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Prepared by: Tuğçe Yüksel Solution


Room: C-210 Phone: 5267
E-mail: tyukse@metu.edu.tr Date: 27/10/2008 a. The total strain energy is the sum of the strain energies of all members. Therefore;
ME 307 – MACHINE ELEMENTS I
TUTORIAL 5 U = U1 + U 2 + U 3 + U 4 + U 5 + U 6 + U 7
“STRAIN ENERGY &CASTIGLIANO’S THEOREM” All members are connected with pins therefore they are all two force members. This
means that every member is loaded axially. The strain energy for ith member, which is due
to only axial loading, is;
Problem 1
Fi 2 L
For the truss given in Figure 1.1, use Castigliano’s method to determine: Ui = i=1,2,..,7
2 AE
a. The vertical deflection of point C
Thus, it is necessary to determine the axial load Fi in each member. Using static analysis
b. The horizontal deflection of point E
and assuming tension positive and compression negative for each member:
c. The rotation of member AB
P P P P P P P
All members are of equal length, area, and modulus of elasticity: L, A, and E, F1 = − F2 = F3 = F4 = − F5 = F6 = F7 = −
respectively. 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 3

B D Then, the total strain energy is:


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L  P   P   P   P   P   P   P  
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

U=  −  +  +  + −  +  +  + −  
2 AE  3 2 3  3  3  3 2 3  3  
L 22 2 11L
U= ⋅ ⋅P = ⋅ P2
1 3 5 7 2 AE 16 12 AE

From Castigliano’s theorem, the vertical deflection at point C is equal to the partial
derivative of the total strain energy with respect to force P. Therefore;
E
A 2 6
C ∂U ∂  11L  11 PL PL
(δ C )V = =  ⋅ P2  = ⋅ = 1.833
∂P ∂P  12 AE  6 AE AE
P

Figure 1.1

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008


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b. The horizontal deflection of point E needs to be determined. Note that, there is no The axial forces acting on members are determined as:
corresponding horizontal force at point E. However, Castigliano’s theorem can still be
used. To use the theorem; P P P
F1 = F4 = F7 = − F2 = F6 = +Q F3 = F5 =
3 2 3 3
1. Place a fictitious force Q at point E, as shown in Figure 1.2.
The total strain energy is, then:
2. Use static analysis to determine the forces acting on members in terms of
P and H. (A static analysis of the forces in the members caused by Q alone
L   P     P    P  
2 2 2
can be added by superposition to the forces caused by P, as determined in
part a) U=  3  −  + 2 + Q + 2  
2 AE   3    2 3     3   
3. Set up the equation for the total strain energy and find an expression for 
the desired deflection by taking the derivative of the total strain energy with ∂U L  P 
respect to Q. = ⋅ 2⋅ 2 +Q
∂Q 2 AE 2 3 
4. Finally, since Q is a fictitious force, solve the expression obtained in step 3
by setting Q equal to zero. i.e.:
And setting Q=0 gives:
∂U PL
(δ E ) H =
∂U (δ E ) H = =
∂Q Q = 0 3 AE
∂Q Q=0

c. To find the rotation of member AB, a similar procedure as in part b will be followed.
B D However, since this time rotation of the member is asked, a fictitious moment instead of a
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fictitious force is placed on the member, as shown in Figure 1.3. This moment can be
placed anywhere on the member.

B D
1 5 7 4
3

M
E 5 7
A Q 1 3
2 6
C

P
E
Figure 1.2 A 2 6
C

Figure 1.3

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008


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First, let’s find the forces by performing a static analysis on the structure with only the
L  P   P
2 2 2 2 2
3M   P M   P M   P M 
moment on it. Assuming tension positive, the axial forces developed on the member U=  −  +  −  +  +  + − +  + − 
due to the applied moment are: 2 AE  3 2 3 2 L   3 3L   3 3L   3 3L 

M  
2 2
M M M M M  P M   P
F3 = F4 = F5 = − F6 = − F7 = + −  + − +  
3L 3L 3L 2 3L 3L  2 3 2 3L   3 3L  

For member 1, the moment causes transverse forces at the end perpendicular to the
∂U L  3 P 3M  1  P M  1  P M  1  P M 
member of the magnitude M/L as shown in Figure 1.4. The joint analysis at point A = 0 −  −  +  + + − + −  − 
shows that, no axial force is developed on member 1 due to the moment. ∂M AE  2 L  2 3 2L  3 L  3 3 L  3 L  3 3 L  3 L  3 3L 
1  P M  1  P M 
−  − + − + 
2 3L  2 3 2 3L  3L  3 3L  
M/L
Point A
F1 ∂U L  P P P P P P
M θ AB = = − + − − − −
M/L ∂M M =0 AE  4 L 3L 3L 3L 12 L 3L 

60
P
30° θ AB

°
F2 =−
AE

M/2L The negative sign implies that the rotation is in the opposite direction with the fictitious
M/L moment, i.e. the rotation is clockwise.

Note that, in the strain energy equation, only the energy due to axial loading is calculated
Figure 1.4 and the energy due to bending in member 1 is not considered. The reason is that, the
bending energy is exclusively a function of the fictitious moment M, which will
eventually be set to zero. Therefore, there is no need to consider the bending energy. This
would only make the calculations longer.
3M
F1 = 0 F2 = −
2L

Total axial forces on the members due to both force P and moment M can be found by
superposition as:

P P 3M P M P M
F1 = − F2 = − F3 = + F4 = − +
3 2 3 2L 3 3L 3 3L
P M P M P M
F5 = − F6 = − F7 = − +
3 3L 2 3 2 3L 3 3L

The total strain energy due to axial loading is:

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008


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Problem 2 Solution

The steel beam ABCD shown in Figure 2.1 is simply supported at A and supported at The free body diagram of the steel beam is given in Figure 2.2:
B and D by steel cables each having a diameter of 12mm. A force of 20 kN is applied
at point C. Determine the stresses in the cables and the deflections of points B, C and
D using Castigliano’s theorem if;
FB FD
a. Beam ABCD is considered to be rigid.
b. Beam ABCD is elastic and has a second-area moment of I = 8 (105 ) mm 4 .
A B C D
(For steel, let E=209 GPa.)

E F FA FC

Figure 2.2
1m
Equilibrium of forces and moment about point A gives:

FA + FB + FD = 20 (1)
FB + 3FD = 40 (2)
A B C D
So, there are two equations but three unknowns. Thus, the structure is indeterminate of
order n=3-2=1.

20 kN Castigliano’s theorem can be applied to statically indeterminate problems. If the structure


is indeterminate of order n, then n reaction forces or moments can be regarded as
unknown applied forces on the structure subject to the constraints of the deflections at the
reaction points. The deflection at the supports are generally known (normally zero), and
500 mm 500 mm 500 mm Castigliano’s theorem can then be used by setting the deflection at supports to zero.

Figure 2.1 When Castigliano’s theorem is applied to statically indeterminate problems, an extremely
important requirement must be understood: Once the n unknown reactions are selected to
be considered as applied, the remaining unknown reactions must either be solved in terms
of the n known reactions and the actual applied forces, or they must not be used in the
energy formulation.

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008


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a. Since the beam is rigid, there will be no deformation in the beam and it will simply Then, from equations (1) and (2):
rotate about point A. Therefore, the total strain energy will be due to the elongation of
the cables. Since the cables are loaded axially, the strain energy is: FB = 4kN FD = 12kN

FB 2 LBE FD 2 LDF The stresses in the cables are then:


U= +
AE AE
FB 4000( N )
σ BE = = = 35.4 MPa
The deflection at point A is zero. Therefore; A (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm 2 )

∂U FD 12000( N )
=0 σ DF = = = 106.1MPa
∂FA A (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm 2 )

However, as stated above, to apply Castigliano’s theorem, one of the forces must be The deflections of points B, C and D can be found using Castigliano’s theorem:
considered as applied load since n=1 for this case. Consider FA as applied load.
The deflection of point B is equal to the elongation of the cable BE and therefore can be
Now, the other requirement is that, the remaining unknown reactions FB and FD must found by taking the derivative of the strain energy stored in cable BE with respect to force
either be solved in terms of FA and the actual applied force FC, or they must not be FB:
used in the energy formulation. Since the energy is due to only axial loading, it is not
possible not to use them in the energy equation. Therefore, they must be written in ∂ (U BE ) FB (∂FB ∂FB ) LBE FB LBE 4000 ( N ) ⋅1000 ( mm )
δB = = = = = 0.169mm
terms of FA and FC. ∂FB AE AE (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm 2 ) ⋅ 209 ⋅103 ( MPa )
Moment about point D gives:
Similarly, the deflection of point D:
FB = 0.5FC − 1,5FA (3)
∂ (U DF ) FD (∂FD ∂FD ) LDF FD LDF 12000 ( N ) ⋅1000 ( mm )
δD = = = = = 0.508mm
Moment about point B gives: ∂FD AE AE (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm 2 ) ⋅ 209 ⋅103 ( MPa )
FD = 0,5FA + 0.5FC (4)
To find the deflection at point C, equations (3) and (4) must be used in energy equation,
i.e. FB and FD must be written in terms of FA and FC :
Inserting FC = 20kN , (3) and (4) into energy equation and applying Castigliano’s
theorem gives: ∂U FB (∂FB ∂FC ) LBE FD (∂FD ∂FC ) LDF
δC = = + =
∂FC AE AE
∂U FB (∂FB ∂FA ) LBE FD (∂FD ∂FA ) LDF
= + ( 0.5FC − 1.5FA )( 0.5) LBE ( 0.5FA + 0.5FC )( 0.5) LDF
∂FA AE AE = +
AE AE
(10 − 1.5FA )( −1.5)(1) ( 0.5FA + 10 )( 0.5)(1) ( 4000 )( N )( 0.5)(1000 )( mm ) (12000 )( N )( 0.5)(1000 )( mm )
= + =0 = +
which gives:
AE AE
(π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm2 ) ⋅ 209 ⋅103 ( MPa ) (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm2 ) ⋅ 209 ⋅103 ( MPa )
=0.338mm
FA = 4kN

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008


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b. This time, since the beam is elastic, it will deform. Therefore, neglecting shear, the  FA ⋅ x 0<x<0.5 m
total strain energy for the whole structure (beam and cables) will be the sum of the 
strain energy due to bending on the beam and the strain energy due to axial loading of M =  FA ⋅ x + ( 0.5FC − 1.5 FA )( x − 0.5 ) 0.5<x<1 m

the cables:  FA ⋅ x + ( 0.5FC − 1.5 FA )( x − 0.5 ) − FC ( x − 1) 1<x<1.5 m

U = Ub + Ua and

Since the deflection at point A is zero: x 0<x<0.5 m


∂M 
∂U ∂U b ∂U a = ( −0.5 x + 0.75) 0.5<x<1 m
δA = = + =0 ∂FA 
∂FA ∂FA ∂FA ( −0.5 x + 0.75) 1<x<1.5 m

Strain energy due to axial loading is the same as in part a. Therefore:


Then:
∂U a FB (∂FB ∂FA ) LBE FD (∂FD ∂FA ) LDF
= + ∂U b ∂U a
∂FA AE AE δA = 0 = +
∂FA ∂FA
( 0.5FC − 1.5FA )( −1.5)(1) ( 0.5FA + 0.5FC )( 0.5)(1)
= + ( 0.5FC − 1.5FA )( −1.5)(1) ( 0.5FA + 0.5FC )( 0.5)(1) 1 0.5
AE AE =
AE
+
AE
+
EI ∫
0
FA ⋅ x 2 ⋅ dx

Strain energy due to bending is: 1 1


+ ∫  FA ⋅ x + ( FC − 1.5FA )( x − 0.5)  ⋅ ( −0.5 x + 0.75 ) ⋅ dx
EI 0.5

M 2 dx 1
Ub = ∫
1
+ ∫  FA ⋅ x + ( FC − 1.5FA )( x − 0.5) − FC ( x − 1)  ⋅ ( −0.5 x + 0.75) ⋅ dx
2 EI EI 0.5

Then;
Setting FC = 20kN and inserting the numerical values for E,I and A gives :
∂U b 1  ∂M  FA = −3.885kN
∂FA EI ∫  ∂FA 
= M  dx

Then, from equations (1) and (2):


The bending moment equation for the beam can be written as:
FB = 15.830kN FD = 8.058kN
 FA ⋅ x 0<x<0.5 m The stresses in the cables are then:

M =  FA ⋅ x + FB ( x − 0.5 ) 0.5<x<1 m
 FB 15830( N )
 FA ⋅ x + FB ( x − 0.5 ) − FC ( x − 1) 1<x<1.5 m σ BE = = = 140MPa
A (π 4 )i122 ( mm 2 )

By moment relation, FB is related to FA and FC. From the requirement which was FD 8058( N )
σ DF = = = 71.2 MPa
explained above, in the moment equation FB must be written in terms of FA and FC. A (π 4 )i122 ( mm 2 )

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008


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The deflection of point C:
Alberto Castigliano (1847-1884)
∂U ∂U
δC = b + a ... the partial derivative of the strain energy, considered as a
∂FC ∂FC
function of the applied forces acting on a linearly elastic structure,
( 0.5FC − 1.5FA )( 0.5)(1) ( 0.5FA + 0.5FC )( 0.5)(1) 1 0.5
∫ ( F ⋅ x )( 0 ) ⋅ dx
= + + with respect to one of these forces, is equal to the displacement in
A
AE AE EI 0 the direction of the force of its point of application.
1 1
+ ∫  FA ⋅ x + ( FC − 1.5FA )( x − 0.5)  ⋅ ( x − 0.5 ) ⋅ dx
EI 0.5

1 1
+ ∫  FA ⋅ x + ( FC − 1.5FA )( x − 0.5) − FC ( x − 1)  ⋅ ( 0.5 ) ⋅ dx
EI 0.5

δ C = 2.27mm

When the whole structure (beam + cables) is considered, FB and FD are internal forces.
Therefore, if one wants to find the deflection of point B using the strain energy of the
whole structure, she/he must place a fictitious force at point B. However, the
deflection of point B will be equal to the elongation of cable BE. Therefore, the
deflection of point B can be found by taking the derivative of the strain energy stored
in cable BE with respect to FB.

∂ (U BE ) FB (∂FB ∂FB ) LBE FB LBE 15830 ( N ) ⋅1000 ( mm )


δB = = = = = 0.667 mm
∂FB AE AE (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm 2 ) ⋅ 209 ⋅103 ( MPa )

Similarly, the deflection of point D:

∂ (U DF ) FD (∂FD ∂FD ) LDF FD LDF 8058 ( N ) ⋅1000 ( mm )


δD = = = = = 0.341mm
∂FD AE AE (π 4 ) ⋅122 ( mm2 ) ⋅ 209 ⋅103 ( MPa )

Reference: Richard G. Budynas, Advanced Strength and Applied Stress Analysis, 2nd ed.,
McGraw-Hill, 1999.

METU – ME 307 Machine Elements I – Fall 2008