You are on page 1of 27

Session 2018-19

TOPIC:-
“TO SHOW THAT THE RATE OF DIFFUSION
OF SOLIDS IN LIQUIDS DEPENDS UPON
ON”:-
1) TEMPERATURE
2) SIZE
3) MASS OF PARTICLE
CERTIFICAT

E
This is to certify that the
project entitled with “To
show that the rate of
diffusion of solids in
liquid depends upon three
factors i.e. Temperature,
Size, and Mass of the
particle” and in this
project we aim to
illustrate this fact
experimentally.
As per requirement
being submitted by:
SURAJ KUNDU of class
XII-Science. This project
is a piece of work
carried out by a
Candidate with
consultation of chemistry
teacher.

CHEMISTRY TEACHER

Mrs. Tanima Banerjee

PRINCIPAL

Mr.Roopinder Singh

Examiner

Acknowledgemen

t
I feel pleasure in presenting
this project on chemistry,
As per new NCERT syllabus
approved by CBSE for the
student of class XII .

In this project an attempt


has been made the subject
matter in chemistry. The
main approach of this
project is that it should
provide self-enhance and
self-creation.

I convey my sincere regards


to our chemistry teacher Mrs.
Tanima Banerjee ma’am and
our principal sir Mr. Roopinder
Singh, without their constant
and support and guidance,
the successful completion of
this project would remain
an impoosibe task
Last but not the least, I pay
my sincere regards to my
friends for giving me
confidence in this project.

I hope this project will be


warmly received by the
worthy teachers who are
real judges of this attempt
made by us.
Index
 Certificate

 Acknowledg

ement
 Objective

 Experiment

 Experiment

 Experiment

 Experiment

 Result
 Bibliograph

Introd
uction

When substances are


brought in contact with
each other, they intermix.
This property of
intermixing is known as
diffusion. This property of
diffusion takes place very
rapidly in case of gases and
to a lesser extent in case of
liquids whereas solids do
not show this process of
diffusion with each other.
But what we can observe in
case of solids is that the
diffusion of solids in liquids
takes place at a very slow
rate.

If a solid is kept in
contact with an excess of
solvent in which it is
soluble, some portion of
the solid starts dissolving.
After some time a stage
reaches when whole of
the solid gets dissolved.
We know that this process
is known as dissolution
of the solid in a liquid
and this process has
taken place due to the
diffusion of solid particles
into the liquid.
Molecules of solutes in
solutions are in constant
random motion due to the
collisions between
molecules of solute and
that of the solvent. Also
as the temperature is
raised, kinetic energy of
molecules increases which
thereby increases the
number of collisions.
Particles of different
substances move at
different rates e.g., when
different coloured inks are
placed in water at
constant temperature, they
diffuse at different rates.
The speed of the
movement of solid particles
depends upon
(a) Temperature
(b) Size of the particles
(c) Mass of the particle.

objective
Rate of diffusion
depends upon three
factors viz.
(i)temperature,
(ii) size of particles
and
(iii) mass of particle.

In this project, we aim


at illustrating these
facts experimentally by
taking crystals of
copper sulphate,
potassium
permanganate and
ammonium dichromate.
EXPERIMENT
-1

AIM :- To study diffusion when copper


sulphate (solid) is brought in
contact with water (liquids).

Requirements :- Copper sulphate


crystal, 100
ml beaker.

Procedure :-
1. About 2gm of copper sulphate crystals
is taken in 100 ml beaker.
2. About 50 ml of water is added to it and
allowed to stand for few minutes.
3. The development of blue colour in water
is noted.
Allow to stand further when it will be observed
that whole of the copper sulphate disappears.
Conclusions :-
When solids such as copper sulphate,
potassium permanganate are brought in contact with
liquids such as water, intermixing of the substances,
i.e., diffusion takes place.

EXPERIMENT –
3

Aim :- To study the effect of particle size


on the rate of diffusion of solids in liquids.

Requirements :-
Graduated 100 ml measuring cylinders,
copper sulphate crystals of different sizes,
stop watch.

Procedure :-
1. 50 ml of water is added to each of the
three cylinders.
2. 5.0 g each of water is taken to each of
the three cylinders.
3. Allow to stand for sometime.
the time taken for the blue colour to
reach any fixed mark in each of the
cylinders and record the observations.

Diffusion of solids
in liquids

100 100
100

90 90
90

80 80
80

70 70
70
60 60
60

50 50
50

40 40
40

30 30
30

20 Medium20 Small
20 Big CuSO4 CuSO4 CuSO4
crystal crystal crystal
10 10
10

0 (I) 0 (II) (III)


0

Observations :-
S. No. Crystal Size Time taken in minute
I Big 38
II Medium 55
III Small 89

Conclusions :-
Small particles undergo diffusion more
quicker than bigger particles
EXPERIMENT –
4
Aim :- To study upward rate of diffusion
of solids having different
molecular mass.
Requirements :-
Crystals of copper sulphate and potassium
dichromate.

Procedure :-
1. Two 100 ml graduated cylinders is taken
and each is fillded with 50 ml distilled
water.
2. A crystal of copper sulphate and a
crystal of potassium dichromate (~1 gm
each) is taken separately in two
cylinders.
3. The time taken for the colours to reach
any fixed mark in each of the following
cylinders is noted and the observations
is recorded

Observations :-
Room temperature = 27oC
Molecular mass of CuSO4.5H2O = 249.5
g/mol
Molecular mass of K2Cr2O7 = 294 g/mol
2+
Molecular mass of Cu ion = 63.5 g/mol
S. No. Crystal type Time taken in minutes
I Copper sulphate 04
II Potassium dichromate 11
100
100

90
90

80
80

70
70

60
60

50
50

40
40

30
30
Copper Potassium
sulphate dichromate 20
20 Crystal Crystal
10
10
0
0

Conclusion :-
The rate of diffusion of copper
sulphate is approximately three times
the rate of diffusion of potassium
dichromate, but the ratio of the
molecular masses of K2Cr2O7 to that
of CuSO4.5H2O is (294/249.5) 1.2 . It
is concluded that the rate of the rate
of diffusion of the two salts are not
inversely proportional to their
molecular masses but inversely
proportional to the molecular masses
of the coloured ions i-e. Cu2+ (63.5
g/mole) and Cr2O72- (216 g/mole). So
it is observed that if the molecular
masses of the coloured ion is high ,
then the rate of upward diffusion is
low provided water remains
undisturbed at constant temperature.
Other factors which affect the
experimental results but have not
been considered here are charge on
the ions and effect of other ions such
as SO42- and K+.
EXPERIMENT –
2

Aim :- To study the effect of temperature on


the rate of diffusion of solids in
liquids.

Requirements :-
Copper sulphate crystals, 200 ml beakers,
watch glass, wire gauge, burner, tripod
stand, thermometer and stop watch.

Procedure :-
1. 5 gm of copper sulphate is taken in each
in three 200 ml beakers.
2. 100 ml of distilled water is poured slowly
in one of the beakers.
3.This beaker is covered with the watch
glass.
3. 100 ml of cold water in a second beaker
slowly.
4. The third beaker is placed containing
100 ml of water on a tripod stand for
heating
5. The diffusion process which begins in all
the three beakers is oberved
6. The time taken for the dissolution of
copper sulphate in all the three cases is
recorded.

Water (25oC) Water (10oC) Water (70oC)


CuSO4 CuSO4
Crystal Crystal

Observations :-

S. No. Temperature of water Time taken in minute


I 25 oC 11
II 10 oC 17
III 70 oC 05

Conclusions :-

The rate of diffusion of copper sulphate in


water is in the order of Beaker III > Beaker I
> Beaker II. Thus, rate of diffusion varies
directly with temperature.
Results
 Solid particles and
undergo diffusion when
they come in contact
with liquids.

Small particles undergo


diffusion more quickly
than bigger particles.

When solids such as


copper sulphate,
potassium
permanganate are
brought in contact with
liquid such as water,
intermixing of the
substances, i.e.
diffusion takes place.

The rate of diffusion


varies directly with
temperature.
Bibliography

Websites:-
 www.scribd.com
 www.wikipedia.com
 www.chemistryclassroom.co
m

Book:-
 NCERT Chemistry
 Modern ABC(Chemistry)
 Chemistry Practical
Book