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# BFC21103 Hydraulics

## Chapter 6. Hydraulic Machinery

Learning Outcomes

## At the end of this chapter, students should be able to:

i. Calculate the efficiency of pump and turbine;
ii. Determine the discharge and energy head of
pumps in parallel and series; and
iii. Carry out similitude analysis between model and
prototype of pump and turbine.

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6.1 Turbines
Turbine is a hydraulic machine that utilises the energy of fluids to
move other types of machineries.

## A common use of turbine is in the

hydroelectric power generation plant.

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Classification of Turbines
Based on the hydraulic action at the inlet, turbines can be classified as:
a. Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel or turbine) - derives its energy from a jet of
water exiting out of a nozzle and shooting at the blades of turbine.
b. Reaction turbine (Francis turbine or Kaplan turbine) - derives its power
from the equal and
opposite reactive
power of fluid
passing between its

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Pelton wheel
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Based on the direction of flow through the runner, turbines can be classified as:
a. Tangential flow turbine (Pelton wheel)
b. Radial flow turbine (Francis turbine, Thomsen and Girard turbines)
c. Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine)
d. Mixed flow turbine (modern Francis turbine)

flow
turbine

Mixed
flow
turbine
Pelton wheel Francis turbine Kaplan turbine

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Based on the head of water H, turbines can be classified as:
a. High head turbine (Pelton wheel, H > 250 m)
b. Medium head turbine (modern Francis turbine, 60 m H  250 m)
c. Low head turbine (Kaplan turbine, H < 60 m)

## Pelton wheel is suitable for medium head and low discharge.

Francis turbines are effective on a very wide range of heads (medium head)
and are very much used in spite of their relatively high cost. Usually work in
radial flow but also in mixed flow.

A Kaplan (propeller) turbine is an axial flow machine with its runner confined in
a closed conduit. A propeller turbine is often set on a vertical axis, and can also
be set on a horizontal axis or a slightly inclined axis. A propeller turbine is
suitable for operation with low head and high discharge.

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Based on the specific speed Ns, turbines can be classified as:
a. Low specific speed turbine (Pelton wheel, Ns of 10 to 35)
b. Medium specific speed turbine (Francis turbine, Ns of 60 to 400)
c. High specific speed turbine (Kaplan turbine, Ns of 300 to 1000)

Kaplan turbine
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6.2 Pumps
A pump is a hydraulic machine which supplies energy to fluid in
certain operation, e.g. in water distribution system.
Based on the mode of action of conversion of mechanical energy
into hydraulic energy, pumps are classified as:
a. rotadynamic pumps (centrifugal pump) and
b. positive displacement pumps.

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Rotadynamic pumps consist of a rotating device known as an impeller. Fluids
to be pumped enters a casing near the shaft of the impeller. Vanes attached to
the spinning impeller increases the velocity of the pumped fluid and moves
the fluid out through an outlet. The most common rotadynamic pump are
centrifugal pump and propeller pump. Centrifugal pumps produce radial flow
and mixed flow according to the fluid path. Propeller pumps which also
consist of an impeller produces axial flow.
Discharge

Centrifugal pump

Impeller eye

Propeller pump

Casing
Impeller
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6.2 Power and Efficiency of Pump
In pump operation, the mechanical energy through the shaft and impeller
is converted to fluid energy. The difference between the total head of
energy between the intake and discharge flanges of the pump is denoted
as net head H developed by the pump. The intake end (flow inlet) of a
pump is commonly known as the suction end and the discharge (flow
outlet) of a pump is the delivery end.
D
S pd
ps Delivery

P zd, Vd

Suction zs, Vs

 pd Vd2   ps Vs2 
H  Hd  Hs    zd      z s  
 2g    2g 
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Discharge through a pump is given as
Q   DsBsVfs   Dd BdVfd
where, Bs, Bd = widths of the runner at the suction and delivery ends
Vf = velocity of flow through the runner

## Power of pump at suction end Ps (or input power Pi)

2N
Ps  Pi  T  T
60
Power delivered at the discharge end Pd (or output power Po)
Pd  Po  QH

where, Vu = swirl velocity or the rate of shaft rotation in radians per sec

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Efficiency of a pump is given as
power delivered to the fluid

power into the shaft

Po

Pi

Also,   mH
where,  = volumetric efficiency
m = mechanical efficiency
H = hydraulic efficiency

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Activity 6.1
A centrifugal pump is needed to supply 23 m3/s of water for a city.
This operation will utilise a net head H = 20 m and specific speed N =
450 rpm. If the inflow power Ps is 5000 kW and density of water  is
1000 kg/m3 at 5C, calculate:
(a) Output power Pd
(b) Overall efficiency of the pump 

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Given Q = 23 m3/s, H = 20 m, N = 450 rpm, Pi = 5000 kW,  = 1000 kg/m3

## (b) Efficiency of the pump

Po 4512.6
   0.9025  90.25%
Pi 5000

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6.3 Characteristic Curves of Pump
The characteristic curves of a pump is usually provided by the pump
manufacturer through laboratory tests.
100 500
Head H (ft) and pump efficiency  (%)

80 400

Horsepower (kW)
60 300 This pump has a normal
BEP capacity or rated capacity
40 200
of 10,500 gpm when
of 60 ft at an opening
20 100
speed of 1450 rpm.

0 0
0 3 6 9 12 15 18
Capacity Q ('000 gpm)

## Characteristic curves of a typical mixed-flow centrifugal pump

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Relationship between input power Pi, efficiency  and head H starts
when intake valve is closed, and the impeller spins until pressure at
output increase to the maximum head (shut-off head). When the valve is
open, water will flow through the pipe and the head of pump will
decrease. With addition of flow rate, the pump efficiency will increase
until it reach a maximum and then decrease to end of operation.
Intersection between head and power corresponds to the point of
optimum efficiency is the best point to use pump (known as the best
efficiency point, BEP).

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6.4 Cavitation
An important factor in the satisfactory operation of a pump is the
avoidance of cavitation, both for good efficiency and for prevention of
impeller damage.
As liquid passes through the impeller of a pump, there is a change in
pressure. If the absolute pressure of the liquid drops to the vapour
pressure, cavitation will occur. The region of vaporization hinders the
flow and places a limit on the capacity of the pump.
As the fluid moves further into a region of higher pressure, the bubbles
collapse and the implosion of the bubbles may cause pitting of the
impeller.
Cavitation is most likely to occur near the point of discharge (periphery)
of radial flow and mixed flow impellers, where velocities are highest. It
may also occur on the suction side of the impeller, where the pressures
are the lowest.
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6.5 Pumps in Parallel
If two similar pumps A and B are connected in parallel, the combined
discharge is the sum of individual discharges QA and QB.
However, the pressure head H remains the same as in single pump.
The overall system power requirement is the sum of the power required
for each pump at the same head.

QA, HA
A
QT  QA  QB

## QB, HB HT  HA  HB QA  QB HT

T 
B PT  PA  PB K PA  PB 

## K = unit constant (= 0.102 for P in kW and Q in m3/s)

(= 6,116 for P in kW and Q in L/min)
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Activity 6.2
Determine the system discharge, power requirements and efficiency if
the following pumps are operated in parallel against a head of 27.4 m.

Pump A Pump B
QA = 0.0473 m3/s QB = 0.052 m3/s
EA = 83% EB = 73%
PA = 15.3 kW PB = 19.1 kW

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Given H = 27.4 m
Pump A Pump B
QA = 0.0473 m3/s QB = 0.052 m3/s
EA = 83% EB = 78%
PA = 15.3 kW PB = 19.1 kW

## QT  QA  QB  0.0473  0.052  0.0993 m3 /s

HT  HA  HB  27.4 m

## QA  QB HT 0.0993  27.4

T    0.7754  77.54%
K PA  PB  0.102  34.4

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6.6 Pumps in Series
If two similar pumps A and B are connected in series, the combined
discharge is the same discharge as single discharge QT = QA = QB.
The pressure head H produced is the combined head produced by the
two pumps.
The overall system power requirement is the sum of the power required
for each pump at the same head.

QT  QA  QB
A B
HT  HA  HB
QA, HA QB, HB
PT  PA  PB
QT HA  HB 
T 
Pumps connected in series K PA  PB 

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Activity 6.3
Calculate the discharge, pressure head, total power required and overall
pump system efficiency for two pumps linked in series. The pumps are
operated at 1750 rpm and the system design discharge is 0.0473 m3/s.
The impeller diameters are DA = 25.4 cm and DB = 30.5 cm.

Pump A Pump B
HA = 26.8 m HB = 33.5 m
EA = 83% EB = 78%
PA = 15 kW PB = 19.9 kW

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Given Q = 0.0473 m3/s
Pump A Pump B
HA = 26.8 m HB = 33.5 m
EA = 83% EB = 78%
PA = 15 kW PB = 19.9 kW

QT  QA  QB  0.0473 m3 /s

## HT  HA  HB  26.8  33.5  60.3 m

PT  PA  PB  15  19.9  34.9 kW

QT H A  HB  0.0473  60.3
T    0.8012  80.12%
K PA  PB  0.102  34.9

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6.7 Similitude for Pumps and Turbines
Similarity laws help to interpret the results of model studies. The relation
between model and prototype is classified into 3, i.e.:
a. Geometric similarity - prototype and model have identical shapes but
differ in size.
b. Kinematic similarity - ratio of velocities at all corresponding points in
flow are the same and involve length and time.
c. Dynamic similarity - two systems have dynamic similarity if, in
addition to dynamic similarity, corresponding forces are in the same
ratio in both.

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Scale Ratio
Model (m) - similar with object/structure required in certain scale ratio.
- tested in laboratory and similar in real phenomenon.
- not always smaller than the prototype.
Prototype (p) - actual object/structure
- tested in actual condition, e.g. hydraulic structures, ship
etc.

1. Performances of object/structure can be predicted.
2. Economical and easier to build, where design of model can be
reproduced many times to achieve the desired design.
3. Non-functional structure such as dam can also be measured.

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Similarity in Pump
In similarity relations, the basic repeating variables are the rotational
speed N and pump diameter D. Therefore, the similitude laws for head
H, discharge Q and power P can be expressed as
H Q P
CH  2 2 CQ  CP 
ND ND 3  N 3D 5

## Applying similitude laws between model and prototype:

Hm Hp
2 2
 2 2
NmDm Np Dp
Qm Qp

NmDm NpDp3
3

Pm Pp

m NmDm p Np3Dp5
3 5

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N Q
Specific speed Ns  3
H 4

## where, N in rpm, Q in m3/s and H in m.

Two homologous pumps have the same specific speed Ns. Thus between
a geometric model and its prototype,

Nsm  Nsp

Nm Qm Np Qp
3/ 4

Hm Hp 3 / 4

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Activity 6.4
Two homologous pumps A and B are operating at the speed of 600 rpm.
Pump A has an impeller with diameter 50 cm and discharges 0.4 m3/s of
water under a net head of 50 m. Determine the size of pump B, net
head, and the specific speed if it is to discharge 0.3 m3/s.

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Given N = 600 rpm, DA = 50 cm, QA = 0.4 m3/s, HA = 50 m, QB = 0.3 m3/s
From the law of similarity
QA QB

NA DA3 NBDB3
1 1
N Q 
DB   A B DA3     0.53   0.4543 m  45.43 cm
3 600 0.3 3

 NB QA   600 0.4 

and
HA HB
2 2
 2 2
NA DA NB DB
NB2 DB2 6002 0.45432
HB  HA 2 2  50  2
 2
 41.28 m
NA DA 600 0.5
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Specific speed is
N Q
Ns  3
H 4

NB QB 600 0.3
NsB  3
 3
 20.18
H 4
B 41.28 4

## It can be shown that

NA QA 600 0.4
NsA  3
 3
 20.18  NsB
H 4
A 50 4

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Similarity in Turbine
The characteristic relations between a turbine model and its prototype
can be expressed as

ND Q P
CH  CQ  CP 
H ND 3 N 3D 5

## Applying similitude laws between model and prototype of turbine:

NmDm NpDp

Hm Hp

Qm Qp

NmDm NpDp3
3

Pm Pp
3 5
 3 5
NmDm Np Dp
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N P
Specific speed Ns  5
H 4

## where, N in rpm, P in kW, and H in m.

Two homologous turbines have the same specific speed Ns. Thus
between a geometric model and its prototype,

Nsm  Nsp

Nm Pm Np Pp
5/ 4
 5/ 4
Hm Hp

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Activity 6.5
A 1:5 model of water turbine develops 2 kW of power at 400 rpm under
a head of 3 m. Find its specific speed?
Assuming the overall efficiency of 0.85 for both the model and
prototype, calculate the rotational speed, power and discharge of the
prototype when run under a head of 20 m.

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Given 1:5 model turbine, Pm = 2 kW, Nm = 400 rpm, Hm = 3 m,  = 0.85, Hp = 20 m

Nm Pm 400 2
Nsm  5
 5
 143.3
H 4
m 3 4

For prototype,
NmDm NpDp

Hm Hp
Dm Hp 1 20
Np  Nm  400    206.6 rpm
Dp Hm 5 3

Pm Pp
3 5
 3 5
NmDm Np Dp
Np3 Dp5 
3
206.6   5 
5
Pp  3 5 Pm        2  861.2 kW
Nm Dm  400   1 
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Np Pp 206.6 861.2
Specific speed for prototype, Nsp  5
 5
 143.3  Nsm
H 4
p 20 4

## Power developed by prototype Pop  861.2 kW at efficiency  = 0.85.

Po 861.2
Power supplied by water Pi    1013.2 kW
 0.85

3

## 1013.2  103 1013.2  103

Qp    5.164 m3 /s
 pHp 9810  20

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Performance of Turbines under Unit Quantities
The unit quantities give the discharge, speed, and power for a particular
turbine under a head of 1 m assuming the same efficiency.

## (a) Unit discharge Qu - the discharge of a turbine working under a unit

Q
Qu 
H

Q1 Q
Between 2 similar turbines,  2
H1 H2

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(b) Unit speed Nu - the speed of a turbine working under a unit head.
N
Nu 
H
N1 N
Between 2 similar turbines,  2
H1 H2

## (c) Unit power Pu - the power developed by a turbine working under a

P
Pu  3
H 2

P1 P2
Between 2 similar turbines, 3
 3
H 2
1 H2
2
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Activity 6.6
A Francis turbine produces 6750 kW of power at 300 rpm under a net
head of 45 m with an overall efficiency of 85%. Determine the revolution
per-minute (rpm), discharge and brake power of the same turbine under
a net head of 60 m in homologous conditions.

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Given P1 = 6750 kW, N1 = 300 rpm, H1 = 45 m,  = 85%, H2 = 60 m
N1 N2

H1 H2
H2 60
N2  N1  300  346.4 rpm
H1 45

Po
Pi  QH 

Po 6750  1000
Q1    17.99 m3 /s
H 0.85  9810  45

Q1 Q
 2
H1 H2
H2 60
Q2  Q1  17.99  20.77 m3 /s
H1 45
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P1 P2
3
 3
H2
1 H2
2

3 3
H 
P2  P1  2   6750     10392.3 kW
2 602

 H1   45 

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Assignment #6
Q1. What are the functions of hydraulic pumps and turbines?

Q2. 0.5 m3/s of water is to be pumped to a total head of 250 m. How many
pumps connected in series should be required if each pump has a
specific speed of 35 and speed of 1500 rpm.

## Q3. A turbine develops 8500 kW under a head of 18 m at 150 rpm.

Calculate
(a) specific speed
(b) normal speed under a head of 25 m
(c) output under a head of 25 m

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Q4. A centrifugal pump has an impeller of 200 mm with capacity 400 L/s
at speed 1200 rpm against a head of 12 m. Calculate the speed and
head of a geometrically similar pump with impeller diameter of 300
mm which is required to deliver 700 L/s.

## Q5. A turbine is to operate under a head of 28 m at 185 rpm. The

discharge is 10 m3/s. If the efficiency is 87%, determine the
performance (N, Q, P) of the turbine under a head of 20 m.

- End of Question -
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THANK YOU

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