

Also, mH

where, = volumetric efficiency

m = mechanical efficiency

H = hydraulic efficiency

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Activity 6.1

A centrifugal pump is needed to supply 23 m3/s of water for a city.

This operation will utilise a net head H = 20 m and specific speed N =

450 rpm. If the inflow power Ps is 5000 kW and density of water is

1000 kg/m3 at 5C, calculate:

(a) Output power Pd

(b) Overall efficiency of the pump

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Given Q = 23 m3/s, H = 20 m, N = 450 rpm, Pi = 5000 kW, = 1000 kg/m3

Po 4512.6

0.9025 90.25%

Pi 5000

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.3 Characteristic Curves of Pump

The characteristic curves of a pump is usually provided by the pump

manufacturer through laboratory tests.

100 500

Head H (ft) and pump efficiency (%)

80 400

Horsepower (kW)

60 300 This pump has a normal

BEP capacity or rated capacity

40 200

of 10,500 gpm when

developing a normal head

of 60 ft at an opening

20 100

speed of 1450 rpm.

0 0

0 3 6 9 12 15 18

Capacity Q ('000 gpm)

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Relationship between input power Pi, efficiency and head H starts

when intake valve is closed, and the impeller spins until pressure at

output increase to the maximum head (shut-off head). When the valve is

open, water will flow through the pipe and the head of pump will

decrease. With addition of flow rate, the pump efficiency will increase

until it reach a maximum and then decrease to end of operation.

Intersection between head and power corresponds to the point of

optimum efficiency is the best point to use pump (known as the best

efficiency point, BEP).

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.4 Cavitation

An important factor in the satisfactory operation of a pump is the

avoidance of cavitation, both for good efficiency and for prevention of

impeller damage.

As liquid passes through the impeller of a pump, there is a change in

pressure. If the absolute pressure of the liquid drops to the vapour

pressure, cavitation will occur. The region of vaporization hinders the

flow and places a limit on the capacity of the pump.

As the fluid moves further into a region of higher pressure, the bubbles

collapse and the implosion of the bubbles may cause pitting of the

impeller.

Cavitation is most likely to occur near the point of discharge (periphery)

of radial flow and mixed flow impellers, where velocities are highest. It

may also occur on the suction side of the impeller, where the pressures

are the lowest.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.5 Pumps in Parallel

If two similar pumps A and B are connected in parallel, the combined

discharge is the sum of individual discharges QA and QB.

However, the pressure head H remains the same as in single pump.

The overall system power requirement is the sum of the power required

for each pump at the same head.

QA, HA

A

QT QA QB

T

B PT PA PB K PA PB

(= 6,116 for P in kW and Q in L/min)

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Activity 6.2

Determine the system discharge, power requirements and efficiency if

the following pumps are operated in parallel against a head of 27.4 m.

Pump A Pump B

QA = 0.0473 m3/s QB = 0.052 m3/s

EA = 83% EB = 73%

PA = 15.3 kW PB = 19.1 kW

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Given H = 27.4 m

Pump A Pump B

QA = 0.0473 m3/s QB = 0.052 m3/s

EA = 83% EB = 78%

PA = 15.3 kW PB = 19.1 kW

HT HA HB 27.4 m

T 0.7754 77.54%

K PA PB 0.102 34.4

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.6 Pumps in Series

If two similar pumps A and B are connected in series, the combined

discharge is the same discharge as single discharge QT = QA = QB.

The pressure head H produced is the combined head produced by the

two pumps.

The overall system power requirement is the sum of the power required

for each pump at the same head.

QT QA QB

A B

HT HA HB

QA, HA QB, HB

PT PA PB

QT HA HB

T

Pumps connected in series K PA PB

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Activity 6.3

Calculate the discharge, pressure head, total power required and overall

pump system efficiency for two pumps linked in series. The pumps are

operated at 1750 rpm and the system design discharge is 0.0473 m3/s.

The impeller diameters are DA = 25.4 cm and DB = 30.5 cm.

Pump A Pump B

HA = 26.8 m HB = 33.5 m

EA = 83% EB = 78%

PA = 15 kW PB = 19.9 kW

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Given Q = 0.0473 m3/s

Pump A Pump B

HA = 26.8 m HB = 33.5 m

EA = 83% EB = 78%

PA = 15 kW PB = 19.9 kW

QT QA QB 0.0473 m3 /s

PT PA PB 15 19.9 34.9 kW

QT H A HB 0.0473 60.3

T 0.8012 80.12%

K PA PB 0.102 34.9

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.7 Similitude for Pumps and Turbines

Similarity laws help to interpret the results of model studies. The relation

between model and prototype is classified into 3, i.e.:

a. Geometric similarity - prototype and model have identical shapes but

differ in size.

b. Kinematic similarity - ratio of velocities at all corresponding points in

flow are the same and involve length and time.

c. Dynamic similarity - two systems have dynamic similarity if, in

addition to dynamic similarity, corresponding forces are in the same

ratio in both.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Scale Ratio

Model (m) - similar with object/structure required in certain scale ratio.

- tested in laboratory and similar in real phenomenon.

- not always smaller than the prototype.

Prototype (p) - actual object/structure

- tested in actual condition, e.g. hydraulic structures, ship

etc.

Advantages of Similarity

1. Performances of object/structure can be predicted.

2. Economical and easier to build, where design of model can be

reproduced many times to achieve the desired design.

3. Non-functional structure such as dam can also be measured.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Similarity in Pump

In similarity relations, the basic repeating variables are the rotational

speed N and pump diameter D. Therefore, the similitude laws for head

H, discharge Q and power P can be expressed as

H Q P

CH 2 2 CQ CP

ND ND 3 N 3D 5

Hm Hp

2 2

2 2

NmDm Np Dp

Qm Qp

NmDm NpDp3

3

Pm Pp

m NmDm p Np3Dp5

3 5

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

N Q

Specific speed Ns 3

H 4

Two homologous pumps have the same specific speed Ns. Thus between

a geometric model and its prototype,

Nsm Nsp

Nm Qm Np Qp

3/ 4

Hm Hp 3 / 4

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Activity 6.4

Two homologous pumps A and B are operating at the speed of 600 rpm.

Pump A has an impeller with diameter 50 cm and discharges 0.4 m3/s of

water under a net head of 50 m. Determine the size of pump B, net

head, and the specific speed if it is to discharge 0.3 m3/s.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Given N = 600 rpm, DA = 50 cm, QA = 0.4 m3/s, HA = 50 m, QB = 0.3 m3/s

From the law of similarity

QA QB

NA DA3 NBDB3

1 1

N Q

DB A B DA3 0.53 0.4543 m 45.43 cm

3 600 0.3 3

NB QA 600 0.4

and

HA HB

2 2

2 2

NA DA NB DB

NB2 DB2 6002 0.45432

HB HA 2 2 50 2

2

41.28 m

NA DA 600 0.5

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Specific speed is

N Q

Ns 3

H 4

NB QB 600 0.3

NsB 3

3

20.18

H 4

B 41.28 4

NA QA 600 0.4

NsA 3

3

20.18 NsB

H 4

A 50 4

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Similarity in Turbine

The characteristic relations between a turbine model and its prototype

can be expressed as

ND Q P

CH CQ CP

H ND 3 N 3D 5

NmDm NpDp

Hm Hp

Qm Qp

NmDm NpDp3

3

Pm Pp

3 5

3 5

NmDm Np Dp

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

N P

Specific speed Ns 5

H 4

Two homologous turbines have the same specific speed Ns. Thus

between a geometric model and its prototype,

Nsm Nsp

Nm Pm Np Pp

5/ 4

5/ 4

Hm Hp

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Activity 6.5

A 1:5 model of water turbine develops 2 kW of power at 400 rpm under

a head of 3 m. Find its specific speed?

Assuming the overall efficiency of 0.85 for both the model and

prototype, calculate the rotational speed, power and discharge of the

prototype when run under a head of 20 m.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Given 1:5 model turbine, Pm = 2 kW, Nm = 400 rpm, Hm = 3 m, = 0.85, Hp = 20 m

Nm Pm 400 2

Nsm 5

5

143.3

H 4

m 3 4

For prototype,

NmDm NpDp

Hm Hp

Dm Hp 1 20

Np Nm 400 206.6 rpm

Dp Hm 5 3

Pm Pp

3 5

3 5

NmDm Np Dp

Np3 Dp5

3

206.6 5

5

Pp 3 5 Pm 2 861.2 kW

Nm Dm 400 1

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Np Pp 206.6 861.2

Specific speed for prototype, Nsp 5

5

143.3 Nsm

H 4

p 20 4

Po 861.2

Power supplied by water Pi 1013.2 kW

0.85

3

Qp 5.164 m3 /s

pHp 9810 20

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Performance of Turbines under Unit Quantities

The unit quantities give the discharge, speed, and power for a particular

turbine under a head of 1 m assuming the same efficiency.

head.

Q

Qu

H

Q1 Q

Between 2 similar turbines, 2

H1 H2

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

(b) Unit speed Nu - the speed of a turbine working under a unit head.

N

Nu

H

N1 N

Between 2 similar turbines, 2

H1 H2

unit head.

P

Pu 3

H 2

P1 P2

Between 2 similar turbines, 3

3

H 2

1 H2

2

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Activity 6.6

A Francis turbine produces 6750 kW of power at 300 rpm under a net

head of 45 m with an overall efficiency of 85%. Determine the revolution

per-minute (rpm), discharge and brake power of the same turbine under

a net head of 60 m in homologous conditions.

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Given P1 = 6750 kW, N1 = 300 rpm, H1 = 45 m, = 85%, H2 = 60 m

N1 N2

H1 H2

H2 60

N2 N1 300 346.4 rpm

H1 45

Po

Pi QH

Po 6750 1000

Q1 17.99 m3 /s

H 0.85 9810 45

Q1 Q

2

H1 H2

H2 60

Q2 Q1 17.99 20.77 m3 /s

H1 45

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

P1 P2

3

3

H2

1 H2

2

3 3

H

P2 P1 2 6750 10392.3 kW

2 602

H1 45

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Assignment #6

Q1. What are the functions of hydraulic pumps and turbines?

Q2. 0.5 m3/s of water is to be pumped to a total head of 250 m. How many

pumps connected in series should be required if each pump has a

specific speed of 35 and speed of 1500 rpm.

Calculate

(a) specific speed

(b) normal speed under a head of 25 m

(c) output under a head of 25 m

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Q4. A centrifugal pump has an impeller of 200 mm with capacity 400 L/s

at speed 1200 rpm against a head of 12 m. Calculate the speed and

head of a geometrically similar pump with impeller diameter of 300

mm which is required to deliver 700 L/s.

discharge is 10 m3/s. If the efficiency is 87%, determine the

performance (N, Q, P) of the turbine under a head of 20 m.

- End of Question -

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

THANK YOU

BFC21103 Hydraulics

Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

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