SGG 2443 PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE

LECTURE 4 – SUBSYSTEMS IN GIS
Assoc Prof Mohamad Nor Said m.nor@utm.my

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS

Lecture Outline: • Introduction • Subsystem For Data Input • Subsystem For Data Storage & Management • Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis • Subsystem For Data Output

SGG 2443 - Principles of Geographic Information Science

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS
ArcView

GIS - 4 SUBSYSTEMS
Data Input Data Storage & Management Data Manipulation & Analysis Data Display (Output)

SGG 2443 - Principles of Geographic Information Science

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input
• raw data is converted into digital • data: spatial & non-spatial (attribute) • requires correction; verification; updating • spatial data entry is more critical – quality; cost; time; availability

SGG 2443 - Principles of Geographic Information Science

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input (cont’d.Principles of Geographic Information Science .g. line. vertical angle • data: coordinates. polygon • mode: point. bearing. stream Field Surveying • field data recorder: e. elevation • digital file: import into GIS SGG 2443 . Total Station • observation: distance.) Manual Digitizing • records map coordinates in digital format • data recorder (device) – digitizer • now: head-up (on-screen) digitizing • object: point.

vector conversion • image interpretation: done digitally SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input (cont’d.) Photogrammetry • uses aerial photographs • maps produced from stereomodel (2 overlapping photos) • requires geometric correction (rectification) • mosaic (stitched photos) = orthophoto • now: digital photogrammetry Remote Sensing • data from satellite images • every single object reflects different frequencies • image classified digitally • correction: radiometric & geometric • format: raster.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input (cont’d.) Photogrammetric Mapping SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Remote Sensing Satellite Remote Sensing Image Solar Panel Sensor Image : a) Panchromatic b) Color: • True color • False color Ground surface being scanned SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

A sun synchronous orbit is a near polar orbit whose altitude is such that the satellite will always pass over a location at a given latitude at the same local solar time.Principles of Geographic Information Science . the same solar illumination condition (except for seasonal variation) can be achieved for the images of a given location taken by the satellite.LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Earth observation satellites usually follow the sun synchronous orbits. SGG 2443 . In this way.

5 (USA) • Sun-synchronous • optical/ infra red • 705 Km altitude • 16 days repeat cycle • resolution – Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) 80m – Thematic Mapper (TM) 30m – Thermal Infra Red 120m • ground swath 185Km SPOT (France) • Sun-synchronous • optical/ infra red • 832 Km altitude • 26 days repeat cycle • resolution – Panchromatic 10m – Multispectral 20m • ground swath 60Km IRS (India) • Sun-synchronous • optical/ infra red • 817 Km altitude • 24 days repeat cycle • resolution – Panchromatic 10m – Multispectral 23m • ground swath 140Km SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Landsat 4.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing ERS (Europe) • Sun-synchronous • microwave • 782 Km altitude • 35 days repeat cycle • resolution 30m • ground swath 100Km JERS-1 (Japan) • Sun-synchronous • microwave • 568 Km altitude • 44 days repeat cycle • resolution 18m • ground swath 75Km RADARSAT (Canada) • Sun-synchronous • microwave • 798 Km altitude • 24 days repeat cycle • resolution: mode dependent • ground swath: mode dependent SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing A sample of IKONOS’s image – 1metre data merged with 4-metre multi-spectral data IKONOS Satellite Orbit: Sun-synchronous Altitude: 423 miles (680 Km) Speed: 17.500 mph (28.Principles of Geographic Information Science .500Km/h) Resolution: Multispectral 4m. Panc 1m Weight: 720 Kg SGG 2443 .

Principles of Geographic Information Science . New York – 12 Sept 2001 The Pentagon – 12 Sept 2001 SGG 2443 .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Satellite images produced by IKONOS satellite World Trade Centre.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Satellite image used to support GIS analysis Example: Flood Mitigation Study Satellite Image captured from Google Earth Quickbird Image of Johor Bahru SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

Principles of Geographic Information Science .6 meter) Weight: 1800 pounds (10 feet) Data collection: simultaneous collection of panchromatic & multispectral On-board data storage: 137 Gb (min of 64 images) SGG 2443 .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing QuickBird – The latest Remote Sensing satellite Launching date: 1999 Orbit: medium-inclination Altitude: 600 Km Repeat cycle: 1 to 4 days (depending on latitude) Resolution: 1m (can reach 0.

61 meter resolution) SGG 2443 .61 meter resolution) A multispectral image sample – Washington DC (0.Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing QuickBird – The latest Remote Sensing satellite A panchromatic image sample – Bangkok (0.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Malaysian Center For Remote Sensing (MACRES) Now: Malaysian Remote Sensing Agency SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

Pahang) SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – Remote Sensing Malaysian Ground Receiving Station (Temerloh.

100 meters) • requires coordinate transformation Data Logger .reformat .download to computer/ GIS .Principles of Geographic Information Science .store coordinates .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS Satellite 2 Satellite 3 Satellite 1 Receiver Global Positioning System (GPS) • ground coordinates determined from satellite signals • satellite: NAVSTAR & GLONASS • accuracy depends on measuring techniques (1 centimeter .coordinate transformation SGG 2443 .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

e-trimblegps.Principles of Geographic Information Science .com SGG 2443 .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS http://www.

Y. velocity. SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science . Four satellites are required to compute the four dimensions of X. and time estimates.LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS GPS receivers convert SV (Space Vehicle) signals into position. Z (position) and Time.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS The SVs transmit two microwave carrier signals: • The L1 frequency (1575.60 MHz) is used to measure the ionospheric delay by PPS equipped receivers.Principles of Geographic Information Science .42 MHz) carries the navigation message and the SPS code signals • The L2 frequency (1227. SGG 2443 .

5 million pounds • fuel consumption: 11 tons per second • orbital speed: 17.Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS Space Shuttle – The carrier of Navstar (GPS).466 miles per hour SGG 2443 . Remote Sensing and other satellites • thrust : 6.

A Conversion Into Local Coordinate System Is Required SGG 2443 .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input – GPS Geodatabase Development .Field Data Updating With GPS (Satellite Positioning) An Example of Original Coordinates Captured With GPS .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input (cont’d.Principles of Geographic Information Science . AutoCAD) • from other GIS packages • JUPEM’s digital data: CAMS/CALS • may require: format/ coordinate conversion.) Scanning • using scanner . volume • commonly coupled with screen digitizing Existing Digital Data • from other mapping packages (e.g. editing SGG 2443 .sensor (1/0) • data format: raster • accuracy: depends on scanner resolution (dpi) • problem: editing.

Principles of Geographic Information Science .) An Example of AutoCad’s Drawing File SGG 2443 .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input (cont’d.

) Raster Data Encoding • for raster GIS • cells coded (assigned codes/ attributes) • varying cell size (number of rows & columns) • problem: accuracy & volume Attribute Data • manual data entry – table – data values – linking the tables • import from other systems (DBMS) – Oracle – Informix – Ingres – Dbase – MS: SQL Server. Access.LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Input (cont’d.Excel SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

y) (object characteristics) Attributes (relationship between objects) Topology (DBMS) Information Retrieval Output SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 3: WHAT IS A GIS? Subsystem For Data Storage & Management Data Input Database Management System GEOSPATIAL DATABASE Query Input Position of Object (x.

import/ export • edit • delete • attribute • create table(s) • modify table structure • editing • direct topological editing • edit -> construct topology • interaction with user • graphical User Interface (GUI) Administrative Boundaries Road Networks Recreational Areas Public Institutions Industrial Areas Rivers 5m 10m Hydrographic Chart Shoreline Sensitivity Index Birds Sensitivity Index Fish Sensitivity Index Reptile Sensitivity Index SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Storage & Management • make use of DBMS functions • advantageous: • organized data structure • relational data model • able to produce log file • spatial data • copy.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Storage & Management SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis • spatial data manipulation: example – change of scale: transformation – generalization – change of map projection – interpolation • attribute data manipulation: – linking two data files (tables) – sorting – Boolean query: selection & extraction – computing new data values – data summarization SGG 2443 .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions • Information Retrieval – Browsing – Windowing – Query Window Generation – Multiple Map Sheet Query – Boolean Attribute Retrieval & Statistical Summary • Map Generalization – Coordinate Thinning – Polygon Thinning – Dropline & Reclassification of Polygons – Edge Matching SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions • Map Abstraction – Centroid – Contour Generation From Spot Heights – Proximal Mapping – TIN Generation (from third dimension data) • Map Sheet Manipulation – Change of Scale – Correction of Distortion – Change of Map Projection – Coordinate Shift and Rotation SGG 2443 .

Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions • Buffer Generation – Buffer: based on point. line or polygon – Uniform-distance or varying-distance buffer – Double-sided or single-sided buffer • Polygon Overlay & Dissolve – Polygon (Map) Overlay: Combination of 2 or more polygons – Polygon Dissolve: Original polygons are dissolve to make one polygon Map Aggregation – The reverse of map overlay – New map extracted from composite map Polygon Overlay For Calculation of Area – Area of a map is computed based on other map SGG 2443 .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions Creating A Buffer For River Corridor – Sg Masai SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions • Measurements – Measurement on point objects (e. perimeter) – Measurement of surface data (e.Principles of Geographic Information Science . volume) • Surface Analysis – Slope/ Aspect – Viewshed & Watershed Analyses • Network Analysis – road.g distance) – Measurement on polygonal objects (e.g.g area.g summation) – Measurement on linear objects (e. water. telecommunication networks – examples: shortest or optimal path SGG 2443 .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions Creating A Chainage Along A River – Sg Melayu SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions A 3d Surface Model Showing The Topography In The Vicinity of Sg Melayu SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Manipulation & Analysis The Main Functions A 3d Surface Model With A Proposed New Road Draped On It SGG 2443 .

table.g. etc.) Proper ty Mar k Report et an p a d nci em h Ba ng S a Kla er Da bah m Le SGG 2443 . chart.Principles of Geographic Information Science .LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Output • displays • results of a query • results of spatial analysis • advantageous if: • able to output on various peripherals or media • able to generate outputs in interactive & batch modes • able to store micros • can provide various tools for cartographic design • able to output other features than map (e.

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Output An Example A Map As Output From GIS Database SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Output An Example A Chart As Output From GIS Database SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

LECTURE 4: GIS SUBSYSTEMS Subsystem For Data Output SGG 2443 .Principles of Geographic Information Science .

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