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EXPERIMENT NO.

1
CHARACTERISTICS OF MATTER

Elise Angela H. Espinosa TCD 4, Group # 1, Maam MJ Punzalan


Kyle Maxinne R. Romero 07 January 2014
Denmirson Vivo
I. ABSTRACT
This experiment was divided into three major parts: Part A – Physical Separation of the Components of a
Mixture, Part B – Analysis of the Components of the Mixture, and Part C – Changes in the Components of the
Mixture. Different data were gathered in this experiment. Substances were classified into metals and non-metals
after the experiment had been performed. The difference between physical and chemical change had also been
found out. Last, the differences of reactivity level between different substances were also observed in the
experiment. Also, different laboratory techniques were used in order to obtain the results desired.

II. KEYWORDS: reactions, metals, non-metals, acidic, basic, components

III. INTRODUCTION For this experiment where different substances from


a mixture were separated physically, analyzed and classified,
Matter is anything that occupies space and has several procedures had been performed.
mass. It can be classified according to its composition.
Samples of matter that have a definite composition are called Part A: Physical Separation of the Components of a Mixture
pure substances. Pure substances can be either elements or Iron (Fe) filings, ground mothballs and table salt
compounds depending on the number of constituting were measured and their properties were observed. They
particles. Mixtures, on the other hand, are samples of matter were then mixed in an evaporating dish, together with two
whose composition may vary according to preparation. These strips of Magnesium (Mg) ribbon and a pinch of food coloring.
may be further classified into solutions, colloids, and Afterwards, the mixed dry substances were scattered in a
suspensions based on particle size. The components of pure clean sheet of paper, and then a magnet was passed
substances and mixtures can be separated through physical underneath the paper. The substances that weren’t
or mechanical methods for the latter and chemical techniques magnetized were placed in a 50-mL beaker in order to be
for the former. used for the next procedure.
Thirty milliliters (30mL) of water was added to the
50-mL beaker and the mixture was mixed for a minute with a
Matter can also be classified according to its
glass rod. The mixture was then filtered through the use of a
properties. These properties are determined by its
filter paper, funnel and another beaker. The filtrate was saved
components’ individual properties, and may be physical or
while the residue was transferred into an evaporating dish.
chemical. Metals, nonmetals and metalloids are classified
The set-up for the next procedure was prepared: a
based on their properties. The components of matter may
sheet of perforated filter paper was placed on top of the
also undergo physical or chemical changes. Chemical
evaporating dish with the residue, and then an inverted funnel
changes are those that cause chemical reactions that alter a
with a cotton plug in its tip was placed on top of the filter
substance’s chemical composition.
paper. The set-up was heated until there were deposits on the
The above principles were all considered and
walls of the funnel.
studied in Experiment 1 as it aimed to: (1) identify the different
The filtrate saved was boiled and a pinch of
methods of separating components of a mixture; (2) apply the
activated charcoal was added. The boiling was continued until
laboratory techniques needed for each method of separation;
only 20-mL of the mixture remained. The mixture was filtered
(3) differentiate metals from non-metals; (4) differentiate
and the filtrate was saved in a test tube.
physical from chemical change; and (5) determine the relative
An iodine (I2) crystal was added to 2mL of the filtrate
reactivities of different elements. Fulfillment of these
in a test tube, and then the test tube was shook. Later on,
objectives led to a more detailed and better understanding of
1mL of hexane was added. With a medicine dropper, the
the characteristics of matter, on the part of the students.
different layers were separated into two different evaporating
The objectives were achieved through the division of
dishes. These layers were evaporated under the fume hood.
the experiment into three parts: Part A was focused on the
different physical separation techniques, while Part B was
focused on analyzing the components’ properties. Lastly, Part Part B. Analysis of the Components of the Mixture
C was centered on the changes that the components
underwent. Small amounts of iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), iodine
(I2) and mothballs were placed in four separate test tubes.
IV. METHODOLOGY Afterwards, 10 drops of 0.1M hydrochloric acid (HCl) were
added and the test tubes were immediately covered with
stoppers. Evolution of gas was observed.

CHEM 14.1, Characteristics of Matter Page 1 of 4


A magnesium (Mg) ribbon was heated directly over
Magnesium(Mg)
a lit alcohol lamp until the ribbon burned. The ashes collected
ribbon, food color,
after the ribbon was heated were placed in a test tube.
table salt, activated
Afterwards, 5mL of water was added and then the test tube
charcoal
was shook. Observations were made. Using litmus papers,
acidity or basicity was tested. Adsorption Activated charcoal, Activated
The tip of a glass rod was heated over an alcohol food color, table salt charcoal
lamp for a minute. On the heated tip, a sprinkle of sulfur
powder was placed. The powdered tip was heated and then Sublimation Magnesium(Mg) Magnesium (Mg)
the rod was inserted into a test tube. Fumes were collected ribbon, mothballs ribbon
and then the test tube was covered with a stopper, afterwards.
1mL of water was added and then the acidity or basicity of the Sublimation Magnesium(Mg) Mothballs
solution was tested. ribbon, mothballs

Solvent Food coloring (in Food coloring


Part C. Changes of the Components of the Mixture
extraction & aqueous layer), table
evaporation salt (in hexane layer)
A pinch of Fe, food coloring, table salt and two
iodine crystals were placed separately into 20-mL test tubes. Solvent Food coloring (in Table salt
The test tubes were heated with low flame. The test tubes extraction & aqueous layer), table
were cooled. Necessary observations were done. evaporation salt (in hexane layer)
Small amounts of Fe and Mg were placed into two
Table 2. Components isolated after each method of
separate test tubes. Ten drops of 0.1M HCl were added to
separation
each test tube. Observations for chemical changes were
done.
Part B. Analysis of the Components of the Mixture
Filtrate saved from Part A was placed in an
evaporating dish and was tested with a red litmus paper.
Afterwards, it was evaporated to dryness. Table 3 shows the results when 0.1 M HCl was added to the
substances. Reaction with 0.1 M HCl is useful in determining
V. RESULTS a substance’s metallic character.

Part A. Physical Separation of the Components of a Mixture SUBSTANCE Continuous CLASSIFICATION


evolution of gas (metallic/non-
In Table 1, the colors and textures of the substances used in (+/-) metallic)
the experimented are shown.
Iron (Fe) + Metallic
SUBSTANCE COLOR TEXTURE Magnesium - Non-metallic
(Mg)
Iron (Fe) filings black Coarse; irregular
Naphthalene - Non-metallic
Mothballs White Fine; powder-like
Balls
Table Salt White Crystal-like
Iodine (I2) - Non-metallic
Mg ribbon Silver Smooth Table 3. Reaction of substances with 0.1M HCl

Food color orange Fine


Table 4 shows the reactions of the substances’ oxides and
Table 1. Physical properties of substances their observed alkalinity.

In Table 2, the components, that are isolated from all the


ELEMENT Observation w/ CLASSIFICATION
different substances in the mixture, in each method of
Litmus Paper (BASIC/ACIDIC)
separation are shown.
Magnesiu no change Neutral
METHOD OF SUBSTANCES SEPARATED m
SEPARATION INVOLVED IN COMPONENT
Sulfur no change Neutral
METHOD IN
EXPERIMENT Table 4. Reaction of elements with oxygen

Magnetic Iron(Fe) filings, Iron (Fe) filings Table 5 shows the differences in chemical properties of metals
separation mothballs, and non-metals, based on the experimental results.

CHEM 14.1, Characteristics of Matter Page 2 of 4


Both the mothballs and ribbons were solids, and sublimation
separates solids by transforming one of the substances
METAL NON-METAL
directly into gas form, skipping the liquid phase. The
Basic Acidic substance sublimated was the mothball component, which
caused the vapor formed on the walls of the funnel. The
Produces gas evolution Does not produce gas evolution remaining components on the evaporating dish were the Mg
w/HCl w/ HCl ribbons.
Table 5. Chemical Properties of Metals vs. Non-Metals On the mixture with charcoal and food coloring,
adsorption was done. Adsorption is performed using activated
Part C. Changes of the Components of the Mixture carbon (which comprises activated charcoal), is usually used
here because it is useful in attaining a large internal surface
Reaction to heat is a useful indicator of the type of change (500- 1500 m2/g). This process was used in separating the
that occurs. Table 6 shows the observed results when the food coloring from the mixture. The next separation technique
substances in the experiment were heated. used was solvent extraction. This method employs two
immiscible solvents to extract organic compounds from water
SUBSTANCE OBSERVATION TYPE OF soluble compounds. The solvents used in the experiment
CHANGE were iodine and hexane, labeled aqueous and hexane layers,
respectively. Once the two layers were separated by a
Fe filings No physical change None medicine dropper, evaporation was performed on both to
separate the solid solute from the liquid solvent, which was
Food color Turned black; moistened Chemical
walls of test tube the component evaporated. When evaporation was
completed, the remaining solids were the food coloring and
I 2 Pink sublimation Chemical table salt from the aqueous and hexane layers, respectively.

NaCl Popping sound; moistened Chemical Part B. Analysis of the Components of the Mixture
walls of test tube
Acids react with metals to form a salt and hydrogen
Mg ribbon Fireworks-like sparks Chemical
gas bubbles. This proves why both Fe and Mg should have
Table 6. Reactions of substances to heat exhibited continuous gas evolution when HCl was added to
them. Possibly, the Mg ribbon used was contaminated or not
Table 7 presents the reactions of substances with 0.1 M HCl cleaned properly, so it didn’t react to the acid as it should
compared to each other have.
Acids do not react with nonmetals because
SUBSTANCE TYPE OF CHANGE with 0.1M HCl nonmetals do not readily give their electrons. This makes
sense of the absence of gas formation from the naphthalene
Iron (Fe) filings Formation of bubbles (slower) balls and iodine when HCl was added to them.
Based on the experiment, there were no changes
Mg ribbon Formation of bubbles (faster) observed on either blue or red litmus papers for the oxides of
Table 7. Reaction of substances with 0.1M both magnesium and sulfur. However, magnesium oxide is
HCl known to be basic, while sulfur oxide is acidic. It is possible
that the litmus, being paper, had already expired or was
VI. DISCUSSION contaminated. It may also have been improperly stored or
used.
Part A. Physical Separation of the Components of a Mixture In summary, metals and nonmetals have opposing
properties. Metals are reactive to acids, while nonmetals are
As mentioned in Part I, mixtures can be separated not. Metal oxides are also basic, while nonmetal oxides are
by physical means. The first method of separation employed acidic.
in the experiment was the magnet. Magnets attract metals,
which is why the iron (Fe) filings were separated from the rest Part C. Changes of the Components of the Mixture
of the mixture when the magnet passed across the sheet of
paper they were in. The next method used was filtration. As mentioned in the Introduction, matter may
Filtration separates solids (that are not dissolved) from liquids undergo physical and chemical changes. There are five
by letting the liquid pass through the pores of the filtering indicators of a chemical change or reaction: color, gas
substance. The liquid filtered is called the filtrate, while the formation, precipitation, odor, and temperature change.
remaining solid is the residue. This was the process that According to the results, the Mg ribbon, food color, and I2
separated the mothballs and magnesium (Mg) ribbons from crystals all experience chemical changes based on the gas
the charcoal and food coloring. formation and/or color changes they experienced. The
Afterwards, the mixture containing the mothballs and experimental results for these substances are the same as
Mg ribbons was heated in the process called sublimation. the expected results. Deviations from the theoretical results

CHEM 14.1, Characteristics of Matter Page 3 of 4


were observed in the reaction of Fe and table salt. The iron, uncontaminated. This is to ensure that the results being
when heated, should have formed orange precipitates on the obtained are going to accurate.
walls of the test tube, while it was table salt that should have
been unreactive. These deviations may be, again, caused by IX. REFERENCES
contamination or impurities.
As for the reactions of Fe and Mg with HCl, both Brown, T.L., LeMay, H.E.J., Bursten, B.E., Murphy, C.J., &
additions resulted in gas formation. The bubbles formed faster Woodward, P.M. (2012). Chemistry: The central
for Mg, though, indicating that Mg was the more reactive science. (12th ed.). Glenview, IL: Pearson Education,
metal. Inc.

VII. GUIDE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Silberberg, M.S. (2006). Chemistry: The molecular nature of
matter and change. (5th ed.). New York, NY:
Part B. Analysis of the Components of the Mixture McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. Among those classified as metals, which is the most Lenntech. (n.d.). Filtration. Retrieved from
reactive with 0.1 M HCl? http://www.lenntech.com/chemistry/filtration.htm
Iron (only one substance was classified as a metal;
but should be Magnesium as discussed in the Lenntech. (n.d.). Adsorption. Retrieved from
discussion part of this report) http://www.lenntech.com/library/adsorption/adsorptio
2. Completed and balanced reactions: n.htm#ixzz2oxYpS2Wr
a. MgO (s) + H2O  Mg(OH)2
Lal, S. (2010). Matter – 02: Separation of mixtures. Retrieved
b. SO2 + H2O  H2SO3 from http://www.mentorials.com/high-school-
chemistry-matter-separation-of-mixtures.htm
Part C. Changes of the Components of the Mixture
The Interactive Lab Primer. (n.d.). Solvent extraction.
1. Based on the reaction in Table 7, which is the more Retrieved from http://www.chem-
active metal? ilp.net/labTechniques/SolventExtraction.htm
Magnesium
2. What is the composition of the filtrate in A-3b? Boundless. (n.d.). Gas evolution reactions. Retrieved from
Water & salt https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/aqueous-
3. Completed and balanced reactions: reactions/acid-base-reactions/gas-evolution-
a. 2Fe + 6HCl  2FeCl3 + 3H2 reactions/

b. Mg + 2HCl  MgCl2 + H2 Bodner Research Web. (n.d.). Oxidation-reduction reactions.


Retrieved from
c. 3Mg + 2FeCl3  3MgCl2 + 2Fe http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicrevie
w/bp/ch19/oxred_1.php

VIII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based from all the procedures performed, results I hereby certify that I have given substantial contribution to
obtained, and information gathered from external sources by this report.
the researchers, the following can be inferred:
1. Physical changes occur when only the phase of the
substance is changed. On the other hand, chemical
changes occur after undergoing chemical reactions. Elise Angela H. Espinosa
2. Metals oxides are basic; Non-metal oxides are
acidic.
3. Metals form gas evolution with an acid, while non-
metals do not form gas evolution when mixed with
an acid.
4. Different metals have different reactivity levels. Kyle Maxinne R. Romero

The researchers highly recommend the next


performers of this experiment to make sure that all
substances, equipment and materials used are clean and
Denmirson Vivo

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