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TL 3106

PENCEMARAN TANAH
(SOIL CONTAMINATION)

SLIDE -2
SOIL CHARACTERISTIC

Pengajar: Ir. Yuniati, MT, MSc, PhD

PRODI TEKNIK LINGKUNGAN


Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan
Institut Teknologi Bandung
APA ITU TANAH?

 Peraturan Pemerintah no 150/2000, tentang PENGENDALIAN


KERUSAKAN TANAH UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOMASSA

 Tanah adalah salah satu komponen lahan, berupa lapisan


teratas kerak bumi yang terdiri dari bahan mineral dan bahan
organik serta mempunyai sifat fisik, kimia, biologi, dan
mempunyai kemampuan menunjang kehidupan manusia dan
makhluk hidup lainnya;
 Biomassa adalah tumbuhan atau bagian-bagiannya yaitu
bunga, biji, buah, daun, ranting, batang, dan akar, termasuk
tanaman yang dihasilkan oleh kegiatan pertanian, perkebunan ,
dan hutan tanaman;
 Produksi biomassa adalah bentuk-bentuk pemanfaatan sumber
daya tanah untuk menghasilkan biomassa;
WHAT IS SOIL?

A layer of natural materials on the earth’s surface containig both


organic and inorganic materials and capable of supporting plant life.

The material covers the earth’s surface in a thin layer

It may be covered by water, or it may be exposed to the atmosphere.

Ideal soil should contain about 50% solid material and 50% pore
space.

About half of the pore space should contain water and half of the
space should contain air.
PARENT MATERIAL

Soil parent materials are those materials underlying the soil and from
which the soil was formed.

There are five major categories of parent material:


1. minerals and rocks,
2. glacial deposits,
3. loess deposits,
4. alluvial and marine deposits and
5. organic deposits.
1. MINERALS AND ROCK

Minerals are solid, inorganic, chemically uniform


substance occurring naturally in the earth.

Some common minerals for soil formation are


feldspar, micas, silica, iron oxides, and calcium
carbonates.

Rocks are different from minerals because they


are not uniform.
WHAT IS FELDSPAR?

 Feldspar: (KAlSi 3 O 8 – NaAlSi 3 O 8 – CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 ) are a group


of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up as much
as 60% of the Earth's crust
MINERALS AND ROCK

There are three types of rocks:


1. igneous, formed by the cooling of molten rock (magma).
2. sedimentary , formed by the solidification of sediment.
3. metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks which have
been reformed because of great heat or pressure.

1 2 3
2.GLACIAL, 3.LOESS AND 4.ALLUVIAL DEPOSIT

During the ice age, glaciers moved across areas of


the northern hemisphere.
They ground, pushed, piled, gouged, and
eventually deposited great amounts of rocks,
parent material, and already formed soil material.

Loess deposits are generally thought of as


windblown silt.

Alluvial and marine deposits are water borne


sediments.
- Alluvial deposits are left by moving fresh water.
- Marine deposits are formed on ancient ocean
floors.
5. ORGANIC DEPOSITS

Organic deposits are


partially decayed plants
that live plants are able
to root and grow in.

These are found in


swamps and marshes.
THE SOIL PROFILE

 Soil Horizon, they are the layers of the different


types of soil found at different depths in the soil
profile.
 Soil Profile, a vertical section through the soil
extending into the un-weathered parent materials
and exposing all the horizons .
MASTER
MASTER HORIZONS
HORIZONS

 Are the A, B and C horizons.


 Typically found in most soils
 They are a part of a system for naming soil horizons
in which each layer is identified by a code O, A, E,
B, C & R.
Soil Profiles
THE HORIZONS

The O Horizon
The organic layer
made of wholly or
partially decayed
plant material and
animal debris.
Normally found in a
forest with fallen
leaves, branches and
other debris.
THE HORIZONS

The A Horizon
 Also called the
topsoil.
 The most fertile
layer of soil.
 Contains the most
organic matter.
 Usually the top or
first layer.
THE HORIZONS

The E Horizon
 Also called the layer
of eluviation.
 This is the zone of
the greatest leaching
of clay, chemicals
and organic matter.
THE HORIZONS

The B Horizon
Also called the subsoil.
Called the zone of
accumulation where
chemicals leached out of
the A horizon.
 Reason why most subsoil
has an increase
in clay content.
THE HORIZONS

 The C Horizon
 Called the parent material.
 Lacks the properties of the A & B horizon.
 Less touched by soil forming processes.
THE HORIZONS

 R Horizon
 Is the underlying bedrock such as….
 Limestone
 Sandstone
 Granite
SOIL TEXTURE

 Refers to the size of particles.


 Three types are….
 Sand (Large)
 Silt (Medium)
 Clay (Small)
RELATIVE SIZE OF SOIL PARTICLES
RELATIVE SIZE OF SOIL PARTICLES

brangkal
kerakal
Kerikil kasar
Kerikil halus
Pasir sangat
kasar
Pasir kasar
Pasir medium
Pasir halus
Lanau kasar
Liat
SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

Luas permukaan spesifik


Mineral soil S m2/g
Montmorilonite 300-800
Mica-smectite 57
Kaolinite 17
Illite 80
Vermiculite 100-700
Chlorite 80
Alofan 484
SOIL TEXTURE - SANDY

The largest of the


soil particles.
Individual particles
can be seen with
the naked eye.
Low moisture-
holding capacity.
SOIL TEXTURE - LOAMY

About equal parts


of….
 Sand
 Silt
 Clay
Ideal texture for
most non-container
outside plants.
SOIL TEXTURE - CLAY

The smallest of the


soil particles.
Clay particles stick
to one another.
Has a high water-
holding capacity.
TEXTURAL CLASSES

There are 12 textural classes.


Represented on the Soil Texture Triangle.
Textural class determined by the percentage of
sand, silt, & clay (pasir, lanau, liat)
Loam (lempung)
TEXTURAL CLASSES

There are 12 textural classes.


Represented on the Soil Texture Triangle.
Textural class determined by the percentage of
sand, silt, & clay (pasir, lanau, liat)
Loam (lempung)
SOIL STRUCTURE

 Refers to the way soil particles cling together to form soil


units or aggregates, while leaving pore space to….
 Store air.
 Store water.
 Store nutrients.
 Allow root penetration.
TYPES OF SOIL STRUCTURES

 There are five types of soil structures.


 They are:
 Single grain
 Granular
 Platy
 Blocky
 Prismatic
SOIL STRUCTURE – SINGLE GRAIN

 Associated with sandy soils.


SOIL STRUCTURE - GRANULAR

 Is the best for most


plants.
 Particles cling
together to form
rounded aggregates.
 It is commonly found
in A horizons.
 Peds are small usually
between 1 to 10
millimeters.
SOIL STRUCTURE - PLATY

Usually found in E
horizons.
Large, thin peds.
Plate-like &
arranged in
overlapping
horizontal layers.
SOIL STRUCTURE - BLOCKY

 Particles cling
together in angular
aggregates.
 Typical of soils with
high clay content.
 Typical of B
horizons.
 Peds are large about
5 to 50 millimeters.
SOIL STRUCTURE - MASSIVE

Soil has no visible


structure.
Hard to break
apart & appears in
very large clods.
SOIL COMPOSITION

About 50% of the


soil should be solid
particles.
 45% - Minerals
 5% - Organic Matter
About 50% of soil
should be pore
space.
 25% - Air/Pore Space
 25% - Water
SOIL PH

pH has the most impact on the availability of


nutrients in the soil/media.
pH Scale
 Ranges from 0 to 15.
 Indicates the level of acidity or alkalinity.
 7 is considered neutral.
 Everything greater than 7 is considered alkaline
(basic).
 Everything less than 7 is considered acidic.
IDEAL PH

 The ideal pH of most ornamental plants & lawn/turfgrasses


is 5.5 to 7.0.
LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES

 Land capability class


categorize the productive
potential of the soil.
 The classes generally
range from class 1, the
best land for agricultural
production, to class VIII,
the least productive
 Class I to IV can be
cultivated.
 V to VIII tend to have
high slope or are low &
wet.
LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES

Class I - Very good land.


 Very few limitations.
 Deep soil and nearly level.
 Can be cropped every year as long as land is taken
care of.
Class II - Good land
 Has deep soil.
 May require moderate attention to conservation
practices.
LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES

 Class III - moderately good land.


 Crops must be more carefully selected.
 Often gently sloping hills.
 Terraces and strip-cropping are more often used.
 Class IV - fairly good land.
 Lowest class cultivated.
 On hills with more slope than class III.
 Class V - Unsuited for cultivation.
 Can be used for pasture crops and cattle grazing, hay crops or
tree farming.
 Often used for wildlife or recreation areas.
LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES

Class VI - Not suited for row crops.


 Too much slope.
 Usually damaged by erosion with gullies.
 Can be used for trees, wildlife habitat, and
recreation.
Class VII - Highly unsuited for cultivation.
 Has severe limitations.
 Best used for planting trees.
 Steeply sloping.
 Large rock surfaces and boulders may be found.
 Very little soil present.
LAND CAPABILITY CLASSES

 Class VIII – Cannot be use for commercial


plants.
 Cannot be used for row crops or other crops.
 Often lowland covered with water.
 Soil maybe wet or high in clay.
 Best suited for wildlife & recreation.
WHICH ONE IS YOUR CHOICE??