INDEX 1.1.

1.2. 1.3. 1.4.


2 4 6 9 10

53 million.44 million dwelling units. reported 40. 2001 in towns with more than 50.1. This also has serious implications for future generation of people residing in such areas. As per Planning Commission estimates for the 10th Plan that began in 2002. The slum census. The average household size in urban areas is 4.71 million and the housing shortage during the plan period (2007-2012) including the backlog was estimated as 26. But this demand could not meet successfully on account of variety of factor. Most of the housing shortage is for EWS and LIG Sections which does not seem to be getting translated into economic demand due to lower affordability by the poor.1.8% of the total population of 1028 millions. This implies. According to the report of the Technical Group on Estimation of Housing Shortage constituted in the context of preparing 11th Five Year Plan document. The growth of population in our country gives rise to simultaneous increase in demand for the housing requirements. Slums generally lack basic infrastructure. nearly one out of every four persons reside in slums in our cities & towns. A sizeable number of this requirement leads to squatting and slums. housing. the urban housing backlog was 8.47 and 67% dwelling units are pucca structures. The net addition of population in urban areas during the decade 1991-2001 was about 68 million. This constituted 27. 2 .76% of the population living in those 607 towns/cities. social amenities and this has implications on health and productivity of the people living in such areas.000 population. This resulted in gap between need and the availability of dwelling units and actually capital deficient housing sector.606 million slum dwellers which amounted to 22. the urban population in the country as on 1st March 2001 was 286 million.8 million dwelling units and the total requirement was 22. housing shortage as on 2007 is estimated to be around 24. numbering 607. Housing can contribute effectively fixed capital formation of as well as creation of productive employee. housing people live in touch upon the every facet of life and of society as whole. INTRODUCTION: Shelter is one of the basic needs of human life. According to census of India.

an urban household occupied 37 sq. existing dwelling units in urban areas require substantial improvements. On an average. and per capita floor area in urban slums is about 4. m.m. 3 .6 sq.Only 20% of dwelling units in slum areas had a plinth area exceeding 50 sq. From the above. Nearly 11% of housing structures in urban areas are in bad condition requiring repair and renovation. m. it is seen that.

The house may be single or double storeyed. This type of house mostly provided in government society. (4) Apartments or Flats: A flat consists of number of storeys in which accommodation is provide in an independent suite of three to four rooms.2. (3) Group house: A number of houses can be grouped together. It provides privacy and lot amount of sunshine. It is preferred for low income group such as labourers or workers. industry town ship etc. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Detached house Semi detached house Group house Apartments or Flats Sky scrapers Prefabricated house (1) Detached house: This is entirely an independent house. In this also the elevation can be same in all houses. (2) Semi detached house: It consists of two houses with a common wall as such there is considerable amount of saving in side margins and also in plot area. drainage lines in semi detached house can be built economically. Its design depends upon the number of family members to be accommodated in the house. CLASSIFICATION OF HOUSING: The Residential building may be classified as follows. air and breeze. It is probably the best form of residence for a village or town where land and building materials are cheap. Providing common amenities like water. leaving sufficient front. rear margin with a small garden in front.1. such as a living 4 . But base of economical it is not best form. The elevation of this type of houses can be made more attractive with the longer frontage.

the process by which the different parts of the house are made in the factory and merely assembled later. etc . the sky scarpers or high rise buildings are being built with multi storey soaring high in the sky. (5) Sky scrapers: To accommodate the growing population in metropolitan cities. bath. 5 . W. For this problem. It is suitable for better income group people and is most popular in big cities. markets. factory built housing and in America it is called as systems building. even though they are facing some problems. heat and smoke detectors and fixed fire protecting system. The vertical development in the form of sky scraper is seen to be popular as people found it more useful by going up and down with the help of lifts than walking on side ways. Now a days ownership flats are being constructed economically where the public amenities are shared by all the occupants. It also gives sunlight and pure air to the residence the conveniences such as offices. and other amenities can be hand in the same building. One is fire problem. However. provide emergency staircase. Yet these types of apartments have become popular in cities where the land cost is very high. This is also referred by many as ‘instant’ housing. kitchen. Also the building have well equipped with first aid extinguishers. individual as owner has no chance for any extension in future. The first sky scraper was built in 1884-88 by William Le Barron Jenny in Chicago.C. (6) Pre-fabricated house: The nation wide housing crisis is now sought in

This division trains officials who are working in the housing finance and housing areas in order to improve their management capabilities. The National housing bank has helped enormously in the growth of the housing sector in India. The National Housing Bank also has a training division. and HFCS) Co-operative banks (district and scheduled urban co-operative banks) National Housing Bank: has been set up under the National Housing Bank Act of 1987. NABARD. the National Housing Bank also makes advances and gives loans to scheduled banks and formulates schemes that lead to the proper use of resources for housing projects. the National Housing Bank can give directions to the housing finance institutions to ensure that their growth takes along appropriate tracks.1.3. The National Housing Bank also provides several other channels of support for housing-finance institutions. ROLE OF GOVERNMENT: Following type of institution are available in India for housing finance Financial institutions (NHB. by dint of the authority invested by the National Housing Bank Act. It needs to work in close coordination with the 6 . 1988. It is wholly owned by the Reserve bank of India and was established to encourage housingfinance institutions and provide them with financial support. besides its lending operations. which was passed on 9th July. Besides. HUDCO) Private sector banks (HDFC. LIC. For example. GIC. The various objectives of the National housing bank are: • • • • To encourage healthy system for housing finance and which meets the needs of all the segments of the society To encourage housing finance institutions To gather resources and distribute them for housing projects To make affordable the credit taken for housing The National Bank for Housing gives registration certification to companies so that they can carry out the business of financing houses.

2 crores. taxable and tax-free bonds Public deposits HUDCO has been associated with not just housing development but the overall infrastructure development assistance. Also helps people affected by natural calamities like earthquake. Provide public agencies such as state level housing board and area development authorities. HUDCO Financial Services are the task of HUDCO Bank that has mobilized finances from: o o o Financing institutions like LIC. cyclone etc. HUDCO India was formed to assist various agencies and authorities in upgrading the housing conditions in the country. The activity areas of HUDCO include: URBAN HOUSING: 7 . JBIC. Provide fund for Agriculture and rural development banks. Market borrowings through debentures. HUDCO India has a net worth of Rs. 3977 crores today. HUDCO: Housing And Urban Development Corporation Ltd was incorporated on 25th April 1970. ADB. HUDCO Inc primarily aims to provide financing for housing developments.Reserve Bank of India and the Indian government to ensure the upkeep and feasibility of housing projects in India. Activities of National Bank for Housing: Provides refinance institutions like state and scheduled co-operative banks. GIC and other banking institutions International assistance from KfW. USAID etc. Starting with an initial equity base of Rs. Special emphasis was laid on the development of housing facilities or HUDCO Niwas Yojana for the lower income group (LIG) and the economically weaker sections (EWS) of the society.

district board. State governments and other such organization for the construction of houses and development serviced plots including site and services RURAL HOUSING: Financial assistance is available to any state government agency such as housing board.the following three types of schemes are being financed by HUDCO in rural areas • EWS rural housing schemes for landless • EWS rural housing schemes for land owing category • Village abadi scheme including repairs 8 . which is nominated by state government . city improvement trusts.for undertaking such schemes with HUDCO’s financial assistances . Municipal Corporation. Loan for urban housing schemes are provided to housing boards. development authorities. rural housing board.HUDCO encourage the development of serviced plots and part of lone to be given to general public for construction by themselves. public sector undertaking. panchayat taluka development board etc.

ROLE OF PRIVATE DEVELOPERS: The acute shortage of housing has encouraged private enterprises to enter this field. Taking into consideration the projected need of the housing in the Master Plan of Delhi (MPD)-2021. Also paving the way for "high-class" residential housing development as seen in neighbouring Gurgaon. we will talk about Maharashtra. • Technical support in City Planning process. So. First. the Delhi Development Authority has approved in principle the participation of private sector in mega housing projects across the Capital. • Development and maintenance of infrastructure. Greater Noida and even Ghaziabad of late.4. the Capital will need 24 lakh dwelling units for an additional 90 lakh people. While the DDA will construct about 12 to 15 lakh units. The MPD-2021 has projected that 50 per cent dwelling units will be in the form two rooms set requirement. The houses and flats are constructed by the individual with his own investment and later on.000 square metres of built-up area. the Delhi Development Authority has proposed a number of steps for facilitating private participation in construction of mega housing projects in the Capital. they are sold or converted in society form.1. Usually these enterprises are interested in getting high returns. Now I will explain with the help of examples the role of these enterprises. • Technology upgradation and human resource development in housing construction. 9 . we will talk about our capital city New Delhi. the rest has to be supplemented by the private sector. The private sector would be involved in construction involving a minimum area of 10 hectares or 50. They build about two lakh units per year but the challenge of housing is so grave that these enterprises can give only a very limited share to solve this problem. Noida. The state says that it would facilitate the participation of private sector in: • Construction of LIG houses through Inclusionary Zoning. Next.

“Town Planning”.org 4) www. 10 . S. “Fundamentals of Town Planning”. References: 1) Rangwala. Anand.K. (2003). Charotar Publishing House. (2005).gov. Dhanpat Rai Publications. New Delhi. 3) www. 2) Hiraskar.• Development of slums and urban renewal.C.architexturez.maharashtra. • Rental housing.