— 5—
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
FOREWORD
1) The formal decisions or agreements of the I E C on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on which all
the National Committees having a special interest therein are represented, express, as nearly as possible, an international
consensus of opinion on the subjects dealt with.
2) They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are accepted by the National Committees in that
sense.
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3) In order to promote international unification, the I E C expresses the wish that all National Committees should adopt
the text of the I E C recommendation for their national rules in so far as national conditions will permit. Any divergence
between the I E C recommendation and the corresponding national rules should, as far as possible, be clearly indicated
in the latter.
4) The I E C has not laid down any procedure concerning marking as an indication of approval and has no responsibility
when an item of equipment is declared to comply with one of its recommendations.
PREFACE
20A(CO)102 20A(CO)109
Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the Voting
Report indicated in the above table.
INTRODUCTION
The method of calculating the shortcircuit rating of any current carrying component of a cable
has generally been based on the assumption that the heat is retained inside the current carrying
component for the duration of the shortcircuit (i.e. adiabatic heating). However, there is some
heat transfer into the adjacent materials during the shortcircuit and advantage can be taken of
this. This standard gives a simple method for incorporating this nonadiabatic heating effect when
calculating shortcircuit ratings so that the same shortcircuit ratings are obtained by different
designers. It is recognized that more sophisticated computer methods are available but these do
not significantly affect the accuracy and are considered too complex to be standardized.
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The formulae contain quantities which vary with the materials used in the cables. Values are
given in the tables ; these values are either internationally standardized, for example electric
resistivities and resistance temperature coefficients, or those which are generally accepted in
practice, for example specific heats.
In order that uniform and comparable results may be obtained, the shortcircuit ratings shall be
calculated using the method and the values given in this standard. However, where it is known
with certainty that other values of material constants are more appropriate then these may be
used, and the corresponding shortcircuit rating declared in addition, provided that the different
values are quoted.
In this standard the worst case conditions have been assumed and the shortcircuit ratings will
be pessimistic.
The nonadiabatic method is valid for all shortcircuit durations. When compared to the
adiabatic method it will provide significant increases of the permissible shortcircuit currents in the
case of screens, sheaths, and possibly small conductors of <10 mm 2 (especially when used as
screen wires). For the usual range of power cable conductors 5% is the minimum increase in
shortcircuit current that would be useful in practice, so that for ratios of shortcircuit duration to
conductor crosssectional area of <0.1 s/mm2 the improvement in current is negligible and the
adiabatic method may be used. This covers the majority of practical situations.
1. List of symbols
Units
A (n]Lj]2/s)1
B constants based on thermal properties of the surrounding or adjacent materials
mm2/s
C I } constants used in the nonadiabatic formula for conductors and spaced wire screens mm/m
CZ K.m.mm2/J
Dit diameter of the imaginary coaxial cylinder which just touches the inside surface of the mm
troughs of a corrugated sheath
Doc diameter of the imaginary coaxial cylinder which just touches the outside surface of the mm
crests of a corrugated sheath
949 (1) © IEC 9—
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e factor to allow for heat loss into adjacent components
Of final temperature °C
O initial temperature °C
Pi thermal resistivity of the surrounding or adjacent nonmetallic materials K.m/W
13 2, p3 thermal resistivities of the media on either side of the sheath, screen or armour K.m/W
where:
I = permissible shortcircuit current
1AD shortcircuit current calculated on an adiabatic basis
e = factor to allow for heat loss into the adjacent components (see Clauses 5 and 6). For adiabatic calculations
E= I
The general form of the adiabatic temperature rise formula which is applicable to any
initial temperature is:
^^
I AD t = K2S2 lnC4+
8, + /3
where:
/AD = shortcircuit current (r.m.s. over duration) calculated on an adiabatic basis (A)
t = duration of shortcircuit (s)
949(1)©IEC —11 
K = constant depending on the material of the current carrying component (Asi/mm 2): see Table I
S = geometrical crosssectional area of the current carrying component (mm 2): for conductors specified in I E C
228 it is sufficient to take the nominal crosssectional area
Of = final temperature (°C)
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In some circumstances (e.g. impedance earthed systems) the maximum fault current is
known and the conductor temperature at the end of the shortcircuit can be determined as
follows:
Isc
/AD = 
E
where:
Isc = known shortcircuit current (r.m.s. over duration)
5.1 General
The general form of an empirical equation for the nonadiabatic factor is:
E = 1+FA S+F2B^^^
where:
F = factor to account for imperfect thermal contact between conductor or wires and surrounding or adjacent
nonmetallic materials, 0.7 is recommended (1.0 for oilfilled cables)
A _ empirical constants based on the thermal properties of the surrounding or adjacent nonmetallic ma
B } — terials
(
B= C2 (mm2 /s) where C2 = 1.22 K.m.mm2 /J
6° 6)
and:
= volumetric specific heat of the current carrying component (J/NK.m3)
o•; = volumetric specific heat of the surrounding or adjacent nonmetallic materials (J/K.m3)
Pi = thermal resistivity of the surrounding or adjacent nonmetallic materials (K.m/W)
(Suggested values for these material constants are set out in Table II)
949(1) ©IEC — 13 —
5.2 Conductors (solid or stranded)
The general formula can be simplified for common combinations of materials as fol
lows :
6= 1+X + Y(S )
S
where:
X and Y, incorporating the thermal contact factor of 0.7 (1.0 for oilfilled cables) are given in Table III
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helically applied equalizing tapes is ignored. For common combinations of materials the
simplified formula in Subclause 5.2 may be utilized, otherwise the general formula in
Subclause 5.1 must be used with F = 0.7. The current is calculated on a per wire basis and
then multiplied by the number of wires n to obtain the full shortcircuit current. Thus the
crosssectional area of a single wire is used in all formulae.
Note. — The choice of the crosssectional area of the sheath or screen to be used in the adiabatic formula is of great
importance and is covered in the appropriate subclause below.
6.1 General
The factor c for sheaths, screens and armour is determined from the following for
mula :
= 1 + 0.61 M t – 0.069 (M/)z + 0.0043 (M/)3
the factor M is calculated as follows:
N
M — \ tPz + P3/ F is 2)
261 8 X 10 3
where :
o2, Q3 = volumetric specific heat of media either side of the screen, sheath or armour (J/K.m3)
949(1)©IEC — 15 —
p2, p3 = thermal resistivity of the media either side of screen, sheath or armour (K.m/W)
vl = volumetric specific heat of the screen, sheath or armour (J/K.m3)
S = thickness of screen, sheath or armour (mm)
Suggested thermal constants for various materials are set out in Table II.
It is recommended that a value of F = 0.7 be used except that when the metallic
component is completely bonded on one side to the adjacent medium, a value of F = 0.9 can
be used.
Alternatively, once the value of M\fi has been calculated, s can be obtained from
Figure 1.
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d = mean diameter of the sheath (mm)
i, D°°
Note. — for corrugated sheaths d = D
2
8 = thickness of sheath (mm)
Where intimate thermal contact can be expected, the thermal contact factor (F) can be
taken as unity.
6.3 Tapes
6.3.1 Longitudinal
The area to be used in the adiabatic formula is the crosssection of the tape, providing that
the overlap is not more than 10% of its width.
S=wS
where:
w = width of tape (mm)
S = thickness of tape (mm)
S = nw8
where:
n = number of tapes
w = width of tape (mm)
8 = thickness of tape (mm)
TABLE I
a) Conductors
Copper 226 234.5 3.45 x 106 1.7241 x 108
Aluminium 148 228 2.5 x 106 2.8264 x 108
b) Sheaths, screens
and armour
Lead or lead alloy 41 230 1.45 x 106 21.4 x 10_8
Steel 78 202 3.8 x 106 13.8 x 108
Bronze 180 313 3.4 x 106 3.5 x 108
Aluminium 148 228 • 2.5 x 106 2.84 x 108
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TABLE II
Insulating materials:
Impregnated paper in solid type cables 6.0 2.0 x 106
Impregnated paper in oilfilled cables 5.0 2.0 x 106
Oil 7.0 1.7 x 106
PE 3.5 2.4 x 106
XLPE 3.5 2.4 x 106
Polyvinyl chloride:
up to and including 3 kV cables 5.0 1.7 x 106
greater than 3 kV cables 6.0 1.7 x 106
EPR:
up to and including 3 kV cables 3.5 2.0 x 106 ,
greater than 3 kV cables 5.0 2.0 x 106
Butyl rubber 5.0 2.0 x 106
Rubber (natural) 5.0 2.0 x 106
Protective coverings:
Compounded jute and fibrous materials 6.0 2.0 x 106
Rubber sandwich protection 6.0 2.0 x 106
Polychloroprene 5.5 2.0 x 106
PVC:
up to and including 35 kV cables 5.0 1.7 x 106
greater than 35 kV cables 6.0 1.7 x 106
PVC/bitumen on corrugated aluminium sheaths 6.0 1.7 x 106
PE 3.5 2.4 x 106
Other components:
Semiconducting XLPE and PE 3) 2.5 2.4 x 106
Semiconducting EPR 3.5 2.1 x 106
TABLE III
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others 0.29 0.06 0.40 0.08
MI
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II'
IT
Ifl
moo
MEW
MM .PA
1111 liErMMM AIM
EIMINEIN MENEM
NEE BM MN ME
1111ENNIMPF EIIII
INIERNIEf MOM
BMW M!lMO®MEN^^ 11^ mum
EE : a: ; : , :
.._ MEW ......«.........ria......m1t.^^x^i
_ ^:i^^1s1^. ^^ _g
APPENDIX A
The allowance for heat loss into the dielectric can be incorporated in terms of a factor
modifying either the shortcircuit energy input or the maximum temperature allowed. The
former was chosen as it allows the temperature limit for a material to be kept constant rather
than changing with the amount of heat loss into the dielectric. The modifying factor e is
defined in terms of the ratio of the adiabatic to the nonadiabatic energy input and thus acts
directly on the conductor current as the duration is thè same for both cases.
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In some installations (e.g. system with neutral impedances) the maximum fault current is
known and the recommended method can be inverted so as to estimate the maximum
shortcircuit temperature that will be attained.
(A) Conductors
A large amount of theoretical and experimental work is available for PVC insulated
copper conductor cables with a small amount of data being accessible for paper insulated
copper conductor cables. The method recommended has been based on the PVC/copper data
and has been extrapolated to cover other cable types. Confirmation of the extrapolation has
been obtained from the few paper cable test results applicable.
Good agreement was found between four independently derived theoretical methods and a
computer based transient calculation method (this latter being the method accepted by
CIGRÉ for transient rating calculations *) and the available experimental data.
and an empirical formula of this form was fitted to the computer calculated curve for PVC.
The empirical constants A and B incorporated the specific heats of the conductor and
insulation along with the thermal resistivity of the insulation and by modifying these
constants (using the values published in Electra No. 24 pp. 90/91) curves for other conduc
tor/dielectric material combinations have been calculated.
In practice a large scatter in experimental results was evident and this was considered to be
a function of imperfect thermal contact between the conductor and the dielectric. A factor F
was introduced in the formula, again analogous to theoretical work, to allow for this. A
value of 0.7 for F was found to encompass virtually all the available PVC experimental data
and this was then used for all conductor/material combinations (except for oilfilled cables
where the good thermal contact allows a factor of 1.0 to be used). Any errors should thus be
on the safe side.
The factors is slightly temperature dependent but over the range of temperatures normally
used in practice this effect will be negligible and covered by the 0.7 factor.
The Working Group considered that 5% was the minimum increase in allowable short
circuit current that would be reasonably useful in practice. Thus for t/S <0.1 s/mm 2 the
improvement in conductor current is negligible and the nonadiabatic method is not recom
mended for these conditions which probably cover the majority of practical situations.
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These are considered to have the greatest potential for increasing the allowable short
circuit current under nonadiabatic heating conditions.
A number of analytic and computer methods were available to the Working Group. The
method chosen was a simplification of the most theoretically accurate method available *
which directly takes account of the change in losses with temperature.
The major problem has been a lack of experimental results with which to compare the
theoretical method. Reasonable agreement has been obtained with the few test results
available, especially if a factor to account for imperfect thermal contact is introduced in an
analagous manner to that for the conductor. In addition test runs using the computer
method in (A) above have also given good agreement with the theory.
The factor s is again slightly temperature dependent but the equation 'represents the worst
case condition and in practice the effect should be negligible.
The thermal contact factor has been chosen for the various sheath and screen construc
tions with a view to the confidence the Working Group have in the degree of thermal
contact. For example lead sheathed paper cables with bitumen layer under the oversheath
should have a very good contact, whereas corrugated aluminium sheaths on mass impreg
nated nondraining cables will have a poor contact with the dielectric. Proposals have been
made which are considered to be on the safe side.
The most difficult item to be defined is the resistance and crosssectional area to be used
with overlapped or multilayer taped screens. The resistance depends to a great extent on the
degree of intertape contact which can vary unpredictably during the life of a cable and even
during a shortcircuit. Thus the safest assumption has been made, namely that the current
flows along the tape helically around the cable with no intertape conductance. The geo
metrical crosssectional area of the tape (or tapes) is then used. This gives low shortcircuit
ratings but they are still an improvement over those calculated on an adiabatic basis with the
same assumption of no interturn contact.
Similarly, woven wire braid screens are assumed to be of tubular form but having no
interwire conductance. The crosssectional area to be used is then that of an individual wire
multiplied by the total number of wires in the braid while the thickness is twice the diameter
of an individual wire.
* Mildner, R.C., et al., AIEE Trans. Vol. 87, pp. 749758, March 1968.
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