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NAVAL

POSTGRADUATE
SCHOOL
MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA

THESIS
DESIGN A TRACKING SYSTEM WITH SINGLE
CHANNEL RSNS AND MONOPULSE DIGITAL
BEAMFORMING

By

ShihYuan Yeh

December 2010

Thesis Advisor: David C. Jenn


Thesis Co-Advisor: Roberto Cristi

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited


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DESIGN A TRACKING SYSTEM WITH SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS AND


MONOPULSE DIGITAL BEAMFORMING

ShihYuan Yeh
Major, Taiwanese Army
B.S., Taiwanese National Defense University, 2001

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

from the

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL


December 2010

Author: ShihYuan Yeh

Approved by: David C. Jenn


Thesis Advisor

Roberto Cristi
Thesis Co-Advisor

R. Clark Robertson
Chairman, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

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ABSTRACT

This is for the abstract.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

I.INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................1
A. BACKGROUND...............................................................................................1
B. PREVIOUS WORK..........................................................................................2
C. SCOPE OF RESEARCH..................................................................................3
D. THESIS OUTLINE...........................................................................................4
II.DIRECTION FINDING AND ROBUST SYMMETRIC NUMERIC SYSTEM.....6
A.DIRECTION FINDING....................................................................................6
B. AMBIGUITY AND FOLDING WAVEFORMS............................................9
1. Ambiguity.............................................................................................10
2. Folding Waveforms..............................................................................12
C. QUADRATURE DEMODULATION...........................................................14
1. Signal Modulation................................................................................14
2. Quadrature Demodulation..................................................................15
D. ROBUST SYMMETRIC NUMERIC SYSTEM THEORY........................17
1. Parameters Define................................................................................17
2. Interferometer Design.........................................................................19
III. TRACKING RADARS AND TECHNIQUES........................................................22
A. TYPES OF TRACKING RADAR SYSTEM...............................................22
1. Single-Target Tracker (STT)..............................................................23
2. Automatic Detection and Track (ADT).............................................23
3. Phased Array Radar Tracking...........................................................24
4. Track While Scan (TWS)....................................................................25
B. ANGLE TRACKING TECHNIQUES..........................................................25
1. Conical Scan.........................................................................................25
2. Sequential Lobing................................................................................25
3. Monopulse Tracking............................................................................26
a. Amplitude Comparison Monopulse.........................................26
b. Phase Comparison Monopulse................................................26
C. TRACKING ACCURACY.............................................................................26
1. Theoretical Angular Accuracy............................................................26
2. Limitations to Tracking Accuracy.....................................................26
a. Glint...........................................................................................26
b. Receiver Noise...........................................................................26
c. Amplitude Fluctuations............................................................26
d. Servo Noise...............................................................................26
IV. SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS COMPUTER SIMULATION AND HARDWARE
TESTING RESULTS..........................................................................................28
A.SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS DESIGN............................................................28
B. CALIBRATION..............................................................................................28
C. HARDWARE SETUP.....................................................................................28

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D. RSNS IN LABVIEW.......................................................................................28
E. MATLAB SIMULATION..............................................................................28
F. COMPARISON AND RESULTS..................................................................36
V. TRACKING WITH SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS AND MONOPULSE DIGITAL
BEAMFORMING TESTING RESULTS..........................................................38
A. ANECHOIC CHAMBER...............................................................................38
B. HARDWARE SETUP.....................................................................................38
C. TRACKING PROGRAM IN LABVIEW.....................................................38
D. COMPARISON AND RESULTS..................................................................38
VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................40
A. CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................40
B. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK.......................................40
LIST OF REFERENCES................................................................................................42
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST...................................................................................45

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1. INCIDENT PLANE WAVE ARRIVE TO TWO ELEMENT


ANTENNAS (AFTER [6]).....................................................................................7
FIGURE 2. I/Q SIGNAL DIAGRAM (FROM [10]).....................................................8
FIGURE 3. PHASE DIFFERENCE VS. AOA AT D= (AFTER [6]).........................10
FIGURE 4. PHASE DIFFERENCE VS. AOA AT D=(AFTER [6])..........................11
FIGURE 5. PHASE DIFFERENCE VS. AOA AT FREQUENCY=300MHZ..........11
FIGURE 6. PHASE DIFFERENCE VS. AOA AT FREQUENCY=900MHZ..........12
FIGURE 7. OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS. AOA AT (AFTER [6]).................................13
FIGURE 8. OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS. AOA AT (AFTER [6])..................................13
FIGURE 9. OUTPUT VOLTAGE VS. AOA AT (AFTER [6])..................................14
FIGURE 10. MODULATES WITH A SINUSOID CARRIER FREQUENCY........15
FIGURE 11. QUADRATURE DEMODULATION PROCESS (AFTER [10])........16
FIGURE 12. AD8347 QUADRATURE DEMODULATOR MADE BY ANALOG
DEVICES, INC. (FROM [10])............................................................................16
FIGURE 13. RSNS FOLDING WAVEFORMS FOR AND (FROM [12])...............20
FIGURE 14. AN/MPQ-53 (AFTER [13]).....................................................................22
FIGURE 15. AN/FPQ-6 (FROM [14]).........................................................................23
FIGURE 16. AN/SPY-1D (FROM [15]).......................................................................24
FIGURE 17. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 10.......................................................................28
FIGURE 18. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 20.......................................................................29
FIGURE 19. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 30.......................................................................30
FIGURE 20. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 40.......................................................................31
FIGURE 21. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 50.......................................................................32
FIGURE 22. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 60.......................................................................33
FIGURE 23. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 70.......................................................................34
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FIGURE 24. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 80.......................................................................35
FIGURE 25. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IDEAL AOA, ESTIMATED AOA AND
MEASURED AOA AT SNR = 90.......................................................................36

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LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1. RSNS SEQUENCE FOR MODULI SET [3,4] (FROM [6])....................18

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ADC Analog to Digital Converter

ADT Automatic Detection and Track

AM Amplitude Modulation

AOA Angle of Arrival

ASR Air Surveillance Radar

ATC Air Traffic Control

COTS Commercial-of-the-shelf

DBF Digital Beamforming

DC Direct Current

DF Direction Finding

EM Electromagnetic

EW Electronic Warfare

FDM Frequency-Division Multiplexing

FM Frequency Modulation

FOV Field of View

G Gain

GUI Graphical User Interface

I In Phase

IC Integrated Circuit

IF Intermediate Frequency

LNA Low Noise Amplifier

LO Local Oscillator

LOS Line Of Sight


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LPF Low Pass Filter

NF Noise Figure

NI National Instruments

NPS Naval Postgraduate School

PM Phase Modulation

Q Quadrature Phase

RF Radio Frequency

RSNS Robust Symmetric Numeric System

RX Receiver

SNR Signal to Noise Ratio

STT Single Target Tracker

TWS Track While Scan

TX Transmitter

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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I. INTRODUCTION

A. BACKGROUND

Passive Direction Finding (DF), later chapter mention DF would mean passive
DF, technique has been widely used in variety of fields such as communication,
navigation, Electronic Warfare (EW), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), radar system
and lots of military applications. It is a method used to receive electromagnetic (EM)
wave which comes from the signal source or target and then use proper DF algorithm to
calculate the Angle of Arrival (AOA). Different DF algorithm can derive different angle
resolution and even use the same algorithm with different parameters could come into
different results. The goal is to use a better DF algorithm to improve angle resolution
accuracy.

DF, also named Electronic Support Measure (ESM), is a method used to derive
angle but not range. Unlike the common radar system that provides range and angle
information from a target. Radar system could use high gain antenna to provide better
angle accuracy but DF could not get any gain benefit from it. Further, with higher range
and angle resolution, it becomes possible to recognize individual targets. Even without
high resolution, DF has been able to recognize and identify a target by its general nature
or behavior in space. Because of its passive receive characteristic, it could not be used on
tracking a target. DF method could cooperate with other tracking systems to provide a
military air-defense radar system [1].

On the other hand, beamforming is a common technique used on tracking radar


system. With connection of a group of non-directional antennas and simulates as a large
directional antenna. By adjusting the phase, it could point the main beam electronically to
the desired azimuth or elevation angles without actually moving or rotating the antenna.
To steer the main beam point to the signal source could reduce interference and improve
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). Beamforming could also use in DF area, by pointing the
main beam to the signal source and compare the phase difference could determine the
AOA [2].
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When track a target, tracking radar must first acquire the target’s initial AOA.
Most tracking radars adopt pencil beam to get high accuracy in angle resolution but it
become difficult to search huge amount of volume in space. The beamwidth of the pencil
beam is approximately less than a few degrees in both azimuth and elevation plane.
Because of its narrow beamwidth shape, pencil beam is popular used in tracking
operation. To design a practical system, we could use DF to get a rough AOA then pass
the scan angle to the tracker to do the tracking job [1].

B. PREVIOUS WORK

This thesis is a portion of the ongoing project began by Bartee [3] in 2002. Gezer
[4] followed the project and designed a digital phased array to track UAVs with the use
of Commercial-of-the-shelf (COTS) hardware to lower cost. The design of tracking
system was also verified through the simulations.

Eng [5] built up a calibration station that could automate calculate the DC offset
form the LabView program. It provided an easy way to measure the DC offset from the
modulation boards and it also gave more accuracy than before. The components of the
calibration system were easy to disassemble so it made the upgrade works more easily to
accomplish. By changing different Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) could give better
resolution in the future.

Jessica [6] implemented a single channel Robust Symmetrical Number System


(RSNS) to do the DF measurement. Several of moduli sets were used and run through
MATLAB simulations. Results showed at low SNR there were large angle resolution
errors. In addition, large dynamic range moduli sets could yield high angle resolutions
errors if compared to small dynamic range moduli sets. The bench top hardware with low
noise amplifier (LNA) and demodulator boards were built and tested. The system was
connected to National Instruments (NI) PXI-5112 cards and LabView software with
calibration function was also run and tested.

Tan and Pandya [7] carried out the design of a UAV tracking system with the use
of RSNS DF and monopulse Digital Beamforming (DBF). Three different LabView

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Modules were also developed. They were monopulse beamforming and tracking, NTSC
decoding and Frequency Modulation (FM) Demodulation. The beamforming and tracking
module used RSNS and combined with monopulse DBF to acquire and track a UAV
using the six-element antenna array. The FM demodulation module was tested
successfully for a single channel condition. The NTSC decoding module was able to
decode video signals and display on the LabView console.

C. SCOPE OF RESEARCH

The purpose of this thesis is to design, build and test a single channel RSNS with
monopulse DBF to accurately acquire the AOA from the signal source. Hardware would
be mainly come from COTS components to lower cost. Simulations would be
implemented on Matlab and hardware operate and monitor software would be built up on
LabView.

The first part of my research would illustrate the RSNS algorithms used on DF
and the concern issues when design a DF system. Folding waveforms and ambiguity
would be explained. Followed by the theory explanations, hardware operation would be
implemented. Besides, calibration of the modulation boards would be described shortly.
RSNS DF method would be used to measure AOA and then do comparisons between the
measured value and the true value. Further, analyze the calculated AOA values with the
true AOA values. More, use the derived measured data and put it in different SNRs to see
the effects. Try to find out which SNR values are acceptable for the DF job.

The second part of my research would illustrate the angle tracking techniques and
different types of tracking radar system. Tracking accuracy would also be explained to
better understand the noise effect on the tracking system design. Then a single channel
RSNS with monopulse DBF tracking system would be constructed. The six-element
phased array would be used for the tracker. Measurement would be in the anechoic
chamber to reduce interference and the layout of the anechoic chamber would be
mentioned. The tracking system would use RSNS DF first to find the rough AOA and
then pass the scan angle to the monopulse DBF module to do a better tracking job.

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System performance would be tested and also use Matlab programs to do the
simulations. Measure values would be compared to the theoretical values to tell the
difference and further more do the analysis. Conclusions would be made to make
following improvement works successful.

D. THESIS OUTLINE

Chapter II illustrates the basic idea of DF and explains the folding waveforms and
ambiguity situation. Furthermore, explains the quadrature demodulation and fundamental
RSNS theory.

Chapter III reviews different types of tracking radar system and include the angle
tracking techniques and tracking accuracy considerations.

Chapter IV provides the single channel RSNS system design set up and includes
Matlab simulations in different SNRs to see the cost and effects. Moreover, covers the
modulation boards calibration and LabView demonstrations.

Chapter V contains single channel RSNS with monopulse digital beamforming


hardware set up and LabView tracking programs design. Also illustrates the anechoic
chamber layout and compares the results.

Chapter VI contains conclusions and recommendations for future study.

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II. DIRECTION FINDING AND ROBUST SYMMETRIC
NUMERIC SYSTEM

A. DIRECTION FINDING

Radio DF systems use linear phase arrays to measure AOA from the incident
planar EM wave. There are three categories of DF methods: amplitude comparison, phase
delay and time delay [8].

In order to fulfill the comparison works at least two antenna elements are
required, however multiple elements could be used. The antenna is assumed to be
operated in the far field and arrival EM wave is restricted to narrowband frequency.

Amplitude comparison method converts the amplitude response received from


antennas into voltages and then interprets to the AOA. Phase and time delay use the
phase and time difference between the antenna elements to derive AOA.

Distance between elements is already determined by the required resolution.


Figure 1 displays a planar wave incident to a phase array with two linear elements
separate by a distance d, which is referred as the baseline distance. The antenna field of
view (FOV) ranges from -90 degrees to +90 degrees. The planar EM wave first arrive
antenna 2 then keeps traveling another d sin(θ ) distance to antenna 1 [6].

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Figure 1. Incident Plane Wave Arrive to Two Element Antennas (After [6])

The received signal out of the antenna element is


Vi = V cos ( ωc t + ψ i + φi )
where i indicate the antenna element number ( i = 1,2,….etc), ωc is defined as the carrier
frequency, ψ i is the phase delay comes from cables and φi is the path difference
compare to the reference, in this case antenna 2 is the reference.

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The received Vi signals pass to the quadrature demodulator to do mixing and LPF
processing which would be elaborated more detailed in the quadrature demodulator

section. Signals come out of the demodulator are I1, Q1, I 2 and Q2 and they belong to

antenna 1 and antenna 2 respectively. In addition, Ii (in-phase) and Qi (quadrature-phase)


could be expressed as
Ii = Ai cos ( φi )
Qi = Ai sin ( φi )

Ai = ( Ii ) 2 + ( Qi ) 2
Q 
φi = tan −1  i 
 Ii 
where Ai is the amplitude and φi is the phase [9]. Figure 2 shows a more intuitive I/Q
plane relations.

Figure 2. I/Q Signal Diagram (From [10])

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On the other hand, if define the origin is in the middle of two antenna elements,

kd kd
the phase value of each element could be given as φ1 = − sin θ and φ2 = sin θ
2 2


where k = . The phase difference could be calculated as
λ
∆φ = φ2 − φ1 = kd sin ( θ ) .

Once derived ∆φ , then phase folding waveforms out of the quadrature


demodulator could be obtained and are equal to

V2
Vout ( φ ) =
cos ( ∆ψ + ∆φ ) .
2
∆ψ comes from the cables are neglected because the cable length are already known and
assumed to be equal. Output voltages, V 2 / 2, are normalized to unity for simplified
purpose. Finally, combine Equations and , the phase folding waveform could be
simplified as
Vout ( φ ) = cos  kd sin ( θ )  .

Equation shows AOA could be directly calculated because k, d and ∆φ are


already known. What is the reason to create the phase folding waveform? A signal
processing method called RSNS could achieve a high resolution without large baseline
distance. To get higher resolution, increase baseline distance is necessary. When baseline
distance is increased, there would create ambiguity which would cause multiple AOAs
and detail reasons would explain in the following RSNS section.

B. AMBIGUITY AND FOLDING WAVEFORMS

To get higher resolution, increase the distance between elements is necessary.


However, if baseline distance is increased over half wavelength, ambiguity problem will
be arisen. This could result in more than one AOA then the true AOA could not be
indicated.

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1. Ambiguity

From Equation, ∆φ is related to wavelength, distance and AOA. However,


frequency is also related to wavelength. In this section, demonstrations will show not
only baseline distance but also frequency cause ambiguities.

When antenna element spacing is equal to λ / 2 , we get ∆φ = π sin ( θ ) . Figure 3


clearly shows the relation between phase difference and AOA and one phase difference
could map to one AOA. The mapping relation is unique.

d/ λ=0.5
200

150

100

50
∆φ (degrees)

-50

-100

-150

-200
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
θ (degrees)

Figure 3. Phase difference vs. AOA at d= λ / 2 (After [6])

However, if element distance increases to λ , ∆φ = 2π sin ( θ ) . Figure 4 displays


the relation between phase difference and AOA and one phase difference could map to
two AOAs. When phase difference equals to -100 degrees, both -18 and +47 degrees
could be the AOA. The mapping relation is multiple and this phenomenon is called
ambiguity.

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Figure 4. Phase difference vs. AOA at d= λ (After [6])

Next, the frequency parameter is also a variable that would cause ambiguity. This
time keeps element distance fixed and equals to 0.5m. By changing frequency to inspect
if there is ambiguity. As figure 5 shows, when frequency equals to 300MHz, there is no
ambiguity arisen.
f=300MHz, d=0.5m (baseline spacing)
200

150

100

50
∆φ (degrees)

-50

-100

-150

-200
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
θ (degrees)

Figure 5. Phase difference vs. AOA at frequency=300MHz

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Adjusting frequency from 300MHz to 900MHz, as figure 6 illustrated, there is
ambiguity. When phase difference equal to -100 degrees, there could be three possible
AOAs.

Figure 6. Phase difference vs. AOA at frequency=900MHz

When design a single channel DF system, distance between elements, wavelength


and frequency should all take into considerations to avoid ambiguity phenomenon. After
illustrate the ambiguity problem, the folding waveforms are similar to ambiguity.

2. Folding Waveforms

The folding waveform is periodic between ±π / 2 and folding waveform number


could be summarized as
2d
n= .
λ
Figure 7 shows when d = λ / 2 , there is only one folding waveform. This could be
easily verified by using equation and another property is folding waveform is
symmetrical.

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d/λ=0.5
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

V out (Normalized)
0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Angle of Arrival (degrees)

Figure 7. Output Voltage vs. AOA at d = λ / 2 (After [6])

Next, increase the baseline distance to see the effect. In figure 8, there are two
folding waveforms when d = λ .

d/λ=1
1

0.8

0.6

0.4
V out (Normalized)

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Angle of Arrival (degrees)

Figure 8. Output Voltage vs. AOA at d = λ (After [6])

Finally, increase the baseline distance equals to 2λ . Figure 9 shows there are four
folding waveforms.

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d/λ=2
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

V out (Normalized)
0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1
-100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Angle of Arrival (degrees)

Figure 9. Output Voltage vs. AOA at d = 2λ (After [6])

To sum up, increase the baseline distance will also increase the folding
waveforms. When folding waveform is greater than one, ambiguity would arise
simultaneously.

C. QUADRATURE DEMODULATION

1. Signal Modulation

Modulation and Demodulation techniques are commonly used in the


communication system such as radio station, wireless network and telecommunication.

By modulating a sinusoid, carrier frequency ωc , with the message signal, s ( t ) , can


convert the message signal to a certain transmitting frequency and in figure 10 displays a
basic modulation block diagram. There are three main reasons could explain why use
modulating and demodulating process.

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Figure 10. s ( t ) modulates with a sinusoid carrier frequency ωc

First, baseband signals do not propagate far. For example, voice signals could
only be heard in a short range. However, if a voice signal modulates with a higher carrier
frequency, it could be converted to EM waves and transmitted far away such as AM/FM
applications [11].

Second, a single channel could be divided into several bandlimited sub-channels


if each sub-channel modulates with different carrier frequency. This method is also called
Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM) because spectrum is not unlimited resource so
this technique is used quite often in the real world.

Third, transmitting frequency should adapt to the physical size of the antenna.
Low frequency signals have long wavelength and large diameter antennas are required.
However, if the physical size of the antenna is too large, it becomes unpractical to use
[7].

2. Quadrature Demodulation

The process of recovering the original signal s ( t ) is called demodulation. The

radar signal s ( t ) at carrier frequency ωc = 2π f c could be represented as

s ( t ) = A ( t ) cos[2π f c t + φ ( t ) ] = I ( t ) cos ( 2π f ct ) − Q ( t ) sin ( 2π f ct ) .

In equation shows the signal s ( t ) is divided into I ( t ) and Q ( t ) components which


are derived by using the quadrature demodulation technique. In figure 11 shows the
quadrature demodulation processing diagram and figure 12 displays an analog quadrature
demodulator which has an LO input frequency range from 0.8GHz to 2.7 GHz.
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Figure 11. Quadrature Demodulation Process (After [10])

Figure 12. AD8347 Quadrature Demodulator Made by Analog Devices, Inc. (From [10])

Define a complex envelop signal u ( t ) and given as

u ( t ) = I ( t ) + jQ ( t ) .
The signal s ( t ) could be substituted to
u ( t ) e jωc t + u∗ ( t ) e − jωc t 
{
s ( t ) = Re u ( t ) e jωc t
} =
2
.

To divide signal s ( t ) into I ( t ) and Q ( t ) , first mix s ( t ) with LO signal, cos ( ω LO t ) . As


the upper part of figure 11, the in-phase channel could be mathematically represented as

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s ( t ) ⋅ cos ( ω LO t ) =
1
4  (
u ( t ) e jωc t + u∗ ( t ) e − jωc t  e jωLO t + e− jωLO t
 )
u ( t ) j ( ωc +ωLO ) t u ( t ) j ( ωc −ωLO ) t u∗ ( t ) − j ( ωc −ωLO ) t u∗ ( t ) − j ( ωc +ωLO ) t
= e + e + e + e
4 4 4 4
 u ( t ) j ( ωc +ωLO ) t   u ( t ) j ( ωc −ωLO ) t 
= Re  e  + Re  e .
 2   2 
Next, pass the mix signal through LPF and LO frequency ( ω LO ) equals to ωc . Then the
first term in equation could be eliminated by using a LPF and the second term could be

u ( t )  I ( t )
derived and equal to Re  = .
 2  2

On the other hand, the quadrature channel of the lower part of figure 11 could be given as
 u ( t ) j ( ωc −ωLO ) t   u ( t ) j ( ωc +ωLO ) t 
s ( t ) ⋅ sin ( ω LO ) = Im  e  − Im  e .
 2   2 
Using the same method through LPF, and the second part is filtered out. The first term is

u ( t )  Q ( t )
left and equal to Im  = .
 2  2

D. ROBUST SYMMETRIC NUMERIC SYSTEM THEORY

The concept of RSNS process is used to reconstruct the folding waveforms out of
the antenna and it could obtain high AOA resolutions without long baseline distance. In
this section, RSNS parameters would be defined first then follows the interferometry
design steps.

1. Parameters Define

The fundamental elements of the RSNS algorithm are the moduli ( mi ) and they
should be greater than zero and relatively primed. The number of moduli depends on the
number of antenna elements and is denoted as N. For example, as figure 1 shows a two
element antenna should have two moduli so N equals to 2.

17
A row vector is defined as
[0,1, 2,..., mi − 1, mi , mi − 1,..., 2,1].
A sequence used to represent the folding waveform is constructed by repeating each

element N times in the row vector. For the ith sequence ( i = 1, 2,..., N ) , it should look like

X mi = [0,
14 0,...,
2 43 0, 0,1,1,...,1,1,...,
14 2 43 mi , mi ,..., mi , mi ,...,1,1,...,1,1].
14 2 43
1 4 4 2 4 43
N N N N

After sequence sets are generated, align them vertically and shift one column per sub-
sequence. Next, define M̂ as the dynamic range which means the maximum column pair
of the shifted sequence set has no repetitions. Table 1 display a more clearly explanation

for m1 = 3 and m2 = 4. In this case, there is no column pair duplicated from column
number 6 to 20 and it’s also the maximum column pairs.

Table 1. RSNS Sequence for moduli set [3,4] (From [6])

Previous works in [5, 6, 7, 8] found out for some specific two elements cases, dynamic
range could be summarized and calculated as follows:
for m1 ≥ 3 and m2 = m1 + 1,
Mˆ = 3 ( m1 + m2 ) − 6
for m1 ≥ 5 and m2 = m1 + 2,
Mˆ = 3 ( m1 + m2 ) − 7
for m1 ≥ 5 and m2 = m1 + C ( C ≥ 3) ,
Mˆ = 4m1 + 2m2 − 2.

18
2. Interferometer Design

Before proceed to the interferometer design, there is one thing has to be clarified.
RSNS algorithm is used to reconstruct the virtual folding waveform of each channel so
everything inside the RSNS block is virtual. There are several steps needed to implement
a RSNS interferometer system.
The first one is to calculate the number of folds for each moduli which are given
as

ni = .
2 Nmi
With the ni information, then the corresponding virtual element baseline distance could
be derived. By substitute equation into equation, a new equation could be given as
λ Mˆ λ
di = ni = .
2 4 Nmi
Another issue need to be concerned is the received signals from antennas degrade
at wide FOV angles. Therefore a rescale processing is adopted to alleviate the angle
distortion. Only part of the FOV angles is used instead of the whole FOV angles. From
equation, a new relation of d sin ( θ ) = d 'sin ( θ ') could be derived and define the scaling
factor ( ξ ) as
d ' sin ( θ )
ξ= =
d sin ( θ ')
where d ' is the scaled baseline distance. To verify the rescale effect, a smaller θ ' is used
in equation and derived a longer d ' . As mentioned in the beginning of this section, a long
baseline distance means a better AOA resolution. Further, combining equation with, a
new relation could be given as
Mˆ λ
di' = diξ = ξ
4mi N
where di' is the virtual scaled baseline distance [6].
Next, encode the folding waveforms from equation into virtual folding waveforms
by comparing to the threshold given as
 m − j + 0.5 
V j , mi = cos  i π  , 1 ≤ j ≤ mi .
 mi 
Figure 13 shows a virtual folding waveform example of moduli m1 = 3 and m2 = 4 .

19
Figure 13. RSNS Folding Waveforms for m1 = 3 and m2 = 4 (From [12])

Finally, calculate the phase adjustment ( ς i ) and align the center of the dynamic
°
( )
range to the folding waveforms at broadside θ = 0 [12]. Therefore, after add phase
adjustment, equation would become
Vout ( θ ) = cos ( kd sin θ + ς ) .

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21
III. TRACKING RADARS AND TECHNIQUES

In Section A, different types of tracking radars will be introduced. In Section B,


several angle tracking techniques would be explained and focus will be on the monopulse
tracking. In Section C, lots of factors affect tracking accuracy will be discussed.

A. TYPES OF TRACKING RADAR SYSTEM

The purpose of tracking radar is to track a designated target with continuous


measurement of the target coordinates, range and velocity. In chapter V, the simulation is
interested in target arrival angle not the speed. There are many applications use tracking
radars for either civilian or military purposes. In civilian area, airports are one of the most
important places where air traffic control (ATC) plays an important role. Radars are
employed to safely control air traffic in the vicinity of airports are called Air Surveillance
Radar (ASR). In military area, tracking radar tracks target trajectory and computes best
intercept path then guide missiles to the target. Figure 14 shows an AN/MPQ-53 radar
which is used on search, target detection, track and identification.

Figure 14. AN/MPQ-53 (After [13])

22
1. Single-Target Tracker (STT)

The single-target Tracker (STT) continuously tracks a target with a high data rate
of observation frequency. Data rate depends on the how many times radar observes the
target and typically 10 observations per second are enough for the guided missile
weapon-control radar. The STT with closed-loop servo system obtained the angle-error
signal and keep adjusting the tracker to minimize the angle-error. Lots of military
weapon-control system deploys STT to track airplanes or missiles. Figure 15 shows
tracking radar (AN/FPQ-6) with 29-ft reflector antenna. It has 0.1 mil tracking accuracy
and is specialized in long-range, small-target tracking.

Figure 15. AN/FPQ-6 (From [14])

2. Automatic Detection and Track (ADT)

The observation rate (renew rate) of Automatic Detection and Track (ADT) is
lower than STT because it deploys an open-looped servo system. Data rate is proportional

23
to the rotation rate of the servo. However, ADT could track large amounts of targets at
the same time but STT could only track one.

3. Phased Array Radar Tracking

Phased array radar could track large amounts of targets by steering the beams
electronically. Computers use different time frames to control beams point to the desired
direction. It has high target renew rate of STT and multiple targets tracking ability of
ADT. The structure of phase array is more complicated than STT and ADT because each
array element should contain individual phase shifter, LNA and TX/RX module.

Figure 16. AN/SPY-1D (From [15])

24
4. Track While Scan (TWS)

B. ANGLE TRACKING TECHNIQUES

1. Conical Scan

Sample text.

Sample text.

2. Sequential Lobing

25
3. Monopulse Tracking

a. Amplitude Comparison Monopulse

b. Phase Comparison Monopulse

C. TRACKING ACCURACY

1. Theoretical Angular Accuracy

Sample text.

Sample text.

2. Limitations to Tracking Accuracy

a. Glint

b. Receiver Noise

c. Amplitude Fluctuations

d. Servo Noise

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27
IV. SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS COMPUTER SIMULATION AND
HARDWARE TESTING RESULTS

A. SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS DESIGN

B. CALIBRATION

C. HARDWARE SETUP

D. RSNS IN LABVIEW

E. MATLAB SIMULATION

Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 10
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 10
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 17. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 10

28
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 20
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 20
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 18. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 20

29
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 30
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 30
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 19. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 30

30
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 40
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 40
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 20. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 40

31
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 50
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 50
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 21. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 50

32
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 60
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 60
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 22. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 60

33
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 70
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 70
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 23. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 70

34
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 80
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 80
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 24. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 80

35
Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 90
100
Ideal AOA
80 Estimated AOA @ SNR = 90
Measured AOA
60

40
Error (Degrees)

20

-20

-40

-60

-80

-100
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
AOA (Degrees)

Figure 25. Difference between Ideal AOA, Estimated AOA and Measured AOA at SNR = 90

F. COMPARISON AND RESULTS

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37
V. TRACKING WITH SINGLE CHANNEL RSNS AND
MONOPULSE DIGITAL BEAMFORMING TESTING RESULTS

A. ANECHOIC CHAMBER

B. HARDWARE SETUP

C. TRACKING PROGRAM IN LABVIEW

D. COMPARISON AND RESULTS

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39
VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. CONCLUSIONS

B. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

40
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41
LIST OF REFERENCES

[1] Merrill I. Skolnik, “Introduction to Radar Systems” 3rd Edition, pp. 248–266,
McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 2001.

[2] Toby Haynes, “A primer on digital beamforming,” Spectrum Signal Processing,


1998

[3] John A. Bartee, “Genetic algorithms as a tool for phased array radar design,”
Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, June 2002.

[4] Berat Levent Gezer, "Multi-Beam Digital Antenna for Radar, Communications,
and UAV Tracking Based on Off-The-Shelf Wireless Technologies," Master’s
Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, September 2006.

[5] Eng, Chun Heong, "Design and Development of an Automated Demodulator


Calibration Station," Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey,
California, December 2009.

[6] Jessica A. Benveniste, "Design and Development of a Single Channel RSNS


Direction Finder," Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey,
California, March 2009.

[7] Tan and Devieash James Pandya, “UAV Digital Tracking Array Design,
Development and Testing,” Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, California, December 2009.

[8] Anthony Lee, “Variable Resolution Direction Finding Using the Robust
Symmetrical Number System,” Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School,
Monterey, California, December 2006.

[9] David C. Jenn, "RSNS Processing Using A Single Channel," Naval Postgraduate
School, Monterey California, 2006 (unpublished notes).

[10] David C. Jenn, "Digital Antennas," Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey


California, 2006 (unpublished notes).

[11] James H. Mcclellan, Ronald W. Schafer and Mark A. Yoder, Signal Processing
First, 1st edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2003.

[12] Jui-Chun Chen, "A Virtual RSNS Direction Finding Antenna System," Master’s
Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, December 2004.

[13] Anonymous, “AN/MPQ-53,” Available:


http://www.mobileradar.org/picts/radar_sets/mpq_53/mpq_53.html, accessed
October 14, 2010.
42
[14] Anonymous, “The FPQ-6 Skin-tracking Radar,” Available:
http://www.honeysucklecreek.net/other_stations/carnarvon/fpq6.html, accessed
October 14, 2010.

[15] Anonymous, “AN/SPY-1D,” Available: http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/AN/SPY-1,


accessed October 14, 2010.

[16] Kazimierz Siwiak and Yasaman Bahreini, Radiowave Propagation and Antennas
for Personal Communications, 3rd edition, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2007.

[17] David M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd edition, John Wiley & Sons,
Hoboken, NJ, 2005.

[18] Warren L. Stutzman and Gary A. Thiele, Antenna Theory and Design, 2nd
edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 1998.

[19]

[20] Merrill I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill, New
York, NY, 2001.

[21] Fawwaz T. Ulaby, Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics, 5th edition,


Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2007.

[22] David C. Jenn, Radar and Laser Cross Section Engineering, 2nd edition,
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, Virginia, 2005.

[23] Simon Haykin and Michael Moher, Introduction to Analog & Digital
Communications, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2007.

[24] Roberto Cristi, Modern Digital Signal Processing, 1st edition, Thomson
Learning, Pacific Grove, CA, 2004.

[25] Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 5th edition,
Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2004.

[26]

[27]

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44
INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST

1. Defense Technical Information Center


Ft. Belvoir, Virginia

2. Dudley Knox Library


Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California

3. Chairman, Code EC
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California

4. Professor David C. Jenn


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California

5. Professor Roberto Cristi


Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California

6. Robert D. Broadston
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California

45