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Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 64, pp.

61 to 80, 2008

Three-Dimensional Modeling of Tidal Circulation and


Mixing over the Java Sea
A LAN F. KOROPITAN1,2* and MOTOYOSHI IKEDA 1
1
Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University,
Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
2
Department of Marine Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB),
Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

(Received 13 February 2007; in revised form 6 August 2007; accepted 29 August 2007)

A combination of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model and in-situ measurements Keywords:


provides the structures of barotropic tides, tidal circulation and their relationship ⋅ Hydrodynamic
with turbulent mixing in the Java Sea, which allow us to understand the impact of the model,
tides on material distribution. The model retains high horizontal and vertical resolu- ⋅ barotropic tides,
⋅ Java Sea,
tions and is forced by the boundary conditions taken from a global model. The meas-
⋅ resonance,
urements are composed of the sea level at coastal stations and currents at moorings
⋅ tidal energy,
embedded in Seawatch buoys, in addition to hydrographic data. The simulated tidal ⋅ residual currents,
elevations are in good agreement with the data for the K1 and M2 constituents. The ⋅ tidal mixing.
K 1 tide clearly shows the lowest mode resonance in the Java Sea with intensification
around the nodal point in the central region. The M2 tide is secondary and propa-
gates westward from the eastern open boundary, along with a counterclockwise
amphidromic point in the western part. The K1 tide produces a major component of
tidal energy, which flows westward and dissipates through the node region near the
Karimata Strait. Meanwhile, the M 2 tide dissipates in the entire Java Sea. However,
the residual currents are mainly induced by the M2 tide, which flows westward fol-
lowing the M 2 tidal wave propagation. The tidal mixing is mainly caused by K1 tide
which peaks at the central region and is consistent with the uniform temperature and
salinity along the vertical dimension. This mixing is expected to play an important
role in the vertical exchange of nutrients and control of biological productivity.

1. Introduction east Sumatra to more than 60 m in its eastern part. Mor-


In common with many shelf or coastal waters, the phologically, the Java Sea is roughly rectangular, with
Java Sea is under growing stress from various human mean depth, length and width of 50 m, 950 km and 440
demands. Talaue-McManus (2000) showed that wastes km, respectively. In the northern open boundary, the Java
from domestic, agricultural and industrial sources, along Sea is linked with three straits: Karimata, Gaspar and
with sediments and solid wastes are the major sources of Bangka. The eastern and western open boundaries are
pollutants that impinge on coastal systems. A better un- connected with the Flores Sea and Sunda Strait, respec-
derstanding of physical processes is of great importance tively.
for successful management of the coastal and marine en- Several earlier studies have been published on tides
vironment. and tidal currents in the Indonesian seas, with a short re-
The Java Sea is located in the middle of three main view of the Java Sea region. Wyrtki (1961) presented a
islands in the Indonesian archipelago: Kalimantan, Java qualitative understanding of these phenomena in South-
and Sumatra (Fig. 1). The Java Sea is a shallow water east Asian waters, based on tide gauges and current me-
where depths increase from 20 m off the coast of south- ters. Related to Indonesian throughflow exchange proc-
esses, Hatayama et al. (1996) comprehensively reported
tides, tidal currents and the influence of tidal mixing in
the Indonesian seas using a two-dimensional hydrody-
* Corresponding author. E-mail: alan@ipb.ac.id namic model and several tide gauge observations. Schiller
Copyright©The Oceanographic Society of Japan/TERRAPUB/Springer (2004) then improved our understanding of the mixing

61
Fig. 1. Model domain and observation locations. The 11 tide gauges (denoted by number) are Belitung (1), Kota Waringin (2),
Sampit (3), Barito (4), Pari Island (5), Jakarta (6), Cirebon (7), Semarang (8), Surabaya (9), Kali Anget (10) and Meneng (11).
The seven mooring buoys for velocity data (denoted by asterisk) are SW50, SW51, SW52, SW53, SW54, SW55, and SW60
which deployed at around 2 m depth.

processes in the Indonesian throughflow region using a predominantly diurnal tide in the Java Sea is related to
three-dimensional ocean general circulation model for the behavior of tidal propagation from the adjacent seas.
long-term simulations. The recent study of tides in the The semi-diurnal tidal wave entering the Java Sea is weak
Indonesian seas was briefly reported by Ray et al. (2005) due to the effect of deflection of a northward tidal wave
using co-amplitude and co-phase charts based on the data from the Indian Ocean in the Flores Sea. Moreover, a
assimilation work of Egbert and Erofeeva (2002). smaller part of the deflected wave advances further into
A notable feature of the Java Sea tides compared with the Makassar Strait and meets with the wave from the
the adjacent deep ocean is the dominance of the diurnal Pacific Ocean. On the other hand, the stronger diurnal
over semi-diurnal constituents. This is in contrast with tidal wave from the Pacific Ocean is able to penetrate
the Pacific and Indian Oceans, where the tides are pre- into the Flores Sea to meet with waves from the Indian
dominantly semi-diurnal. Wyrtki (1961) reported that the Ocean through the Lesser Sunda Islands and Timor Sea.

62 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


Table 1. Cases study of numerical experiment.

Case study Tidal constituent Purpose


F8 O1, K1, M 2, S2, P1, Q1, N2 and K2 Sensitivity of the K 1 and M 2 tides (amplitude and phase) to the open boundary
related to nonlinear effect
F4 O1, K1, M2 and S2
F2 K1 and M2

K1 tide K1 Calculation of tidal energy flow, residual current and mixing quantities
M2 tide M2

There, the two waves are refracted and enter the Java Sea. stituents, as well as their residual currents. Section 6 fo-
These phenomena were also reported by Ray et al. (2005) cuses on the contribution of the dominant constituent to
using a data assimilation technique. However, Hoitink turbulent mixing. A summary and discussion are presented
(2003) and Ali (1992) showed model results about an in- in Section 7.
dication of the resonance that may cause the dominance
of K1 tide in the Java Sea. 2. Hydrodynamic Model
Tidal currents induce vertical mixing, particularly in This study of the tidal effect in the Java Sea is pre-
a shallow region. Hatayama et al. (1996) used the Simpson ceded by several numerical model studies regarding tides
index (Simpson et al., 1978) to analyze the role of tidal of the Indonesian seas. Hatayama et al. (1996) applied a
currents in the intensification of vertical mixing in the global tidal equation to a two-dimensional hydrodynamic
Indonesian seas. Similar to Schiller (2004), who used the model with 5′ by 5′ grid resolution. Their two-dimen-
three-dimension model, Hatayama et al. (1996) discussed sional, high resolution approach described tides and tidal
an indication of tidal mixing in several shallow regions circulation on the entire Indonesian seas, with only a
including the Java Sea. However, since they focused on moderate result compared to field observations, even us-
the entire Indonesian sea, the particular phenomena con- ing high resolution. The standard deviations for the M2
cerning diurnal and semi-diurnal propagation and its tur- constituent between data and model are 13.71 cm and
bulent quantities in the Java Sea need a more detailed 22.12° for amplitude and phase, respectively. On the other
description and closer examination of their mechanisms. hand, the K1 constituent has standard deviations of 10.16
The present paper combines recent in-situ measure- cm and 18.30° for amplitude and phase, respectively.
ments with a three-dimensional primitive equation nu- Since the bathymetric data are important in a regional
merical model to verify model performance by compar- tidal model (Kantha and Clayson, 2000), their model had
ing its results with observed elevation and currents. We a mean depth of the Java Sea less than 30 m and needed
also aim to describe and map the major tidal constitu- improvement in bathymetry.
ents, and to examine the tidal circulation and its relation- Another model was presented by Schiller (2004),
ship with turbulent mixing in the Java Sea. In addition, who used an ocean general circulation model with 0.5°
the hydrographic data are used to reveal the structures of by 0.33° grid resolution. This coarse grid model underes-
temperature and salinity related to the tidal mixing. timates tides measured at coastal tide gauge stations. On
The arrangement of this paper is as follows: we be- the other hand, Setiawan (2000) reported an operational
gin Section 2 with an introduction of the hydrodynamic three-dimensional model as part of the Seawatch program
model and discuss how it is driven at the open bounda- of Indonesia. The model used 10′ by 10′ grid resolution
ries by barotropic tides in the global model. Section 3 and covered the whole Sunda Shelf combined with the
then describes the observations of coastal sea level and Makassar Strait and Flores Sea. However, there is a dis-
currents, analyzing the barotropic tides by standard meth- crepancy between the model results and current data col-
ods. The modeled tidal elevation of co-amplitude and co- lected from the Seawatch buoys, which may be due to the
phase, and their comparison with the in-situ data for di- coarse resolution of the model, which ignores detailed
urnal and semi-diurnal constituents are described in Sec- bathymetry and the near-coastline to inter-channel loca-
tion 4, in which we also report a dedicated numerical ex- tions of the buoys.
periment on different tidal forcing at the open boundary The most important input to a barotropic tidal model
and nonlinear interactions among the constituents. for a small shallow region is the bottom topography
Modeled tidal current ellipses and their comparison with (Kantha and Clayson, 2000). Our model therefore uses a
field observations are described in Section 5. In order to relatively high resolution of 2′ by 2′ grid size. The
further describe the behavior of tidal propagation, we use bathymetry adopted by the model is taken from the World
the model to calculate tidal energy of the main tidal con- Ocean Topography Data (ETOPO2). However, this dataset

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 63


Table 2(a). Comparison of observed and modeled tidal elevation at reference sites forced by the eight tidal constituents (case F8).

Station Amplitude-H (cm) Phase-Ø (°G)


Observed Modeled ∆H Observed Modeled ∆Ø

O1
Belitung 1 ) 42 39.44 2.56 341.40 345.94 –4.54
Kota Waringin 1 ) 16 21.75 –5.75 131.40 246.27 –114.87
Sampit B. 1 ) 31 29.33 1.67 166.40 213.33 –46.93
Barito R. 1 ) 33 26.83 6.17 169.46 206.32 –36.86
Pari 2 ) 12.21 21.02 –8.81 8.89 (+360) 326.51 42.38
Jakarta3 ) 13.75 23.08 –9.33 25.32 (+360) 326.14 59.18
Cirebon 1 ) 5 27.51 –22.51 57.40 (+360) 277.12 140.28
Semarang 1 ) 8 26.83 –18.83 134.40 260.94 –126.54
Surabaya3 ) 14.85 25.99 –11.14 167.13 187.89 –20.76
Kali Anget 1 ) 24 23.67 0.33 161.40 167.71 –6.31
Meneng 2 ) 19.35 18.4 0.95 158.45 165.9 –7.45

K1
Belitung 1 ) 72 65.63 6.37 33.71 42.86 –9.15
Kota Waringin 1 ) 36 29.55 6.45 220.71 240.65 –19.94
Sampit B. 1 ) 60 66.13 –6.13 230.71 231.1 –0.39
Barito R. 1 ) 64 65.33 –1.33 219.67 236.30 –16.63
Pari 2 ) 21.29 29.40 –8.11 18.82 62.44 –43.62
Jakarta3 ) 25.17 31.37 –6.2 34.73 59.21 –24.48
Cirebon 1 ) 14 16.23 –2.23 302.71 309.32 –6.61
Semarang 1 ) 22 23.25 –1.25 247.71 267.35 –19.64
Surabaya3 ) 33.69 49.01 –15.32 204.35 213.24 –8.89
Kali Anget 1 ) 42 42.1 –0.1 193.71 198.09 –4.38
Meneng 2 ) 30.95 30.94 0.01 176.59 189.78 –13.19

M2
Belitung 1 ) 8 6.49 1.51 224.11 225.9 –1.79
Kota Waringin 1 ) 22 21.34 0.66 335.11 324.11 11
Sampit B. 1 ) 49 42.5 6.5 306.11 293.53 12.58
Barito R. 1 ) 34 28.24 5.76 279.13 291.93 –12.8
Pari 2 ) 1.76 4.76 –3 91.89 92.22 –0.33
Jakarta3 ) 5.41 7.26 –1.85 140.85 125.32 15.53
Cirebon 1 ) 16 16.69 –0.69 101.11 102.01 –0.9
Semarang 1 ) 10 10.11 –0.11 55.11 73.04 –17.93
Surabaya3 ) 35.04 43.90 –8.86 115.06 112.94 2.12
Kali Anget 1 ) 39 45.55 –6.55 111.11 106.82 4.29
Meneng 2 ) 45.88 45.1 0.78 77.54 70.98 6.56

S2
Belitung 1 ) 7 8.71 –1.71 175 173.05 1.95
Kota Waringin 1 ) 6 8.71 –2.71 266 313.68 –47.68
Sampit B. 1 ) 11 15.26 –4.26 203 271.39 –68.39
Barito R. 1 ) 5 13.25 –8.25 201 282.13 –81.13
Pari 2 ) 3.04 4.6 –1.56 54.74 89.44 –34.7
Jakarta3 ) 5.04 4.45 0.59 78.80 102.12 –23.32
Cirebon 1 ) 10 4.39 5.61 327 56.98 (+360) –89.98
Semarang 1 ) 8 3.91 4.09 307 24.33 (+360) –77.33
Surabaya3 ) 20.67 28.87 –8.2 123.69 120.34 3.35
Kali Anget 1 ) 19 26.43 –7.43 118 111.83 6.17
Meneng 2 ) 22.52 27.43 –4.91 111.18 96.82 14.36

64 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


Table 2(b). Comparison of observed and modeled tidal elevation at reference sites forced by the two tidal constituents (case F2).

Station Amplitude-H (cm) Phase-Ø (°G)


Observed Modeled ∆H Observed Modeled ∆Ø
K1
Belitung 1 ) 72 59.48 12.52 33.71 31.49 2.22
Kota Waringin 1 ) 36 28.39 7.61 220.71 227.55 –6.84
Sampit B. 1 ) 60 62.03 –2.03 230.71 218.26 12.45
Barito R. 1 ) 64 63.65 0.35 219.67 222.26 –2.59
Pari 2 ) 21.29 26.40 –5.11 18.82 41.43 –22.61
Jakarta3 ) 25.17 28.69 –3.52 34.73 38.76 –4.03
Cirebon 1 ) 14 16.64 –2.64 302.71 292.75 9.96
Semarang 1 ) 22 23.21 –1.21 247.71 254.60 –6.89
Surabaya3 ) 33.69 44.98 –11.29 204.35 201.41 2.94
Kali Anget 1 ) 42 38.18 3.82 193.71 186.27 7.44
Meneng 2 ) 30.95 28.09 2.86 176.59 177.87 –1.28

M2
Belitung 1 ) 8 6.63 1.37 224.11 222.90 1.21
Kota Waringin 1 ) 22 22.05 –0.05 335.11 320.60 14.51
Sampit B. 1 ) 49 45.42 3.58 306.11 290.25 15.86
Barito R. 1 ) 34 31.07 2.93 279.13 281.68 –2.55
Pari 2 ) 1.76 4.88 –3.12 91.89 91.68 0.21
Jakarta3 ) 5.41 7.36 –1.95 140.85 123.67 17.18
Cirebon 1 ) 16 19.07 –3.07 101.11 96.53 4.58
Semarang 1 ) 10 12.42 –2.42 55.11 69.76 –14.65
Surabaya3 ) 35.04 43.44 –8.4 115.06 109.72 5.34
Kali Anget 1 ) 39 45.44 –6.44 111.11 104.65 6.46
Meneng 2 ) 45.88 45.67 0.21 77.54 69.58 7.96

1)
Tidal constituents from Tide Table, DISHIDROS TNI-AL, Indonesia.
2)
Tidal constituents based on hourly data from UHSLC Hawaii (contributed by Center for Oceanological Research and
Development, Indonesia).
3)
Tidal constituents based on hourly data from UHSLC Hawai (contributed by BAKOSURTANAL, Indonesia).

is inaccurate in the central and coastal regions of the Java (Fig. 1). Along the vertical, the domain is divided into 21
Sea, and hence we corrected it by incorporating the unequal sigma levels (σ = 0 at the sea surface and –1 at
bathymetry chart of the Java Sea (map no. 66, edition the sea bottom), with higher resolution near the bottom
1991) from DISHIDROS TNI-AL (Hydro-Oceanographic to resolve the bottom boundary layer. The four sigma lay-
Division of Indonesian Navy). We set up a grid manually ers nearest the bottom are σ = –0.929, –0.964, –0.982,
in the naval charts, where the gridded data of ETOPO2 and –0.991. Note that the bottom stress and friction ve-
were adjusted with the charts. In this case, we just fo- locity in the present sigma coordinate model are calcu-
cused on the extreme value, which we found in the cen- lated using the currents and the drag coefficients at the
tral part and near-coastal region. lowest current level, which is depth-dependent. Bottom
The hydrodynamic model used here is the Princeton stress is obtained by a quadratic drag law in which the
Ocean Model (POM), a three-dimensional, nonlinear, drag coefficient is calculated on the basis of a specified
primitive equation model with Boussinesq and hydrostatic (0.01 m) bottom roughness length. The model has a total
approximations (Blumberg and Mellor, 1987). POM has of 270 × 166 × 21 grid points, and the time step for the
been applied to many oceanic regions, and the most re- external mode is 10 s.
cent tidal application to a regional model was reported in In this study, water density is assumed to be homo-
detail by He and Weisberg (2002). Our model uses a Car- geneous. The vertical eddy viscosity is computed using
tesian coordinate system in the horizontal and a sigma the Mellor and Yamada (1982) level-2.5 turbulent clo-
coordinate system in the vertical. The model domain cov- sure scheme. The horizontal eddy viscosity is calculated
ers from 2°42′ to 8°14′ S and from 105°42′ to 114°42′ E using the shear-dependent Smagorinsky formulation

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 65


Table 3. The amplitude ratio between the principal diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, and tidal type.

Tide gauge stations Ratio of (O1 + K1 )/(M2 + S2 ) Tidal type


Belitung 7.60 Diurnal
Kota Waringin 1.86 Mixed tide, mainly diurnal
Sampit 1.52 Mixed tide, mainly diurnal
Barito 2.49 Mixed tide, mainly diurnal
Pari 6.98 Diurnal
Jakarta 3.72 Diurnal
Cirebon 0.73 Mixed tide, mainly semi-diurnal
Semarang 1.67 Mixed tide, mainly diurnal
Surabaya 1.30 Mixed tide, mainly semi-diurnal
Kali Anget 1.14 Mixed tide, mainly semi-diurnal
Meneng 0.74 Mixed tide, mainly semi-diurnal

(Smagorinsky, 1963) with a coefficient of 0.2. The tidal (St. 11). However, only four stations provide hourly tidal
forcing of the model is imposed at the open boundaries elevation data records, namely: Pari Island, Jakarta,
facing the eastern part, the northern part at Karimata and Surabaya, and Meneng. The hourly data were taken from
Gaspar Straits, and the western part at Sunda Strait. Tidal the Joint Archive for Sea Level of the University of Ha-
elevations are specified by linear interpolation of the out- waii, contributed by BAKOSURTANAL (National Coor-
put from the global tidal model ORI.96 with assimilated dinating Agency for Surveys and Mapping, Indonesia) and
TOPEX/Posseidon altimeter data (Matsumoto et al., P2O-LIPI (Research Center for Oceanography, Indone-
1996). This barotropic model has 0.5° × 0.5° resolution sia). The other seven tide gauges predicted the amplitude
and provides eight tidal constituents (M2, S 2, N2, K2, K1, and phase of the four main tidal constituents O1, K1, M2
O1, P 1, Q 1). As a special boundary in the narrow Bangka and S2. This information is available from the Tide Table
Strait, there are no data in the global model, nor field of Indonesian Archipelago 2003 provided by DISHIDROS
observations. Hence, we use a radiation boundary condi- TNI-AL. The velocity data were taken from current me-
tion. ters attached to around 2 m-depth buoys, which are trans-
The case study is designed with several cases, as mitted in real time to the ground station via satellite. The
summarized in Table 1. The particular objectives are to seven buoys were deployed by the Agency for the As-
test several numbers of tidal constituents for open bound- sessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), Indo-
ary forcing in order to understand the response of each nesia, in collaboration with Oceanor, Norway, and
case under the nonlinear effects. Tidal elevation and cur- Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia, through the
rent were computed by integrating the model forward in Indonesian Seawatch Program, 1996–2000.
time. From an initial state of rest the basin is then sub- The sea level data were analyzed using the least
jected to forcing of cases along the open boundaries. We squares method in MATLAB, referred to as the t_tide
choose a 10-day spin-up period, which is judged to be program (Pawlowicz et al., 2002). This program is simi-
sufficient for the model to become independent of the lar to the FORTRAN code described by Godin (1972),
initial condition. The subsequent 60-day output is then Foreman (1977), and Foreman (1978). However, unlike
analyzed using harmonic analysis to retrieve the indi- those authors, the t_tide program directly uses complex
vidual constituent amplitude and phase distributions over algebra rather than dealing with sine and cosine separately.
the model domain. Especially for the individual case of The analysis includes as many as 146 possible tidal con-
K1 and M2 tides in Table 1, we analyzed the root-mean- stituents, 45 of them being astronomical in origin while
square (RMS) value over fifty tidal cycles, after the spin- the remaining 101 are shallow water constituents.
up period. The four tide gauges of Pari Island, Jakarta, Surabaya
and Meneng generally differed in terms of record length
3. Observational Data and initial time. The records were collected at different
The observations were taken from eleven tide gauges periods from 1984 and 1990. We generally used the en-
and seven current meter mooring buoys (Fig. 1). The tire record length available at each site, which varied from
eleven tide gauges are referred to as Belitung (St. 1), Kota one to two years. Since Surabaya station is located in a
Waringin (St. 2), Sampit (St. 3), Barito (St. 4), Pari Is- narrow passage of Madura Strait, we only consider the
land (St. 5), Jakarta (St. 6), Cirebon (St. 7), Semarang observed tidal elevation with the low-frequency variations
(St. 8), Surabaya (St. 9), Kali Anget (St. 10) and Meneng removed (period of 27 hours). The tidal harmonic analy-

66 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


Table 4. Description of the SEAWATCH hourly observed data.

Station Period Record length Gap numbers


(hours) (hours)
Tanjung Karawang (SW50) June 1997–May 1998 8760 366
Pluit (SW51) November 1996–February 1997 1607 225
Jepara (SW52) February–April 1998 1528 99
Bawean (SW53) November 1998 275 0
Masalembo (SW54) October–November 1998 322 0
P. Kelapa (SW55) November 1998–January 1999 1030 5
Indramayu (SW60) April–July 2000 1872 265

sis indicated that tides with eight principal constituents M2 current is weaker. Its amplitude tends to increase in
(O1, K1, M2, S2, P1, Q 1, N2 and K2) explain about 71.4%, the eastern and western parts of the Java Sea.
83.0%, 82.2% and 90.1% of the total variance of the ob-
served tide gauges at Pari Island, Jakarta, Surabaya and 4. Modeled Tidal Elevation
Meneng, respectively. If we consider the original data
record of Surabaya Station, the eight principal constitu- 4.1 Co-amplitude and co-phase
ents explain 39% of the variance. This could be improved Figure 2 presents the co-amplitude and co-phase
to 45% by including as many tidal constituents as possi- charts of the modeled diurnal (O1 and K1) and semi-diur-
ble, such as the shallow water tidal constituents. nal (M2 and S2) constituents, respectively. We used case
We focus on the four main tidal constituents (O1, K1, F8 for this application. In general, our simulation shows
M2 and S2) only. The amplitudes and phases (relative to that diurnal and semi-diurnal tides propagate westward
the Greenwich meridian) for the eleven tide gauge sta- parallel to the closed boundary i.e., the northern coast of
tions are summarized in Table 2(a). We note that the di- Java and southern coast of Kalimantan. These tides are
urnal tides in the western and eastern parts are larger than then deflected to the northerly direction in the western
those in the central part, whereas the semi-diurnal tides part of the Java Sea. Wyrtki (1961) reported that the diur-
are larger in the eastern part of the Java Sea. The M2 tide nal tide from the Java Sea meets the wave from the South
in particular peaks around the southern coast of China Sea in the Gaspar and Karimata Straits. Meanwhile,
Kalimantan. The ratio between amplitudes of the princi- the semi-diurnal tide penetrates further to the north and
pal diurnal and semi-diurnal tide constituents, (O1 + K1)/ merges in the west of Kalimantan Island with those from
(M2 + S2), and tidal type for the eleven tide gauge sta- the South China Sea. Especially for the M2 tide, Hatayama
tions are shown in Table 3. The Java Sea tidal regime is et al. (1996) found similar behavior to that reported by
generally characterized as mixed tide having a main di- Wyrtki (1961).
urnal signal. Semi-diurnal tides mostly cover the south- Hence, we present the specific propagation of the
eastern part of the Java Sea. four tidal constituents and their specific responses, re-
Similar to sea level, the analysis of velocity data was lated to the dimension of Java Sea basin and bottom fric-
also conducted using the least squares method of the t_tide tion. The co-amplitude and co-phase of K1 tide show that
program (Pawlowicz et al., 2002). The seven buoys were the tidal wave propagates slower and decreases its am-
generally not co-deployed, and the transmitting system plitude in the central part of the Java Sea. This is typical
from the buoys to the ground station was sometimes shut of a standing wave. The phase difference between the
down due to weather disturbances. Furthermore, the tidal eastern and western parts is about 12 hours. Therefore,
current data were not collected during the same period when the flood condition occurs in the eastern part, the
and their records varied from two weeks to one year (Ta- ebb condition occurs in the western part and vice versa.
ble 4). This phenomenon indicates a node in the central part and
The result of the harmonic analysis showed that the antinodes in the eastern and western parts of the Java Sea,
overall observed tidal currents in the Java Sea vary be- supporting co-oscillation tides or a resonance effect. The
tween 13–61 cm/s. In this case, the analysis has included amplitudes and phases of co-oscillation tides depend on
as many tidal constituents as possible. In addition, these the closeness of a resonance frequency to one of the tidal
tidal currents are faster near the coastline than the off- frequencies. Since the Java Sea is nearly a rectangular
shore regions. Among the principal constituents, K1 cur- basin with a length of 950 km and a depth of 50 m, the
rent is the strongest, with the highest amplitude in the basin’s period of resonance is estimated to be 23.8 hours.
central part (SW50) of the Java Sea. On the other hand, The period of the Java Sea basin is very close to the K1

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 67


K1 M2

O1 S2

Fig. 2. Modeled co-amplitude and co-phase (relative to the Greenwich meridian) distribution for K 1, O 1, M2 and S2 tidal constitu-
ents, case F8. Solid (dashed) lines denote amplitude (phase) with contour intervals 15° and 30° for diurnal and semi-diurnal
tides, respectively.

constituent’s period of 23.9 hours, and is thus responsi- solid boundary and amplification in the southeast coast
ble for the resonance in the Java Sea. The node and of Kalimantan Island. Hence, the amplitudes increase up
antinodes of the K 1 tide are also shown in the data-as- to 40 cm and 15 cm for M2 and S 2 tides, respectively. The
similation results (Ray et al., 2005), where the position M2 features are similar to those presented by Ray et al.
of the zero degree phase is similar to the present one. Our (2005). The effect of wave refraction in shallow water
model result of co-oscillation tides is also similar with (due to decreases in the propagation speed and the wave-
those models of Hoitink (2003) and Ali (1992). length) has an important role in the wave amplification.
Similar to the K1 tide, the O1 tide shows a standing The M2 tide presents a counterclockwise amphidromic
wave in the western part caused by a solid boundary and point near the Sunda Strait region, quite similar to that
progressively deflected to the north through Karimata reported by Ray et al. (2005). In this case, the westward
Strait. A node region is clearly revealed in Karimata Strait, M2 tide meets with a penetrating wave from the Indian
caused by its narrow passage. However, the simulated O1 Ocean via Sunda Strait.
tide propagation does not resolve the same phenomenon Unlike M2, the S2 tide shows more complicated wave
of resonance with the K1 tide, even though they are simi- propagation behavior due to the incoming wave through
lar diurnal tides. The longer period of 25.8 hours may be Karimata and Sunda Straits. There are two amphidromic
responsible for the O1 tide reaching further north. points of the S2 tide. The first one is located near Karimata
The modeled semi-diurnal (M2 and S2) tides show Strait and is caused by the incoming S 2 tide through
more progressive waves in the eastern part of the Java Karimata Strait, where it meets with the progressive wave
Sea, standing waves in the western part caused by the from the eastern part of the Java Sea to produce a clock-

68 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


wise amphidromic point. The other one is an anticlock- still some discrepancies for the K1 tide; e.g., at Pari Is-
wise amphidromic, located near the east coast of Java Is- land the phase difference is more than 1 hour, while at
land and Madura Island. The anticlockwise amphidromic Belitung and Surabaya there is an amplitude difference
point is caused by the refraction effect due to interac- of more than 10 cm. The discrepancies in these stations
tions between wave propagation from the southeastern are difficult to avoid since they are located in very nar-
part and Madura Island. In general, the semi-diurnal tides row passages. Both amplitude and phase differences have
are smaller than the diurnal tides. equal positive and negative values, indicating that the
modeled tides are not biased.
4.2 Case study with different tidal forcing Unlike coastal tide gauge data, tidal propagation over
The present model is forced by tidal elevation at the the Java Sea shows a discrepancy in phase caused by the
open boundary, so the boundary condition is the key to different tidal forcing. We now focus on comparison be-
the model results (Davies and Hall, 1998; Davies et al., tween cases F8 and F2 for K1 and M2 tides. The K1 tide
2004). The main tidal constituents (K1 and M2) are more shows that the central and western parts of the Java Sea
reliable than the others (O1, K1, M2, S2, P1, Q1, N2, K2). If have a phase difference of about 1 hour, while the other
the nonlinear effect of one constituent on others is treated regions are below 1 hour. On the other hand, the M2 tide
as negligible, we would be able to separate the effect of shows a phase difference of about 1 hour in regions near
each constituent. However, the Java Sea is small and shal- Sunda Strait at the western part and northern coast along
low with complex bottom topography, so nonlinear ef- east Java and Madura Islands. Therefore, the sensitive
fects may be important. Westerink et al. (1989) found that regions related to the different tidal forcing are affected
secondary nonlinear interactions between the astronomi- by the behavior of specific tidal constituents. In this case,
cal and the shallow water tides can significantly affect the K1 tide has a resonance effect or node region in the
overtides, compound tides and even astronomical tides. central part and incident wave in the solid boundary of
In this section we take a closer look at the sensitivity of the western part of the Java Sea. The M 2 tide has an
K1 and M2 to the open boundary condition by investigat- amphidromic point near Sunda Strait and another
ing the three cases (F2, F4 and F8) shown in Table 1. amphidromic point is indicated near the northern coast
Table 2(a) provides comparisons of amplitudes and along east Java and Madura Islands.
phases between model results and observed elevations of In summary, the three cases of tidal forcing can be
O1, K 1, M2 and S2 at the eleven coastal tide gauge sta- used to explain the behavior of tidal elevation in the Java
tions, for case F8. Amplitude differences of all four con- Sea. However, we cannot justify any one of them due to
stituents are generally less than 10 cm, the exceptions the limited observations available. The important point
being Cirebon (O1 tide), Semarang (O1 tide) and Surabaya is to determine what magnitude of tidal current will yield
(O1 and K1 tides). Most phase differences in M 2 are less tidal mixing and residual current. In the next section we
than 1 hour (or 28.98°). However, the other three con- focus on whether there is any significant difference in
stituents have several stations with more than 1 hour de- current magnitudes among these three cases.
viations in phase, which are especially large in O1 and
S2. RMS values of phase differences of constituents O1, 5. Modeled Flow Pattern
K1, M2 and S2 are 72.79° (5 hours 13.33 min), 18.98° (1
hour 15.71 min), 9.89° (20.48 min) and 51.89° (1 hour 5.1 Tidal currents
43.78 min), respectively. Comparative analyses showed Since the results of the three cases F8, F4 and F2 are
that M2 tide has better results while K1 tide seems to be fundamentally consistent with each other, we focus our
moderate. examination on tidal currents associated with K1 and M2
The comparisons of amplitudes and phases for case in case F2 and compare K1 between cases F2 and F8. Fig-
F4 (table not shown) are almost similar to case F8, espe- ure 3 compares the surface tidal current ellipses for the
cially for O1, M 2 and S 2. However, K1 tide is improved K1 and M 2 tides, at the mooring buoy locations shown in
with an RMS value of phase difference of 11.63° (46.41 Fig. 1. In this figure, a line within each ellipse represents
min). There are two K1 tide stations which have a phase the direction of a current vector at maximum flood tide,
difference of more than one hour (Pari Island and Jakarta), and the arrow attached to the tip of this line indicates the
and an amplitude difference of more than 10 cm (Belitung- direction of the current vector rotation. Qualitatively, the
11.89 cm, Surabaya-11.72 cm). comparisons are most reasonable for both K1 and M 2 tidal
The results of our experiment for case F2 are sum- currents. There are two stations (SW51 and SW60) for
marized in Table 2(b). The M2 tide is almost similar to the calculated K1 tidal currents, and one station (SW54)
the previous results for the other two cases. The analysis for the calculated M2 tidal current, which have opposite
shows the best results for the K 1 tide, which has a phase semi-major axis to the observed data.
difference of 9.31° (or 37.14 min). However, there are The differences between model results and the ob-

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 69


Fig. 3. Comparison between field observations (full line) and model results (dashed line) for K 1 and M2 tidal currents, case F2.

served semi-major axes of K 1 and M2 are in general less orientations of major axes of tidal ellipses almost con-
than 10 cm/s. There are a few exceptions however; e.g. at verge to the southern coast of Kalimantan. The spatial
SW60 the difference is 20.59 cm/s for K1, and at SW55 it pattern of tidal ellipses near the bottom (Fig. 4(b)) is simi-
is 13.53 cm/s for M2. The differences in semi-minor axes lar to that of the surface, but the magnitude of the bottom
of K 1 and M 2 are less than 3 cm/s. Inequality in orienta- current is significantly reduced by bottom friction.
tion is generally less than 15° except at SW51, where it In general, the results of the model show that the
is 138.28°, and at SW60, where it is 161.80° for K1, and current magnitude of K1 near the surface varies between
at SW54, where it is 73.74° for M2. On the other hand, 10 and 60 cm/s. The calculated K1 tidal ellipses show
the phases of tidal ellipses do not agree well with the strong tidal currents in the central part (node region) and
observations. The calculated RMS values are 64.17° and narrow passages, where the maximum current magnitude
112.52° for K1 and M2, respectively. It is not, however, at the surface reaches 40–60 cm/s. The intensification of
surprising that the model should have such discrepancies K1 tidal current in the node region can be explained in
from observations since the moorings are located very terms of a small elevation in the middle of the antinode
near the coastline or between small islands that were not regions, thus triggering large currents. The intensifica-
properly resolved by the model domain. tion of K1 tidal current in the central part is therefore
The calculated K1 tidal ellipses at the sea surface caused by the co-oscillation tides. Han (2000) found such
(σ = 0) and the fifth level ( σ = –0.929) above the bottom intensification in the Newfoundland shelf due to a reso-
are shown in Fig. 4. At the surface (Fig. 4(a)) a nearly nance between continental shelf wave and the K1 tide.
rectilinear flow is found along the coast of southeast Pereira et al. (2002) also found similar intensification in
Sumatra. Over the central part of the Java Sea the flow the southern Weddell Sea due to proximity of the critical
patterns are more circular and nearly rectilinear towards latitude for the M2 tide.
the Karimata Strait due to K1 tidal wave deflection. The As shown and described earlier using Fig. 3, if the

70 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


Fig. 3. (continued).

line is located on a semi-major axis, the maximum veloc- the maximum tidal current, reflecting the progressive
ity occurs at the same phase as the maximum flood tide, wave characteristics. On the other hand, the standing wave
reflecting the characteristic of the progressive wave propa- is dominant in the western part.
gation in the direction of the line. On the other hand, if Focusing now on the different cases of tidal forcing
the line is located at the tip of a semi-minor axis, the ve- at the open boundary, Fig. 5 shows the calculated K1 tidal
locity change occurs in advance of elevation by a phase ellipses at the sea surface for case F8. In comparison with
of 90°, reflecting the feature of the standing wave in the case F2 (Fig. 4(a)), the model results have no significant
direction of the semi-major axis. In Fig. 4, K1 tidal el- difference. Therefore case F2 presents a robust solution
lipses are dominated by the standing wave in the western for understanding the intensification of the K1 tidal cur-
and central parts and the progressive wave in the eastern rent in the central region of the Java Sea caused by the
part of the Java Sea. The counterclockwise rotation is resonance effect.
dominant over the central part, while the clockwise rota-
tion occurs in the eastern and western regions. 5.2 Tidal energy flow and residual current
Figure 4(c) shows the calculated M 2 tidal current In this simulation we analyze tidal energy flow and
ellipses at the sea surface. We found that the M2 current its fate in relation to tidal dissipation. The residual cur-
is in most cases weak compared to the K1 current. In gen- rents induced by tides are also calculated since they can
eral, the magnitude of the M2 current varies between 3 transport materials over large distances. This analysis
and 10 cm/s, with the exception of the strong current at considers both the dominant K1 and the less dominant
the narrow passage of Madura Island, which is approxi- M2. The calculated tidal energy flow and residual cur-
mately 70 cm/s. Our model result is similar to those of rents are forced separately by each of these main tidal
Hatayama et al. (1996) and Ray et al. (2005). At the east- constituents (Table 1). We follow Davies and Kwong
ern part, the M2 tidal ellipse orientation is consistent with (2000), and Sheng and Wang (2004) in calculating the

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 71


0.50 m/s

0.50 m/s

Fig. 5. Modeled K 1 tidal ellipse at the surface ( σ = 0) for case


F8. The bold (light) ellipses denote counterclockwise (clock-
wise) circulation.

tidally averaged (time mean) energy flux vectors (here-


after referred to as tidal energy). The formula is

 + v2 
( Ex , Ey ) = ρT0 ∫0T ∫−ηh (u, v)gη + u
2
 dzdt, (1)
 2 

where (Ex, Ey) are eastward and northward components


0.50 m/s
of the energy flux vector, (u, v) are components of the
horizontal velocity vector, η is a surface elevation, ρ0 and
g denote the water density and the acceleration due to
gravity, respectively, h is a water depth, and T is the tide
period.
Figure 6 shows the tidal energy of the K 1 and M2
tides. The tidal energy patterns of K 1 and M2 are almost
similar along the westward direction. However, the tidal
energy inflow of M2 is very small compare to K1. The K1
tidal energy enters the Java Sea from the eastern part with
a magnitude of about 0.4 kW/m. When K1 tidal energy
passes the central part (node region), the energy dissi-
pates very quickly. This corresponds to the low tidal el-
evation of K1 in the node region. On the other hand, the
K1 tidal energy along the northern coast of Java Island is
0.50 m/s
able to penetrate the western region. Similar to K1 tidal
wave propagation, the K1 tidal energy shows an influx in
Gaspar Strait and outflux in Bangka Strait with a large
magnitudes of more than 0.5 kW/m. Small parts of the
Fig. 4. Modeled K 1 tidal ellipse (a) at the surface, σ = 0; (b) at tidal energy influx from Gaspar Strait join the tidal en-
a near-bottom level, σ = –0.929 and modeled M2 tidal el- ergy in the northern coast of Java Island and flow towards
lipse; (c) at the surface, σ = 0 for case F2. The bold (light)
Sunda Strait. The M2 tidal energy is also consistent with
ellipses denote counterclockwise (clockwise) circulation.
its tidal wave propagation. However, the M2 tidal energy
dissipates in the whole Java Sea basin.
Next we calculate the depth-averaged residual flow

72 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


K1 0.5 kW/m K1 5 cm/s

M2 0.5 kW/m
M2 5 cm/s

Fig. 6. Time mean energy flux vectors of K1 and M2 tides cal-


Fig. 7. Depth integrated residual flow calculated from the model
culated from the model results over fifty tidal cycles.
results forced by K1 and M 2 tidal elevation over fifty tidal
cycles.

(hereafter referred to as residual flow) from the model


results using each of K1 and M2 tidal forcings (Table 1), tion and the narrow passages of Karimata/Gaspar Straits,
as shown in Fig. 7. The K1 residual flow shows a very respectively, have large magnitudes of more than 10
complicated flow pattern in the western part with a mag- cm/s. In general the M2 residual flow follows along its
nitude of about 4 cm/s. Strong currents are found in the tidal wave propagation.
narrow passages and several capes with a maximum mag- Following Kantha and Clayson (2000), we consider
nitude of 10 cm/s. The crowded residual flow pattern is a uniform channel of shallow water depth H, with a tidal
probably caused by the incident waves of K1 tide at the current amplitude U and tidal elevation amplitude η. This
solid boundary of Sumatra. At the central part, the K1 configuration is such that the ratio (η/H) is not negligi-
residual flow follows the co-amplitude pattern of K1 tide ble. The transport is proportional to U(H + η) during the
where the water column moves from the high amplitude flood phase and to U(H – η) during the ebb phase. When
in Karimata Strait to the small amplitude in the node re- averaged over a full tidal cycle there is therefore a net
gion. Finally, the K1 residual flow deflects towards the transport proportional to 2Uη and a residual flow of mag-
eastern part with a magnitude of about 0.2 cm/s. nitude 2Uη/H in the direction of propagation. In contrast,
Compared to K1 residual flow, the M2 residual flow we found that the K1 residual flow is mainly opposite to
is generally stronger, except in the western Java Sea. The its tidal wave propagation which comes from the eastern
M2 residual flow shows a clear northwestward flow pat- part. Therefore, the role of co-oscillations tide is impor-
tern with a magnitude of about 0.7 cm/s. Incoming and tant for the residual flow pattern of the K1 tide in the Java
outgoing residual flow located at the southeastern sec- Sea. Here, the residual flow is not in the direction of pro-

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 73


(a)

Fig. 8. RMS value of bottom friction velocity (cm/s) for K1


tide calculated from the model results over fifty tidal cy-
cles.

(b)
gressive wave propagation but follows the reflected wave.
The K 1 residual flow is minor compared with the M2 re-
sidual flow, and hence the role of K1 residual flow in
material transport is not crucial. The present simulated Fig. 9. RMS value of vertical eddy viscosity (m2/s) for K1 tide
M2 residual flow pattern is consistent with that of Schiller calculated from the model results over fifty tidal cycles at
(2004), who calculated the Java Sea residual current based (a) ten meter depth and (b) cross section along 4°S.
on a long term calculation (eight model years) forced by
the eight main tidal constituents. The residual flow pat-
tern in the Java Sea seems to form a part of what he called
the “residual western boundary current” all along the
cu*
coastline of the Asian landmass. δ = , (2 )
(σ + f )
6. Tidal Mixing
In this section we closely examine the calculated tur- where u∗ is the bottom friction velocity, σ is tidal fre-
bulence mixing using bottom stress with a quadratic drag quency of each of K1 and M2, f is the local Coriolis pa-
law. The calculated turbulence mixing is forced separately rameter and c = 0.1–0.4 (Loder and Greenberg, 1986).
by each of the two main tidal constituents, K1 and M2 The friction velocity u∗ is obtained as (τb/ ρ0)1/2. There-
(Table 1). The spatial variations of K1 and M2 bottom fric- fore, the distribution pattern of the bottom boundary layer
tion velocities reflect the spatial variations in the tidal thickness is similar to the bottom friction velocity (fig-
current magnitude (Fig. 8, M 2 is not shown). The bottom ure not shown). Using a low range value of c = 0.1, the
friction velocities for K1 and M2 tides near the eastern thickness of K1 over the central part of the Java Sea is
open boundary and western solid boundary are mostly estimated to be about 45–60 m, and all the narrow pas-
within 1–2 cm/s. Regions with larger K1 bottom friction sages to be about 120 m. In general, the thickness of K1
velocity are associated with the stronger K1 tidal currents for the whole Java Sea bottom layer is about 20–30 m.
in the central part of the Java Sea and narrow passages. However, the thickness for M2 is about one-tenth of K1
In particular, the range of K1 bottom friction velocity in in the central part and one-third of K1 near the eastern
the central part varies within the range of 3–6 cm/s, while open boundary and western solid boundary. The smaller
that of M2 is about one-tenth of K1. value of M2 is related to its tidal frequency in the de-
Given the bottom friction velocity, we can estimate nominator of Eq. (2). Consequently, tidal mixing alone
the thickness of the bottom boundary layer or Ekman layer seems sufficient to mix the water column, especially in
thickness. We follow He and Weisberg (2002) to estimate the central region of the Java Sea.
the Ekman layer thickness (δ ) for steady-state flow re- The height of the log-layer thickness can be estimated
gimes; that is using 0.1δ (Soulsby, 1983; He and Weisberg, 2002). Based

74 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


Track 1

Fig. 10. Hydrographic data profile during southeast monsoon (October 1993), track 1.

on values of the bottom boundary layer thickness, the


z 1/ 2
mean K1 log-layer thickness over the Java Sea is esti- lz = κz1 −  , (3)
 h
mated to be 2–3 m, while the central part and the narrow
passages have greater log-layer thicknesses, in the range
of 4.5–6.0 m. where κ = 0.4 is von Kármán’s constant, h is the total
Since we are concerned with the role of tidal mixing water depth and z is the height above the bottom (Simpson
in vertical exchange of nutrients for future research, we et al., 1996). Figure 9(b) shows the vertical profile of the
analyze the vertical eddy viscosity using the level-2.5 vertical eddy viscosity along 4°S over the Java Sea. The
turbulent closure scheme in Mellor and Yamada (1982). vertical profile is nearly parabolic, which is consistent
Similarly to the bottom friction velocity, we calculated with the simple z-dependent mixing length. The vertical
the RMS value of vertical eddy viscosity using the same profile is also consistent with the horizontal distribution
method (Table 1). In this simulation we only consider the which shows an intensification of tidal mixing in the cen-
K1 tide due to the large bottom boundary layer thickness tral part of the Java Sea. The maximum vertical eddy vis-
compared to the M2 tide. Figure 9(a) shows the horizon- cosity in the central part is 0.025 m2/s. We have no direct
tal distribution of the vertical eddy viscosity at 10 m depth. observations to verify the calculated vertical eddy
Related to the effect of K1 tidal resonance, the vertical viscosities, particularly the large values in the central part.
eddy viscosity also shows intensification in the central As an analogy, we refer to the observed vertical eddy vis-
part of the Java Sea and varies within 0.01–0.02 m2/s. cosity in a tidal channel reported by Lu et al. (2000). The
A simple z-dependent mixing length, lz, is proposed width and depth of the channel are around 1 km and 30
as m, respectively. The observed tidal current at mid-depth

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 75


Track 2

Fig. 11. Hydrographic data profile during southeast monsoon (October 1993), track 2.

varied within 25–100 cm/s. They found that the observed tions, we found that the discrepancies in tidal elevation
vertical eddy viscosity at mid-depth varied within 0.001– are related to the inaccuracies of tidal forcing input along
1 m2/s, with a mean value of about 0.01 m2/s. Thus, our the open boundaries and their nonlinear interactions with
model results are reasonable in comparison to the other other constituents. This was also conclusion of other re-
field observations. searchers, concerned with other basins, e.g. Westerink et
al. (1989); Davies and Hall (1998); and Davies et al.
7. Summary and Discussion (2004). For case F8, some discrepancies in phase of the
We have applied the barotropic model combined with K1 tide were noted at several stations. In this study we do
the field observations to examine the structures of not focus on the specific effects of changes in tidal forc-
barotropic tides, tidal circulation and their relationship ing due to a lack of tidal elevation data along the open
to turbulent mixing in the Java Sea. In general, the simu- boundaries and offshore regions. In addition, compari-
lated tidal elevations for the K1 and M2 constituents are son among the three cases over the Java Sea showed that
in good agreement with in-situ observations, while the the amplitude differences are mostly below 7 cm. Model
O1 and S 2 constituents show notable discrepancies. The results regarding tidal current do not diverge greatly
features of K1 and M2 tides are also similar to previous among these three cases. We can therefore use any of these
reports by Wyrtki (1961), Hatayama et al. (1996), Ray et cases to describe the tidal circulation and turbulent mix-
al. (2005), Hoitink (2003) and Ali (1992). The calculated ing in the Java Sea.
tidal currents are mostly reasonable compared with in- Our model can explain the dominance of the diurnal
situ observations, within observational limitations. tide constituent K1 over the Java Sea, while the adjacent
Based on comparison between model and observa- deep Pacific and Indian Oceans are dominated by semi-

76 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


Track 1

Fig. 12. Hydrographic data profile during northwest monsoon (February/March 1994), track 1.

diurnal components. The previous researches of Wyrtki While the M2 tide is a secondary tide, its residual
(1961) and Ray et al. (2005) explained that, unlike the flow makes a major contribution, especially in the east-
diurnal wave, the semi-diurnal wave is weak when it ern and central regions of the Java Sea. The magnitude
propagates to the Java Sea. The present study, on the other associated with M2 tide is higher than the K1 tide, and the
hand, clearly shows a resonance effect that increases the M2 tide is connected with the long term residual flow in
amplitude of K1 in the Java Sea, as suggested by Hoitink the Indonesian seas, as suggested by Schiller (2004).
(2003) and Ali (1992). This resonance is related to tidal Hence, the major progressive waves of the M2 tide from
current, tidal energy and residual current. For example, the adjacent sea (Flores Sea) through the open boundary
the intensification of tidal current in the node region is are responsible for its residual flow. However, we sug-
influenced by the existence of the tidal resonance, such gest that the dissipation of the M2 tide is mainly caused
that it can enhance the K1 tidal current in the Java Sea. In by the relatively shallow topography of the Java Sea com-
addition, the resonance effect produces unusual patterns pared to the adjacent seas.
of the tidal energy flux and residual currents. Tidal en- The calculated turbulent mixing quantities in the Java
ergy dissipation is not found in shallower parts but mainly Sea revealed the important role of mixing in the region.
in the node region, so that the bottom friction does not The estimated tidal bottom boundary layer (Ekman layer
significantly affect the tidal energy flux of the Java Sea. thickness) significantly exceeds the water depth due to
Meanwhile, the residual current usually follows the tidal the strong tidal current, especially in the central part. An
wave propagation but the role of tidal resonance could exception is found in the deeper eastern part. The inter-
change the residual current pattern to follow the reflected action between a strong tidal current and high tidal bot-
wave in the opposite direction. tom boundary layer is also found in other regions by us-

Modeling of Tidal Circulation and Mixing over the Java Sea 77


Track 2

Fig. 13. Hydrographic data profile during northwest monsoon (February/March 1994), track 2.

ing similar methods, e.g. the region between the Kintyre 1994 (strong northwest monsoon). During the southeast
peninsula and the coast of Ireland (Davies et al., 2004). monsoon, track 1 (Fig. 10) and track 2 (Fig. 11) show
In these regions, the calculated bottom boundary layer that the front appeared at around 110°E and 111°E, and
can exceed 300 m, where water depths are only around the well-mixed water column extended eastward from the
100 m. The Ekman layer thickness is the key to the strati- front. The existence of the front supports the model re-
fication and the transition region (tidal front) between sults on tidal mixing intensification in the central part of
stratified and well-mixed conditions. Consider theoreti- the Java Sea. When the strong northwest monsoon blows,
cally, if the main tidal turbulent boundary layer (in this the front at track 1 (Fig. 12) became wider and showed a
case is K 1 tide) exceeds the water depth, the water col- freshwater penetration from the Sunda shelf at the sur-
umn should remain well mixed. face layer due to river discharge in the rainy season
In order to verify the intensification of tidal mixing (Wyrtki, 1961). Meanwhile, the front at track 2 (Fig. 13)
in the central part, we used the hydrographic data from became weak and was pushed upward until around 113°E
the AARD/ORSTOM Java Sea Small Pelagic Fisheries where the freshwater still appeared in the western part.
Assessment Project 1992–1995 (Durand and Petit, 1997; Thus, the intensification of tidal mixing caused by reso-
Pasaribu et al., 2004). As a part of Southeast Asian wa- nance may play an important role, even under the strong
ters, the Indonesian seas are mostly under the monsoon monsoon in the central Java Sea. Related to the environ-
system with dry and rainy seasons during southeast and mental problems, the intensification of tidal mixing in
northwest monsoons, respectively. We therefore focused the central part could play an important role in vertical
on the data taken between October 8 to 21, 1993 (end of exchange of nutrients and control of biological produc-
southeast monsoon) and February 21, 1994 to March 6, tivity.

78 A. F. Koropitan and M. Ikeda


We realize that our model has some limitations that 58 pp.
may qualify our strong conclusion on tidal mixing. The Foreman, M. G. G. (1978): Manual for Tidal Currents Analysis
important terms may be stratification and baroclinic flow and Prediction. Pacific Marine Science Rep. 78-6, Institute
(internal tides) from Flores Sea, which induce vertical of Ocean Sciences, Patricia Bay, Sidney, BC, Canada, 57
pp.
mixing, as pointed out by Robertson and Ffiled (2005).
Godin, G. (1972): The Analysis of Tides. University of Toronto
Related to the tidal currents, these model results still need
Press, Toronto, 264 pp.
more accurate quantitative estimates. Therefore, a higher Han, G. (2000): Three-dimensional modeling of tidal currents
horizontal resolution is required, especially to resolve and mixing quantities over the Newfoundland shelf. J.
some small islands. Improved performance can also be Geophys. Res., 105(C5), 11,407–11,422.
obtained through more accurate bathymetry. Hatayama, T., T. Awaji and K. Akitomo (1996): Tidal currents
in the Indonesian Seas and their effect on transport and
Acknowledgements mixing. J. Geophys. Res., 101(C5), 12,353–12,373.
We wish to thank Dr. Hary Budiarto and Ms. Ressy He, R. and R. H. Weisberg (2002): Tides on the West Florida
Oktivia of the Seawatch Program, BPPT Indonesia for Shelf. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3455–3473.
providing the hourly current data and Mr. Duto Nugroho Hoitink, A. J. F. (2003): Physics of coral reef systems in a shal-
low tidal embayment. Ph.D. thesis, Royal Dutch Geographi-
of Research Institute for Marine Fisheries, Ministry of
cal Society/Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Utrecht Uni-
Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia for providing the
versity.
hydrographic data. We also thank Dr. Agus Setiawan of Kantha, L. H. and C. A. Clayson (2000): Numerical Models of
BPPT for sharing the code of harmonic analysis embed- Oceans and Oceanic Processes. International Geophysics
ded in the POM, as well as English proofreading by Series, Vol. 66, Academic Press, San Diego, 940 pp.
Takayoshi Ikeda. Comments from two anonymous review- Loder, J. W. and D. A. Greenberg (1986): Predicted positions
ers were also very helpful in improving the manuscript. of tidal fronts in the Gulf of Maine region. Cont. Shelf Res.,
The first author is awarded a scholarship by Ministry of 6, 394–414.
Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Lu, Y., R. G. Lueck and D. Huang (2000): Turbulence charac-
(MEXT), Japan. teristic in a tidal channel. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 855–867.
Matsumoto, K., M. Ooe, T. Sato and J. Segawa (1996): Har-
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