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Lab Session # 4

To develop the required angle with the help of angle gauge

 Block Gauges Set
 Tissue Paper
 Petrol
 Petroleum Jelly

Angle Gauges:
With thirteen separate gauges used in conjunction with one square block and one parallel
straight-edge, it is possible to set up any angle to the nearest 3″. In the same way, as slip
gauges are built up to give a linear dimension, the angle gauges can be build up to give a
required angle. Angle gauges are made of hardened steel and seasoned carefully to ensure
permanence of angular accuracy, and the measuring faces are lapped and polished to a high
degree of accuracy and flatness like slip gauges. These gauges are about 3 inch (76.2 mm)
long, 5/8 inch (15.87 mm) wide with their faces lapped to within 0.0002 mm and s angle
between the two ends to ± 2 seconds.

Uses of Angle Gauges:

1. Direct use of angle gauges to measure the angle in the die insert. To test the accuracy
of the angle in the die insert, the insert is placed against an illuminated glass surface
plate or in front of an inspection light box. The combination of angle gauges is so
adjusted and the built-up combination of angle gauges carefully inserted in position so
that no white light can be seen between the gauge faces and die faces. It may be noted
that when all the engraved Vs on the angle gauges are in the same line, all angles are
added up. In case some engraved Vs on angle gauges are on other side, those angles
are subtracted.
2. Use of angle gauges with square plate, As already indicated, the use of square plate
increases the versatility of the application of angle gauges. Generally, the square plate
has its 90° angles guaranteed to within 2 seconds of arc. Where very high degree of
accuracy is required, the four corners of the square plate are numbered as A, B, C and
D, and a test certificate is issued with each set of angle gauges, giving the measured
angle of each corner.
Manufacture and Calibration of angle gauges:
First the angle gauge is approximately machined to the desired shape, hardened by quenching,
tempered and stabilized. The non-gauging sides of the block are then ground to obtain uniform
thickness and made flat and parallel by lapping operation. One gauging face is also lapped flat
and made square to the lapped non-gauging sides. The simple method for manufacture of 27°
and 9°
angle gauges is described to explain the principle. This method requires the use of sine bar
tilting table, slip gauges and magnetic chuck. The set up is shown in Fig. 8.24, in which the sine
table is set at 27° and magnetic chuck fixed on tilting table surface, and the four 27° angle

Fig. 8.24. Set-up for grinding 27° angle gauge blocks.

Gauge blocks wrung side by side on to the magnetic chuck. Their upper surfaces are then
surface ground parallel to the base of the table, thereby producing four blocks, of exactly equal
angle which are again checked for accuracy of angle. In similar manner, 9° blanks are also
finished and the three 9° blocks are wrung with 27° block in opposite direction so as to form a
block with parallel sides, as shown in Fig. 8.25. This combination of block is checked for error in
parallelism. Thus error of each 9° block relative to 27° block will be one-third of the error noted
in parallelism of com- posite block of Fig. 8.25. All the blocks of 9° are again lapped together till
the error in parallelism is equal to the permissible value. In this way, all the gauges would be of
equal angle but not necessarily of 9° and 27° exactly. The actual error in individual block from its
true angle can be got rid of by the following procedure.

Fig. 8.25. Combination of 3 blocks of 9° and one block of 27° so as to form parallel set of blocks.
On of the 27° angle block is then lapped to reduce its error to zero by making it similar to a
standard angle gauge whose actual angle is known. In this process, the gauge being
manufactured (lapped) is wrung with standard 27° angle gauge and error in parallelism noted
and it is further lapped till error in parallelism becomes zero. Other 27° blocks are also corrected
in same way individually. All the four 27° blocks are then placed on magnetic chuck and it is
ensured that the outer faces of all are in one true plane by lapping them together carefully.
Same procedure is followed for 9° blocks also. Finally 3 blocks of 27° and one block of 9° are
again wrung to make a combination of 90° block which is tested for squareness by
autocollimator method as described in Art.

Calibration of angle gauges by interferometry:

By this method, precision of the order of 0.1″ of arc in angle measurement is possible. It is
assumed that these gauges have high degree of flatness on their working surfaces. The gauge
length interferometer is used for this purpose. The angle gauge is wrung on the platen carefully.
On viewing through the eyepiece, two interference patterns are seen consisting of straight,
parallel and equally spaced fringes. But due to angle between the two surfaces, the pitch of the
two sets of fringes is different.

1) A set of angle gauge blocks were chosen
2) Joining two angle gauge blocks in a similar fashion gives us addition of blocks
3) Joining them in opposite fashion gives subtraction of angles
4) Desired angle was obtained by adding or subtracting them

Tables & Calculations:

Delivered Total
Dimensions Dimension
1 3o + 30' 3.5o
2 1o + 1.5o
3 3o + 1o + 15' 4.25o
4 3o + 1o 5' 3.25o
5 3o + 1o + 15' + 30' 4.75o

Results & Comments:

It is a very simple experiment just gives us the illustration of addition and subtraction of angles
by placing the angle gauge bocks on each other.