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Course Guide

for

SOC 111.3

Foundations in Sociology:
Society, Structure, Process

Fall 2010
The University of Saskatchewan

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Course Author:

Li Zong, Ph. D.
Department of Sociology
University of Saskatchewan

Copyright © 2010 by the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 1M3

 
 
SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process i

Contents
Introduction
Introduction................................................................ 0-1
Required Materials ...................................................... 0-1
Textbook ................................................................ 0-1
Course Overview ......................................................... 0-2
Assignments ............................................................... 0-5
Assignment 1 ......................................................... 0-5
Assignment 2 ......................................................... 0-5
Assignment 3 ......................................................... 0-6
Final Examination....................................................... 0-7
Course Requirements.................................................. 0-7
Recommended Resources............................................ 0-8
Use Online Source – MySocLab............................... 0-8
SQ3R: A Method of Study............................................ 0-9
Survey.................................................................... 0-9
Question ................................................................ 0-9
Read ...................................................................... 0-9
Recite..................................................................... 0-9
Review.................................................................. 0-10

Module 1 Sociological Imagination:


Classical and Modern
Theories
Module Overview......................................................... 1-1
Module Objectives ....................................................... 1-2
Readings and Learning Activities................................. 1-2
Readings ................................................................ 1-2
Learning Activities.................................................. 1-2
Recommended Resources............................................ 1-3
Questions for Module 1 ............................................... 1-4
SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process ii

Applying Your Insights (Module 1) ............................... 1-4


Assignment 1 .............................................................. 1-5

Module 2 Scientific Study of Social


World: Research Methods
Module Overview......................................................... 2-1
Module Objectives ....................................................... 2-2
Readings and Learning Activities................................. 2-2
Readings ................................................................ 2-2
Learning Activities.................................................. 2-3
Recommended Resources............................................ 2-4
Questions for Module 2 ............................................... 2-4
Applying Your Insights (Module 2) ............................... 2-4

Module 3 Social Inequality and Political


Economy
Module Overview......................................................... 3-1
Module Objectives ....................................................... 3-2
Readings and Learning Activities................................. 3-3
Readings ................................................................ 3-3
Learning Activities.................................................. 3-3
Recommended Resources............................................ 3-4
Questions for Module 3 ............................................... 3-4
Applying Your Insights (Module 3) ............................... 3-5
Assignment 2 .............................................................. 3-7

Module 4 Mass Media, Social Change,


and Social Movements
Module Overview......................................................... 4-1
Module Objectives ....................................................... 4-3
Readings and Learning Activities................................. 4-3
Readings ................................................................ 4-3
Learning Activities.................................................. 4-3
Recommended Resources............................................ 4-4
Questions for Module 4 ............................................... 4-5
SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process iii

Applying Your Insights (Module 4) ............................... 4-5

Module 5 Globalization and


Environmental Issues
Module Overview......................................................... 5-1
Module Objectives ....................................................... 5-3
Readings and Learning Activities................................. 5-3
Readings ................................................................ 5-3
Learning Activities.................................................. 5-3
Recommended Resources............................................ 5-4
Questions for Module 5 ............................................... 5-4
Applying Your Insights (Module 5) ............................... 5-5
Assignment 3 .............................................................. 5-7
SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Introduction

Welcome to the study of Sociology at the University of Saskatchewan.


SOC111.3, Foundation in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process, is an
opportunity for you to discover a new discipline and, hopefully, to begin
to see the world in a new way. Sociology deals with the familiar, although
often in unfamiliar ways. It is concerned with aspects of our everyday
lives as well as with hidden structures and historical processes that are
both known and unknown to us. As you work through the course, you
will encounter much that appears to be common sense. However, you
will also be sensitized to new ways of asking questions and gathering
information to supplement what you already know about the social
world. In the process, you may reach some surprising conclusions. You
will be confronted with new concepts, theories, and facts to be learned.
Most importantly, however, you should concern yourself with the various
tools that Sociology offers you to explore and answer questions about our
social world.

Required Materials

Textbook
You are required to purchase the following textbook for this course. Consult
your student information handbook for information on how to order the
book from the University of Saskatchewan Bookstore. When ordering the
book, include your course and section number as well as the author, title,
publisher, and ISBN number of the textbook.

Ravelli, Bruce and Michelle Webber. (2010) Exploring Sociology: A Canadian


Perspective, Volume 1, Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure,
Process (Custom Edition for the University of Saskatchewan Sociology
111.3). Toronto: Pearson Education. ISBN: 978-0-13-248688-0.
0-2 Introduction

Course Overview
This course is one part of a two-part introduction to the discipline of
sociology, the study of society. It examines theories and methods for
studying changes to the nature and organization of society from pre-
modern, to modern and post-modern. You will be introduced to core
sociological concepts used to understand social inequality, social order,
social change, and globalization. Each chapter of the course begins with
“Chapter at A Glance” and “Objectives”. The general goals for the course
are as follows:

As you proceed through the course you should be able to:

• Understand Sociology as a discipline concerned with the


systematic study of relationships between individual and society;
• Develop a “sociological imagination” that enables you to view
social phenomena critically by understanding social structure
and processes;
• Recognize the primary ways in which sociologists define,
research, and analyze sociological problems;
• Identify and investigate the nature of major sociological features
of Canadian society and other societies, including historical
patterns, institutional structures, and structured inequalities;
and
• Pose and analyze problems for sociological investigation.
We have divided the Course Guide into five modules covering five major
topics for this course. We have also included the readings and the
numbers of weeks you should plan to spend on each module to help you
pace your learning. Remember, you should plan to study about nine
hours per week.

Module 1 - Sociological Imagination: Classical and


Modern Theories
Three Weeks

Reading: Preface, Chapters 1, 2, & 3

Assig nme nt 1

Note s:
1. SOC 111.3 and SOC 112.3 can be taken in any order.
2. SOC 111.3 and SOC 112.3 are prerequisites for all upper sociology courses
3. Students not majoring in Sociology can take either or both courses to meet the social
science requirement
4. Students who have taken SOC110.6 should not take SOC111.3 or Soc 112.3 for credit.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Introduction 0-3

Module 2: Scientific Study of Social World: Research


Methods
One Week

Reading: Chapter 4

Module 3: Social Inequality: Political Economy


Approach
Two Weeks

Reading: Chapters 7 & 16

Assig nme nt 2

Module 4: Mass Media, Social Change, and Social


Movements
Two Weeks

Reading: Chapters 17 & 18

Module 5: Globalization and Environmental Issues


Two Weeks

Reading: Chapters 19 & 20

Assig nme nt 3

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


0-4 Introduction

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Introduction 0-5

Assignments
To fulfill course requirements, you must submit three assignments and
write a final examination.

Two of the three assignments count 20% each toward your final grade,
and one assignment counts 30%. The final examination counts 30%
toward your final mark.

The schedule of assignment due dates and the date of the final
examination is listed on your syllabus information sheet. Please adhere
to these dates as they will help you pace your learning. If you think that
an assignment will be late, contact your instructor immediately. Your
instructor may deduct marks or refuse to accept late assignments.

Be sure to keep a copy of each assignment before you send it in, in case
it gets lost in the mail.

Assignment 1 (Value: 20% of Course Grade)


Answer the following questions in essay form. Use 12-point font, Times
New Roman, and double-space. Write 2-3 pages for each question.

1. What is sociological imagination? Discuss how the sociological


perspective can be applied to an understanding of the individual
as well as the collective.
2. Compare and contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of
society, giving special attention to the assumptions and emphases
that distinguish these two approaches. Provide your own
comments or arguments.

Assignment 2 (Value: 20% of Course Grade)


Answer the following questions in essay form. Use 12-point font, Times
New Roman, and double-space. Write 2-3 pages for each question.

1. Compare and contrast any two of the theoretical explanations for


social stratification. Which do you prefer? Why?
2. Many commentators argue that job selection and working
conditions are matters of individual choice and free markets.
Using your own experience or empirical evidence, indicate
whether or not this is a valid argument.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


0-6 Introduction

Assignment 3 (Value: 30% of Course Grade)


Write an analytical paper on a specific social issue under o ne of the
following general topics.

1. Mass media and society


2. Social movement and collective behaviour
3. Social change
4. Globalization
Your paper should be 8-10 pages (12-point font; Times New Roman; and
double-spaced) in length. You must provide a bibliography, including
references to all sources of information that you draw upon in your
paper.

The purpose of this assignment is to give you experience in defining a


sociological problem and providing a systematic answer or response to
that question based upon your own experience and investigation. It is to
be an analytical paper in the sense that you will be providing information
that not only describes the issue with which you are dealing, but in
addition, you will be working towards an explanation of the problem.

The process that you should follow in developing your analysis can be
outlined as follows:

1. Develop a specific title for your paper. Define your problem or


research question: What are you trying to find out, and why?
2. Indicate the possible ways of answering the question: Which
theories, approaches or explanations can be used, or have been
used by others, to answer the question of a similar nature?
Identify, briefly, the strengths and limitations of each approach.
3. Identify your argument: Indicate how you are going to answer the
question (i.e., which approach will you take or which set of factors
will you conclude are most important to explain your problem),
and justify why.
4. Provide your empirical evidence (your own experience/observation
or secondary data) and analysis: Organize and present your
information. Your findings must be set up in such a way as to
show how and why you have answered your question in the way
that you have. You may use your textbook as sources of
information, but you should also incorporate other books and
articles.
5. Conclude your analysis: Provide a brief concluding section to
summarize your analysis and to indicate its importance.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Introduction 0-7

Final Examination
A final examination, valued at 30% of the final mark, will be scheduled at
the end of term. It will be three hours long, composed of a combination of
multiple choice questions and essay questions. The essay questions will
also offer you some choices. The exam will be comprehensive in nature,
covering material from all parts of the course.

Course Requirements
It is recommend that you follow the steps listed below as you work
through the course.

1. Rea d “Chapter at a Glance” and “Objectives” first and then


proceed to read the assigned chapter. As you read, you will
encounter many new concepts, familiar concepts used in new
ways, and different terms to express similar ideas. It is important
that you understand what you read without “fighting” with the
terminology. Look at how terms are defined when you first
encounter them. Identify cues from the context of each chapter.
Focus especially on concepts and themes that appear in
important places throughout the course.
2. Take note s on each chapter that you read. Good note-taking is
an important skill that takes time and effort to develop. You
should identify the central themes and points covered in each
reading without going into too much detail. Remember that the
notes should be a reference point to help you identify and recall
the arguments and information developed in each chapter. The
purpose of note-taking is not to re-write the chapter. It is also
important to use your notes as a basis for making connections
among the readings and with other course material. Note-taking
should be an aid to the learning process, allowing you to indicate
your own insights and questions as well as to state the points
made by authors. Use “Summary,” “Key Terms,” and “Reviewing
the Concepts” at the end of each chapter of the textbook as
reference points to ensure that you have identified and
understand the main themes and issues.
3. Complet e t he “ Applyi ng Y our Soci ol ogic al Imagi nati on”
at t he e nd of ea c h chap te r. These questions at the end of
each chapter reinforce the importance of continually reflecting on
your sociological imagination by posing questions and situations
that inspire debate, discussion, and reflection. You are not
required to complete each exercise in detail or to submit any of
these exercises to the instructor for grading. However, you should
supplement your notes with a summary answer, in point forms,
for each question.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


0-8 Introduction

Recommended Resources

Use Online Source – MySocLab


MySocLab offers students all of their resources in one place. With
MySocLab, you will be able to enliven your study with a variety of
material. You will be able to “study smarter” with an e-book and a
diagnostic test that creates a customized study plan to help you prepare
for, and perform better on, exams. You can access MySocLab online with
an access code that is available with the purchase of your textbook.
Please use Internet Explorer to access the website www.mysoclab.com
and log in “MySocLab Pegasus.”

Welcome to MySocLab!
To register all you’ll need is

- A valid email address

- The access code printed underneath the flap to the right of your access
card (packaged with the textbook you purchased)

Registering for MySocLab


1. Go to www.mysoclab.com

2. Follow the on-screen instructions for students.

3. Select MySocLab Pegasus.

4. Select your book – Ravelli/Webber, Exploring Sociology

5. After you register, you can log in at any time at www.mysoclab.com

24-hour Customer Technical Support site at


http://247pearsoned.custhelp.com

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Introduction 0-9

SQ3R: A Method of Study


When trying to make your independent study effective and efficient, the
method of study is very important. Here we would like to introduce SQ3R
- a study technique to you. SQ3R is a proven technique to sharpen
textbook reading skills that is based on the work by F. P. Robinson
(Effective Study. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1946). S Q 3R stands for
Survey, Q uestion, R ead, R ecite, and R eview. This method is based on
the assumption that you will comprehend the material more fully if you
become mentally involved with it.

Survey
Get an idea of what the chapter is about. Examine the title, headings,
“Chapter at a Glance,” and objectives of the chapter and read the
summary at the end before beginning a careful reading of the chapter.
This survey, which will give you an overall picture of the chapter’s
content, should take only a few minutes.

Question
As you survey the text, ask a question for each section. Ask what, why,
how, when, who and where questions as they relate to the content.
Here's how you can create questions:

• Turn the title, headings, or subheadings into questions.


• Develop a “sociological imagination” that enables you to view
social phenomena critically by understanding social structure
and processes;

Read
Read materials with creative and critical thinking. Read one section of a
chapter at a time, actively looking for an answer to your question for that
section. Pay attention to bold and italicized text that authors use to make
important points. Be sure to review everything in the section, including
tables, graphs, theme boxes, and illustrations, as these features can
communicate an idea more powerfully than written text.

Recite
After each section - stop, recall your questions, and see if you can
answer them from memory. If not, look back again (as often as
necessary) but don't go on to the next section until you can recite.

In this stage, you should attempt to understand major concepts listed in


“Key Terms” and to answer questions listed in “Reviewing the Concepts”

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


0-10 Introduction

in the end of the chapter. You may wish to state the answer to yourself or
write it down in note form. Keeping a set of notes with questions and
brief answers is probably the best approach. If you are unable to answer
a question, examine the material until you find the answer.

This process will prevent you from deluding yourself into believing that
you understand material when, in fact, you do not actually comprehend
it. The recitation dimension of SQ3R method is designed to replace
surface recognition of material with true understanding and
comprehension.

Review
After completing a chapter, review your notes. Identify the main points of
the reading by looking for the most important idea in each section.
Recite, or write, a brief summary of the chapter. Use online resources –
MySocLab as references and try to complete the “Applying Your
Sociological Imagination” at the end of the chapter. Complete the chapter
by reading the chapter summary once again.

Many experts have shown that using the SQ3R method improves reading
comprehension and efficiency. Students who haven’t learned a reading
strategy tend to read straight through an entire chapter and try to
remember everything. This approach is only slightly better than not
reading at all. It is not wise to read a textbook as you would read a novel.
You must actually “dig out” information and give yourself a chance to
pause and digest the information you are learning. A s u rvey prepares
you to read effectively. Q uesti oni ng maintains your concentration on
the subject, and it allows you to r ea d in short “bites.” R eci tati on of
what you have read allows you to actually participate in and check up on
your learning. Finally, r evie w of the whole chapter ties together what
you have learned and increases your understanding.

One of the most distressing experiences students have when they read is
to discover after a while that they have passed their eyes over several
pages but don’t really remember anything. More than anything else, the
SQ3R method helps to avoid this.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Module 1

Sociological Imagination:
Classical and Modern Theories

Module Overview
To many people, sociology is the most exciting subject, a fresh, lively,
and valuable way of understanding people and social phenomena. We are
all individuals, with different personalities, experiences, backgrounds,
and opportunities to make choices in our lives. However, our lives and
choices are conditioned or shaped by social and structural factors. Such
factors as where and when we are born, who our parents and family are,
whether we are male or female or white or aboriginal, and what resources
are available to us affect the kinds of persons that we become and the
opportunities that are available to us.

Sociology is a scientific study of the relationship between individuals and


society. In reading three chapters for this module, you will find that the
questions that classical and contemporary sociologists ask are raised
and answered in various ways. In Chapter 1 of your textbook, the
authors provide the foundation for the entire textbook. They begin by
exploring what Wright Mills termed the “sociological imagination” and
then look at how wider social forces influence personal identity. The
chapter analyzes how scientific, industrial, and political revolutions gave
rise to the discipline of sociology and how macrosociology and
microsociology contributed to our knowledge of society in Canadian and
global contexts. The authors note that social problems are a consequence
of social structure rather than simply individual or group differences.
Chapters 2 and 3 provide an introduction to the development of classical
and modern sociological theories. Particularly, they focus on three
classical theoretical models (functionalism, conflict theory, and symbolic
interactionism) and some modern theories such as western Marxism,
Feminist theories, post-structuralism, queer theory, post-colonial theory,
anti-racist theories, and globalization theory. As you read these chapters,
be alert to the kinds of questions and answers that sociologists pose as
they analyze the social world. What did each of the major classical and
modern theorists identify as the nature of the individual-society
relationship? What problem did each identify as important in the
examination of society and social change?
1-2 Module 1
Sociological Imagination: Classical and Modern Theories

The questions and approaches developed by early sociologists have


deeply influenced the ways in which contemporary and modern
sociologists study societies and their main features. It is important to pay
special attention to the kinds of questions and focal points that are
central to each approach. As you attempt to understand each approach,
look at whether the approach focuses on social structures or social
processes, on face-to face interaction or wider social organization, and on
order and stability or conflict and change.

Module Objectives
As you work through this module, you will be able to:

1. understanding that Sociology is a scientific study of the


relationship between individuals and society;
2. describe what sociological imagination is and how sociologists
investigate social phenomena in different ways;
3. know the linkages and differences between macro and micro
approaches to sociology and between classical and modern
sociological theories.

Readings and Learning Activities

Readings
Chapters 1,2, and 3

Learning Activities
1. Get t he i dea of what t he c ha pte r is ab out . Examine the
title, headings, “Chapter at a Glance,” and “Objectives” of the
chapter and read the “Summary” at the end before beginning a
careful reading of the chapter. This will give you an overall
picture of the chapter’s content.
2. Rea d t he c ha pte r. As you read, you will encounter some new
concepts, familiar concepts used in new ways, and different
terms to express similar ideas. Look at how terms are defined
when you first encounter them. Identify cues from the context of
each chapter. Try to turn the title, headings or subheadings into
questions, and ask what, why, how, when, who and where
questions as they relate to the content. Read the chapter with
creative and critical thinking. Read one section of the chapter at
a time, actively looking for an answer to your question for the

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 1 1-3
Sociological Imagination: Classical and Modern Theories

section. Be sure to review everything in the section, including


tables, graphs, them boxes, and illustrations, as these features
can communicate an idea more powerful than text.
3. Take note s on t he c hap te r a nd recit e what you have
re ad. Take some notes as you read the chapter. The notes
should be a reference point to help you identify and recall the
arguments and information developed in each chapter. Note-
taking should be an aid to the learning process, allowing you to
indicate your own insights and questions as well as to state the
points made by authors. After you read each section of the
chapter, recall your questions, and see if you can answer from
memory. You should attempt to understand major concepts
listed in “Key Terms” and to answer questions listed in
“Reviewing the Concepts” in the end of the chapter. You may
wish to state the answer to yourself or write it down in note form.
If you are unable to answer a question, examine the material
again until you find the answer.
4. Complet e t he “ Applyi ng Y our Soci ol ogic al Imagi nati on”
at t he e nd of t he c hapte r. These questions at the end of the
chapter reinforce the importance of continually reflecting on your
sociological imagination by posing questions and situations that
inspire debate, discussion, and reflection. You are not required
to complete each exercise in detail or to submit any of these
exercises to the instructor for grading. However, you should
supplement your notes with a summary answer, in point form,
for each question.

Recommended Resources
1. Use O nli ne Sou rce – My SocL ab a nd revie w your note s.
MySocLab offers you all of learning resources in one place. You
will find a number of excellent resources to help you master the
learning objectives for the chapter. In addition to the pre- and
post-test, study plan, and chapter exam that accompany every
chapter, MySocLab features a number of multimedia resources,
including an e-book version of the chapter, videos, and
peerScholar assignments. You can access MySocLab online with
an access code that comes with the textbook you purchased.
Please use Internet Explorer to access the website
www.mysoclab.com and log in “MySocLab Pegasus.”

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


1-4 Module 1
Sociological Imagination: Classical and Modern Theories

Questions for Module 1


1. What is a “sociological imagination?” How might a sociological
imagination be applied to the analysis of poverty in Canada?
2. Discuss how each of the following theories viewed the
relationship between the individual and society:
1. Structural functionalism
2. Symbolic interactionism
3. Conflict perspective
3. What are the major contributions made by Western Marxist
sociologists and feminist sociologists

Applying Your Insights (Module 1)


From both micro and macro sociological perspectives, identify the factors
that are likely to have had an influence on the individuals being
described:

• A person who is unable to find a job after completing her post


secondary education;
• A person who has recently been divorced;
• A person who was arrested for shoplifting.
Compare how a sociologist using an individual approach, and one using
a structural approach, would explain each of the situations. What is your
approach to these situations?

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 1 1-5
Sociological Imagination: Classical and Modern Theories

Assignment 1
(Value: 20% of course grade)
Answer the following questions in essay form. Use 12-point font, Times
New Roman, and double-space. Write 2-3 pages for each question.

1. What is sociological imagination? Discuss how the sociological


perspective can be applied to an understanding of the individual
as well as the collective.
2. Compare and contrast the functionalist and conflict theories of
society, giving special attention to the assumptions and
emphases that distinguish these two approaches. Provide your
own comments or arguments.

Be sure to keep a copy of each assignment before you send it in, in case it gets lost in the
mail.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Module 2

Scientific Study of Social


World: Research Methods

Module Overview
Sociology is an empirical subject. All theories are constructed on the
empirical basis, which is by collecting information and observing the real
world, and by summarizing, generalizing, and interpreting the
information. Sociologists, who investigate the social world, draw upon
specific rules and guidelines to help them make their observations. While
the skills that we employ in everyday life offer a useful starting point to
help us observe our world, scientific research requires additional
assurances that our observations are as complete as possible and as free
as possible from errors and bias. For these reasons, an understanding of
research methods is a central part of the development of a sociological
imagination.

Sociologists use research methods to help them gather information about


the world they are studying and to test the accuracy of the theories and
models that they have developed to make sense of the world. It is,
therefore, necessary to take steps to ensure that the information that
they are gathering as well as the ways in which they define and interpret
that information are comprehensive, valid, and reliable.

The term “research method” is simply the body of knowledge and


principles about how research is done in sociology. Chapter 4 starts with
issues of the connection between theory and research, quantitative and
qualitative approaches, and essential research concepts. It then
introduces major research methods used in sociology. In addition to
providing an overview of the major procedures and decisions involved in
the research process, this chapter also discusses sexism and ethical
issues in sociological research.

It is important to recognize that the main purpose of the research


procedures is to provide information that will enable us, in a confident
and knowledgeable manner, to describe, explain, and possibly predict
different events or aspects of social reality. We must be aware of
difficulties that we encounter as we study the social world. Some of these
difficulties are shared by all sciences, including the need to define our
concepts and develop research tools that will enable us to gather
2-2 Module 2
Scientific Study of the World: Research Methods

accurate data and the effort to minimize bias in our research. In


addition, researchers who study the social world encounter further
problems that are a result of conducting research on human beings and
their societies.

As you read through the chapter, keep in mind that doing research in
sociology, as in all other scientific disciplines, continually involves a
compromise between research in an ideal sense and what can actually be
accomplished by research in any given concrete situation. This is
complicated by the recognition that there are several different
approaches to doing science. As indicated in Module 1, different
sociological perspectives offer distinct ways of defining and investigating
social issues. The distinguishing feature of a good sociological research
project, therefore, is not measured by the specific adherence to any given
formula for doing science. It is determined, instead, by the extent to
which our research provides systematic information that allows us to
confidently make useful assessments about some important aspects of
the social world. While it is not possible to cover all methodological topics
in detail in Chapter 4, you should have a better appreciation for the joys
of finding out about our social world sociologically.

Module Objectives
As you work through this module, you will be able to:

1. understand the rules and procedures that guide sociological


research;
2. differentiate between quantitative and qualitative approaches to
sociology;
3. know different research methods used in sociological research;
4. appreciate the importance of ethics in sociological research and
explore the influence of feminist theory on sociological methods.

Readings and Learning Activities

Readings
Chapter 4

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 2 2-3
Scientific Study of Social World: Research Methods

Learning Activities
1. Get t he i dea of what t he c ha pte r is ab out . Examine the
title, headings, “Chapter at a Glance,” and “Objectives” of the
chapter and read the “Summary” at the end before beginning a
careful reading of the chapter. This will give you an overall
picture of the chapter’s content.
2. Rea d t he c ha pte r. As you read, you will encounter some new
concepts, familiar concepts used in new ways, and different
terms to express similar ideas. Look at how terms are defined
when you first encounter them. Identify cues from the context of
each chapter. Try to turn the title, headings or subheadings into
questions, and ask what, why, how, when, who and where
questions as they relate to the content. Read the chapter with
creative and critical thinking. Read one section of the chapter at
a time, actively looking for an answer to your question for the
section. Be sure to review everything in the section, including
tables, graphs, them boxes, and illustrations, as these features
can communicate an idea more powerful than text.
3. Take note s on t he c hap te r a nd recit e what you have
re ad. Take some notes as you read the chapter. The notes
should be a reference point to help you identify and recall the
arguments and information developed in each chapter. Note-
taking should be an aid to the learning process, allowing you to
indicate your own insights and questions as well as to state the
points made by authors. After you read each section of the
chapter, recall your questions, and see if you can answer from
memory. You should attempt to understand major concepts
listed in “Key Terms” and to answer questions listed in
“Reviewing the Concepts” in the end of the chapter. You may
wish to state the answer to yourself or write it down in note form.
If you are unable to answer a question, examine the material
again until you find the answer.
4. Complet e t he “ Applyi ng Y our Soci ol ogic al Imagi nati on”
at t he e nd of t he c hapte r. These questions at the end of the
chapter reinforce the importance of continually reflecting on your
sociological imagination by posing questions and situations that
inspire debate, discussion, and reflection. You are not required
to complete each exercise in detail or to submit any of these
exercises to the instructor for grading. However, you should
supplement your notes with a summary answer, in point form,
for each question.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


2-4 Module 2
Scientific Study of the World: Research Methods

Recommended Resources
1. Use O nli ne Sou rce – My SocL ab a nd revie w your note s.
MySocLab offers you all of learning resources in one place. You
will find a number of excellent resources to help you master the
learning objectives for the chapter. In addition to the pre- and
post-test, study plan, and chapter exam that accompany every
chapter, MySocLab features a number of multimedia resources,
including an e-book version of the chapter, videos, and
peerScholar assignments. You can access MySocLab online with
an access code that comes with the textbook you purchased.
Please use Internet Explorer to access the website
www.mysoclab.com and log in “MySocLab Pegasus.”

Questions for Module 2


1. Why is empirical research important to sociology? What
particular considerations do sociological researchers have to take
into account in doing research that distinguishes sociological
research from research in other disciplines?
2. What are the major problems associated with conducting
scientific research? Which of these problems are common to all
sciences? Which ones are unique to Sociology?
3. In what way does bias enter into scientific research? What steps
can be taken to eliminate or reduce these biases?

Applying Your Insights (Module 2)


Assume that you have been asked to investigate the relationship between
violence in TV programs and aggressive behaviours of school children.
Identify several different ways in which you could gather data about this
relationship. Then, select any two of these and outline the specific steps
that you would take, including operationalization, sampling, and data
collection, to complete your research. How would the findings from each
approach likely be similar to one another? How would they be different?

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Module 3

Social Inequality and Political


Economy

Module Overview
Social inequality is one of the most familiar facts of social life in our
society. Whether expressed as differences in the houses or
neighbourhoods that we live in, the kinds of jobs and incomes that we
have, the amounts of control that we have over major life decisions, or
the people we identify with, social inequality pervades our lives. However,
while these inequalities are often easy to recognize, it tends to be more
difficult to make sense of them in terms of why they exist as they do and
what their consequences are for individuals, social groups, and societies.
Chapter 7 explains social inequality from the theoretical understanding
of the stratification system in Canadian and global contexts. Factors
influencing social inequality in Canada include gender, work status,
family structure, age, education, race, and living location. Chapter 7 also
differentiates between closed and open societies. In closed societies,
social inequality is based on ascribed status such as family background,
race, and gender. In open societies, social inequality is more likely
related to achieved status such as property, income, occupation, and
education.

The concept of class, in the most general sense, refers to relatively


enduring or regular social inequalities associated with our control over
and possession of resources. Chapter 7 offers a discussion of Canadian
class structure, which consists of an upper class, an upper-middle class,
a lower middle class, a working class, and an underclass. It should be
mentioned that the class inequality can be defined and investigated in
different ways. Traditional sociological conceptions of class emphasize
classes or strata as distinct categories which are organized around
important attributes such as income, education, or prestige. By contrast,
conflict approaches to class focus less on possessions or which category
we happen to fall into or identify ourselves with, and instead, they
emphasize economic and power relations.

Work, in a sociological sense, is a broader concept than simple reference


to “jobs.” Work, or labour, refers to people’s ability to plan and carry out
particular tasks in order to meet various needs. In this general sense,
3-2 Module 3
Social Inequality and political Economy

work includes both physical and mental aspects of human activity,


whether applied to simple routine chores or to more complex highly
coordinated actions. One way to analyze work is through the
examination of the labour process. Chapter 16 analyzes the changing
nature of work through time and examines different sociological theories
of work and global economic systems.

We cannot fully understand social inequality without looking at social


structures and political and economic institutions in human societies.
Chapter 16 reviews the sociological understanding of the political
economy and Max Weber’s theory of power and authorities. It analyzes
contemporary political and economic institutions and the political system
in Canada.

Sociologically, the analysis of the state includes not only government, but
also government-related institutions and decision-making processes. As
you read through Chapter 16, you should be aware of the impact of the
capitalist economy on government-related activities as well as the
unequal responsiveness of the state to competing priorities. It is
important to remember that these priorities remain open to contention
and struggle on the part of different social groups. Aboriginal self-
government in the landscape of Canadian society is a good example of
such struggle.

Module Objectives
As you work through this module, you will be able to:

1. understand different sociological theories of social inequality;


2. describe how social inequality produced within the class
structure affects people’s life chances and experiences
3. explain the ways in which work, as a fundamental social activity,
is related to the labour process in the capitalist society;
4. understand the nature and significance of the Canadian political
and economic institutions.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 3 3-3
Social Inequality and Political Economy

Readings and Learning Activities

Readings
Chapters 7 and 16

Learning Activities
1. Get t he i dea of what t he c ha pte r is ab out . Examine the
title, headings, “Chapter at a Glance,” and “Objectives” of the
chapter and read the “Summary” at the end before beginning a
careful reading of the chapter. This will give you an overall
picture of the chapter’s content.
2. Rea d t he c ha pte r. As you read, you will encounter some new
concepts, familiar concepts used in new ways, and different
terms to express similar ideas. Look at how terms are defined
when you first encounter them. Identify cues from the context of
each chapter. Try to turn the title, headings or subheadings into
questions, and ask what, why, how, when, who and where
questions as they relate to the content. Read the chapter with
creative and critical thinking. Read one section of the chapter at
a time, actively looking for an answer to your question for the
section. Be sure to review everything in the section, including
tables, graphs, them boxes, and illustrations, as these features
can communicate an idea more powerful than text.
3. Take note s on t he c hap te r a nd recit e what you have
re ad. Take some notes as you read the chapter. The notes
should be a reference point to help you identify and recall the
arguments and information developed in each chapter. Note-
taking should be an aid to the learning process, allowing you to
indicate your own insights and questions as well as to state the
points made by authors. After you read each section of the
chapter, recall your questions, and see if you can answer from
memory. You should attempt to understand major concepts
listed in “Key Terms” and to answer questions listed in
“Reviewing the Concepts” in the end of the chapter. You may
wish to state the answer to yourself or write it down in note form.
If you are unable to answer a question, examine the material
again until you find the answer.
4. Complet e t he “ Applyi ng Y our Soci ol ogic al Imagi nati on”
at t he e nd of t he c hapte r. These questions at the end of the
chapter reinforce the importance of continually reflecting on your
sociological imagination by posing questions and situations that
inspire debate, discussion, and reflection. You are not required
to complete each exercise in detail or to submit any of these
exercises to the instructor for grading. However, you should

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


3-4 Module 3
Social Inequality and political Economy

supplement your notes with a summary answer, in point form,


for each question.

Recommended Resources
1. Use O nli ne Sou rce – My SocL ab a nd revie w your note s.
MySocLab offers you all of learning resources in one place. You
will find a number of excellent resources to help you master the
learning objectives for the chapter. In addition to the pre- and
post-test, study plan, and chapter exam that accompany every
chapter, MySocLab features a number of multimedia resources,
including an e-book version of the chapter, videos, and
peerScholar assignments. You can access MySocLab online with
an access code that comes with the textbook you purchased.
Please use Internet Explorer to access the website
www.mysoclab.com and log in “MySocLab Pegasus.”

Questions for Module 3


1. Compare and contrast traditional and conflict approaches to
class analysis. Discuss which approach is most useful for an
analysis of social inequalities in contemporary Canadian society.
2. Which factors distinguish a capitalist economy from other
economic systems? Based upon these factors, discuss the extent
to which Canada can be considered a capitalist nation.
3. Compare and contrast the following four sociological approaches
to social stratification:
• functionalism
• conflict theory
• symbolic interactionism
• feminist theory

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 3 3-5
Social Inequality and Political Economy

Applying Your Insights (Module 3)


Identify and analyze a particular job or position. Describe the following:

• The nature of the job,


• The extent of control the worker has over the job and its related
duties,
• The kinds of people who are likely to perform the job (e.g., men or
women; affluent or poor; whites or nonwhites; people with higher
education and people with lower education), and
• Historical changes in the nature of the job and its relevant
workforce.
Then indicate the ways in which your findings either support or
contradict the arguments about work developed in the readings for the
module.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


3-6 Module 3
Social Inequality and political Economy

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 3 3-7
Social Inequality and Political Economy

Assignment 2
(Value: 20% of course grade)
Answer the following questions in essay form. Use 12-point font, Times
New Roman, and double-space. Write 2-3 pages for each question.

1. Compare and contrast any two of the theoretical explanations for


social stratification. Which do you prefer? Why?
2. Many commentators argue that job selection and working
conditions are matters of individual choice and free markets.
Using your own experience or empirical evidence, indicate
whether or not this is a valid argument.

Be sure to keep a copy of each assignment before you send it in, in case it gets lost in the
mail.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Module 4

Mass Media, Social Change,


and Social Movements

Module Overview
As you read through this module, you should try to understand the
interrelations among mass media, social movement, and social change.
For example, social movements, which rely on the mass media to
mobilize public awareness and support, are active forces for social
change.

In the last 60 years the media influence has grown exponentially with the
advance of technology, first there were newspapers and the telegraph,
then the radio, the television, and now the Internet. What we need to be
aware of is that most of our decisions, beliefs and values are based on
what we know as fact, our assumptions and our own experience. In our
work we usually know what we have to do based on our experience and
studies, however for our daily lives we rely on the media to get the
current news and facts about what is important and what we should be
aware of. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us
news, entertainment and education. However, the influence of mass
media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know
how it really works. Chapter 17 reviews the history of communication
technologies and analyzes the relationship between mass media and
society. This chapter also introduces different theoretical approaches to
mass media. What is the role of the mass media in society? Sociologists
provide different answers to the question. Inspired by Durkheim’s ideas,
structural functionalists suggest that the mass media perform key
functions for society by contributing to its order and stability. In
contrast, drawing on Marx’s work, conflict theorists argue that the mass
media help to sustain the power and inequality that characterize
capitalist society. Media institutions and media content, therefore, are a
basis for conflict between unequal groups. Feminists also focus on power
and inequality by arguing that the mass media are an aspect of
patriarchal society. They contend that media institutions and media
content contribute to the oppression of women. Who has power over
what we read, see, or hear in the mass media? The critical perspective
holds that private companies through their ownership and control of
media organizations hold much of this power. According to the critical
4-2 Module 4
Mass Media, Social Change, and Social Movements

perspective, media content reflects the dominant ideology in society.


Media texts are encoded with capitalist, patriarchal, and racist ideology.
But audience members in a variety of ways decode these texts. In the
public sphere, some members of subordinate groups object to certain
messages or presentations in media texts and challenge dominant
cultural and media institutions by expressing their own messages
through alternative media such as the Internet. The Internet clearly
presents new opportunities for movements to challenge social inequality
and generate social change.

Chapter 18 focuses on sociological explanations of social change,


collective behaviour, and social movements. Questions about the nature
and significance of social change are central to the development of
sociology. The classical social theorists, notably Karl Marx, Emil
Durkheim, and Max Weber, each were concerned with describing and
explaining the importance of the social changes that were taking place.
Their work also went further: to provide a critique of society and a
discussion of the possible direction that might characterize future
changes. Contemporary sociology has grown out of this earlier critique of
society and analysis of social change. Many of the questions and
arguments posed by the classical social theorists remain important even
if the terms of the debate have changed along with the social realities
within which the analysis of social change occurs.

Social problems arise when social changes make different groups aware
of conflicting values and interests. And many social changes result from
attempts to resolve social problems, whether through peaceful or violent
means, through established channels or collective behaviour. Collective
behaviour is group behaviour governed by spontaneous or emergent
norms, rather than the social norms of the larger society. Collective
behaviour does not necessarily result in negative consequences for
society. On the contrary, collective behaviour is often the basis for
positive social change – for new ways of looking at old ideas and for
implementing new values whose time has come. Collective behaviour is a
crucial determinant of social and cultural change.

Sociologists distinguish between collective behaviour and social


movements. Collective behaviors are non-routine actions by an
emotionally aroused gathering of people who face an ambiguous
situation. They are unplanned, relatively spontaneous actions, where
individuals and groups have some joint response to an unusual or
problematic situation. In contrast, a social movement is an ongoing, goal-
directed, organized collective effort to change social institutions, policies,
laws, values, or the distribution of social goods. Chapter 18 identifies
different types of social movements and analyzes different sociological
theories of social movements. In North America, social movement
activities have grown steadily since 1960s. In recent years sociologists
have been focusing on new social movements in their study, including
environmental, peace, feminist, homosexuality, and civil rights
initiatives, which are seen as distinct from old social movements, such as

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 4 4-3
Mass Media, Social Change, and Social Movements

trade union and labor movements. As you will learn in Module 5, new
social movements have played an important role in reflecting the
challenges associated with globalization and the environment.

Module Objectives
As you work through this module, you will be able to:

1. Identify how mass media, social change, and social movements


are studied sociologically;
2. compare different sociological theories on mass media, social
change, and social movements;
3. explain how the internet reflects long-standing issues in the
sociology of mass media;
4. summarize why social movements have historical importance in
the process of social change.

Readings and Learning Activities

Readings
Chapters 17 and 18

Learning Activities
1. Get t he i dea of what t he c ha pte r is ab out . Examine the
title, headings, “Chapter at a Glance,” and “Objectives” of the
chapter and read the “Summary” at the end before beginning a
careful reading of the chapter. This will give you an overall
picture of the chapter’s content.
2. Rea d t he c ha pte r. As you read, you will encounter some new
concepts, familiar concepts used in new ways, and different
terms to express similar ideas. Look at how terms are defined
when you first encounter them. Identify cues from the context of
each chapter. Try to turn the title, headings or subheadings into
questions, and ask what, why, how, when, who and where
questions as they relate to the content. Read the chapter with
creative and critical thinking. Read one section of the chapter at
a time, actively looking for an answer to your question for the
section. Be sure to review everything in the section, including
tables, graphs, them boxes, and illustrations, as these features
can communicate an idea more powerful than text.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


4-4 Module 4
Mass Media, Social Change, and Social Movements

3. Take note s on t he c hap te r a nd recit e what you have


re ad. Take some notes as you read the chapter. The notes
should be a reference point to help you identify and recall the
arguments and information developed in each chapter. Note-
taking should be an aid to the learning process, allowing you to
indicate your own insights and questions as well as to state the
points made by authors. After you read each section of the
chapter, recall your questions, and see if you can answer from
memory. You should attempt to understand major concepts
listed in “Key Terms” and to answer questions listed in
“Reviewing the Concepts” in the end of the chapter. You may
wish to state the answer to yourself or write it down in note form.
If you are unable to answer a question, examine the material
again until you find the answer.
4. Complet e t he “ Applyi ng Y our Soci ol ogic al Imagi nati on”
at t he e nd of t he c hapte r. These questions at the end of the
chapter reinforce the importance of continually reflecting on your
sociological imagination by posing questions and situations that
inspire debate, discussion, and reflection. You are not required
to complete each exercise in detail or to submit any of these
exercises to the instructor for grading. However, you should
supplement your notes with a summary answer, in point form,
for each question.

Recommended Resources
1. Use O nli ne Sou rce – My SocL ab a nd revie w your note s.
MySocLab offers you all of learning resources in one place. You
will find a number of excellent resources to help you master the
learning objectives for the chapter. In addition to the pre- and
post-test, study plan, and chapter exam that accompany every
chapter, MySocLab features a number of multimedia resources,
including an e-book version of the chapter, videos, and
peerScholar assignments. You can access MySocLab online with
an access code that comes with the textbook you purchased.
Please use Internet Explorer to access the website
www.mysoclab.com and log in “MySocLab Pegasus.”

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 4 4-5
Mass Media, Social Change, and Social Movements

Questions for Module 4


1. Social movements disseminate ideas and hope to influence the
general public. What is the role of the media in this process?
How might new media technologies change social movement
strategies, processes, and internal organization?
2. How do functionalism, conflict theory, evolutionary theory, and
cyclical theory explain social change? Make comments on these
theories.
3. Why has the analysis of social change been a central concern for
sociologists?

Applying Your Insights (Module 4)


Identify an area of social life around which there is debate about the
need for, and direction of, social change (e.g., constitutional reform,
health care, education, First Nations issues, or tax reform). Indicate what
arguments would likely be used to justify each of the three approaches to
social changes. Which one offers the most adequate explanation of
change? Why?

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


SOC 111.3 — Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process

Module 5

Globalization and
Environmental Issues

Module Overview
Globalization is a process by which regional economies and social
activities, educations, cultures, companies and organizations have
become integrated through a global network of communication,
transportation, trade, investment, and migration. It is usually
recognized as being driven by a combination of technological, political,
economic, sociocultural, and biological factors. Chapter 19 discusses the
origins, processes, causes, and consequences of globalization and
introduces different theoretical approaches to the issue.

There is a debate about globalization. Supporters of globalization argue


that it is good and beneficial. They argue that globalization has created
the concept of outsourcing. Work such as software development,
customer support, marketing, accounting and insurance is outsourced to
developing countries like India and China. The company that outsources
the work enjoys the benefit of lower costs because the wages in
developing countries are far lower than that of developed countries and
the workers in the developing countries get employment. Developing
countries get access to the latest technology. They also suggest that
increased competition forces companies to lower prices, which benefits
the end consumers. In addition, increased media coverage draws the
attention of the world to human right violations, which leads to
improvement in human rights. It is true that there are many positive
impacts brought about by globalization. The economies of the world are
being increasingly integrated; mobile phones and Internet have brought
people closer, and the world is becoming a smaller place; goods, which
were once confined to western countries, are available across the globe,
and work can be outsourced to any part of the world that has an Internet
connection. Because of improvements in traffic infrastructure people
are able to reach their destinations in a relatively short span of time.
More important is the fact that modern communications have enhanced
the degree to which control can be effectively exercised over large
distances and have made it possible to run a multinational corporation;
a single organization can coordinate production and marketing in
different countries.
5-2 Module 5
Globalization and Environmental Issues

Despite these positive impacts and consequences of globalization, many


sociologists have paid much more attention to its negative effects.
Opponents of globalization argue that the benefits of globalization are not
universal. The rich countries are getting richer and the poor countries
are becoming poorer. Globalization has led to the exploitation of labor
and social inequality in the international context. Chapter 19 analyzes
the issue of global poverty and regional inequality and identifies the
challenges that globalization presents in the area of cultural
homogenization.

The process of globalization also has effects on the environment and


human physical well being in societies around the world. Ecological and
environmental issues tend to be associated more with the study of nature
than the study of society. Nonetheless, people’s relations with nature
both condition and are conditioned by their social relations. Growing
awareness of the dangers of environmental destruction by environmental
activists as well as by politicians, the public, and business has alerted us
to look at the consequences of human activity. It has also caused us to
consider ways of changing our behaviors in order to become more
sensitive to ecological concerns. Sociological analysis of ecology focuses
upon the examination of causes and consequences of social changes that
affect these relationships both among different social groups and
between people and nature. In chapter 20, the authors discuss what
environmental sociology is and how sociologists explain people’s
relationship to the environment from different perspectives. The chapter
also reviews major environmental challenges we are facing today,
including global climate change, declining biodiversity, water safety, air
pollution, and solid waste. It is important to know that we cannot
adequately understand ecological change without consideration of the
interaction among social structure, human behaviors, and natural
processes.

From a sociological perspective, it is necessary to go beyond the simple


acknowledgment that general social processes and interventions like
population growth, technology, and industry are the primary causes of
environmental problems. Rather, we must consider the specific social
ways in which these forces have been developed and organized.
Technology and economic growth, for instance, are not themselves
inherently destructive of the environment. However, environmental
destruction is likely to be a consequence of these forces when it is linked
to such quests for profit, undemocratic political representation, and
uncoordinated strategies for economic development. If sociology can
make one substantial contribution to the understanding of ecological
crisis, it is the recognition that environmental problems are social
products.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 5 5-3
Globalization and Environmental Issues

Module Objectives
As you work through this module, you will be able to:

1. distinguish between globalization effects in rich and poor


countries;
2. explore the major contributions of sociology to issues of
globalization and environment;
3. outline the major ecological changes and indicators of
environmental destruction that have occurred in Canada.

Readings and Learning Activities

Readings
Chapters 19 and 20

Learning Activities
1. Get t he i dea of what t he c ha pte r is ab out . Examine the
title, headings, “Chapter at a Glance,” and “Objectives” of the
chapter and read the “Summary” at the end before beginning a
careful reading of the chapter. This will give you an overall
picture of the chapter’s content.
2. Rea d t he c ha pte r. As you read, you will encounter some new
concepts, familiar concepts used in new ways, and different
terms to express similar ideas. Look at how terms are defined
when you first encounter them. Identify cues from the context of
each chapter. Try to turn the title, headings or subheadings into
questions, and ask what, why, how, when, who and where
questions as they relate to the content. Read the chapter with
creative and critical thinking. Read one section of the chapter at
a time, actively looking for an answer to your question for the
section. Be sure to review everything in the section, including
tables, graphs, them boxes, and illustrations, as these features
can communicate an idea more powerful than text.
3. Take note s on t he c hap te r a nd recit e what you have
re ad. Take some notes as you read the chapter. The notes
should be a reference point to help you identify and recall the
arguments and information developed in each chapter. Note-
taking should be an aid to the learning process, allowing you to
indicate your own insights and questions as well as to state the
points made by authors. After you read each section of the
chapter, recall your questions, and see if you can answer from
memory. You should attempt to understand major concepts

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


5-4 Module 5
Globalization and Environmental Issues

listed in “Key Terms” and to answer questions listed in


“Reviewing the Concepts” in the end of the chapter. You may
wish to state the answer to yourself or write it down in note form.
If you are unable to answer a question, examine the material
again until you find the answer.
4. Complet e t he “ Applyi ng Y our Soci ol ogic al Imagi nati on”
at t he e nd of t he c hapte r. These questions at the end of the
chapter reinforce the importance of continually reflecting on your
sociological imagination by posing questions and situations that
inspire debate, discussion, and reflection. You are not required
to complete each exercise in detail or to submit any of these
exercises to the instructor for grading. However, you should
supplement your notes with a summary answer, in point form,
for each question.

Recommended Resources
1. Use O nli ne Sou rce – My SocL ab a nd revie w your note s.
MySocLab offers you all of learning resources in one place. You
will find a number of excellent resources to help you master the
learning objectives for the chapter. In addition to the pre- and
post-test, study plan, and chapter exam that accompany every
chapter, MySocLab features a number of multimedia resources,
including an e-book version of the chapter, videos, and
peerScholar assignments. You can access MySocLab online with
an access code that comes with the textbook you purchased.
Please use Internet Explorer to access the website
www.mysoclab.com and log in “MySocLab Pegasus.”

Questions for Module 5


1. What are factors contributing to globalization? What are positive
and negative consequences of globalization?
2. Some people argue that environmental problems are inherent in
the process of modernization, which involves urbanization,
economic progress, and population growth. Do you feel that the
inevitability of environmental damage is a valid assumption?
3. What is meant by sustainable development? Discuss the
possibilities and limitations of sustainable development for
resolving environmental problems.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 5 5-5
Globalization and Environmental Issues

Applying Your Insights (Module 5)


Identify several specific examples of recent ecological disasters (e.g., oil
spills, desertification, and famines). Identify the social processes and
structures that have contributed to each of these cases.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


5-6 Module 5
Globalization and Environmental Issues

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process


Module 5 5-7
Globalization and Environmental Issues

Assignment 3
(Value: 30% of course grade)
Write an analytical paper on a specific social issue under one of the
following general topics:

 Mass media and society

 Social movement or collective behaviour

 Social change

 Globalization

Your paper should be 8-10 pages (12-point font; Times New Roman; and
double-spaced) in length. You must provide a bibliography, including
references to all sources of information that you draw upon in your
paper.
The purpose of this assignment is to give you experience in defining a
sociological problem and providing a systematic answer or response to
that question based upon your own experience and investigation. It is to
be an analytical paper in the sense that you will be providing information
that not only describes the issue with which you are dealing, but in
addition, you will be working towards an explanation of the problem.
The process that you should follow in developing your analysis can be
outlined as follows:
1. Develop a specific title for your paper. Define your problem or
research question: What are you trying to find out, and why?
2. Indicate the possible ways of answering the question: Which
theories, approaches or explanations can be used, or have been
used by others, to answer the question of a similar nature?
Identify, briefly, the strengths and limitations of each approach.
3. Identify your argument: Indicate how you are going to answer the
question (i.e., which approach will you take or which set of
factors will you conclude are most important to explain your
problem), and justify why.
4. Provide your empirical evidence (your own
experience/observation or secondary data) and analysis:
Organize and present your information. Your findings must be
set up in such a way as to show how and why you have
answered your question in the way that you have. You may use
your textbook as sources of information, but you should also
incorporate other books and articles.
5. Conclude your analysis: Provide a brief concluding section to
summarize your analysis and to indicate its importance.

Be sure to keep a copy of each assignment before you send it in, in case it gets lost in the
mail.

SOC 111.3 – Foundations in Sociology: Society, Structure, Process