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LESSON

5

IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

This lesson presents third basic method for the solution of problems

dealing with the motion of particles. This method is based on the principle of

impulse and momentum and can be used to solve problems involving force,

mass, velocity and time.

equation and conservation of momentum and their applications will be

discussed. It also presents applications of impulse and momentum in Impact.

Finally, we shall study the systems of variable mass.

Elastic and inelastic collisions.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-2

1.1 MOMENTUM

The linear momentum of particle is a vector quantity associated with quantity of motion. It is

defined as product of mass of the particle and velocity of particle. i.e, linear momentum P of a

particle of mass m, moving with velocity v is given by

P mv … (1)

The direction of linear momentum is in the direction of velocity v of the particle. The SI unit

for linear momentum is kg ms1 and its dimension is [MLT–1].

Using Newton’s second law of motion we can relate linear momentum of particle and net

force acting on it. The time rate of charge of linear momentum is equal to the resultant force acting

on the particle.

dP

This is, F … (2)

dt

dP

F F dt d P

dt

If momentum of particle changes from P i to P f during a time interval of ti to tf, we can write

tf Pf

F dt

dP

ti

Pi

tf

Fdt

ti

P f P i P

The quantity on the left hand side of this equation is called the impulse of force for the time

interval t = tf - ti . Impulse is represented by J and is given by

tf

J F dt P … (3)

ti

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-3

That is, “The impulse of force equals the change in momentum of the particle.“ This

statement called ‘impulse momentum theorem,’ is equivalent to Newton’s second law.

From the equation of impulse, we can see that impulse is a vector quantity having

magnitude equal to the area under force-time curve as shown in figure by the shaded area.

average force F as

tf

1

F

t F dt

ti

…(4)

t

ti tf

Therefore we can also write,

Fig. 1.

F t P … (5)

dP

From the equation F , we can see that if the resultant force is zero, the time derivative

dt

of the momentum is zero and therefore the linear momentum of a particle is constant. This is

called ‘conservation of linear momentum. This conservation principle, we apply for a particle as

well as system of particles also. Hence we can define conservation of linear momentum as

“If sum total of forces acting on a particle of system of particles is zero. The linear

momentum of the system will remain conserved”.

Illustration 1

Question: In a particular crash test, an automobile of mass 1500 kg collides with a wall as in

figure (a). The initial and final velocities of the automobile are vi = 15.0 m/s and

vf = 2.6 m/s. If the collision lasts for 0.150 s, find the average force exerted on the

automobile.

Solution:

Before After

-15.0 m/s 2.6 m/s

The initial and final momenta of the automobile are (taking rightward as positive)

4

pi = mvi = (1500 kg) (15.0 m/s) = – 2.25 × 10 kg.m/s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-4

4

pf = mvf = (1500 kg) (2.6 m/s) = 0.39 × 10 kg.m/s

4 4

4

J = 2.64 × 10 kg.m/s

p 2.64 10 4 kg.m / s

F

5

= 1.76 × 10 N = 176 M N

t 0.150 s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-5

Illustration 2

Question: A baseball player uses a pitching machine to help him improve his batting average.

He places the 50-kg machine on a frictionless surface as in figure. The machine fires

a 0.15 kg baseball horizontally with a velocity of 36 m/s. What is the recoil speed(in

cm/s) of the machine?

Solution: We take the system which consists of the baseball and the pitching machine. Because of

the force of gravity and the normal force, the system is not really isolated. However, both of

these forces are directed perpendicularly to the motion of the system. Therefore, momentum

is constant in the x-direction because there are no external forces in this direction (as the

surface is frictionless).

The total momentum of the system before firing is zero (m1v1i + m2v2i = 0). Therefore, the

total momentum after firing must be zero; that is,

m1v1f + m2v2f = 0

With m1 = 0.15 kg, v1i = 36 m/s, and m2 = 50 kg, solving for v2f, we find the recoil velocity of

the pitching machine to be

m2

m1

v1f

v2f

m1 0.15 kg

v 2f v 1f (36 m/s) = 0.11 m/s

m2 50 kg

speed = 11 cm/s

The negative sign for v2f indicates that the pitching machine is moving to the left after firing,

in the direction opposite the direction of motion of the cannon. In the words of Newton’s third

law, for every force (to the left) on the pitching machine, there is an equal but opposite force

(to the right) on the ball. Because the pitching machine is much more massive than the ball,

the acceleration and consequent speed of the pitching machine are much smaller than the

acceleration and speed of the ball.

2. IMPACT

A collision between two bodies which occurs in a very small interval of time and during

which the two bodies exert relatively large forces on each other is called impact. The common

normal to the surfaces in contact during the impact is called the line of impact. If centers of mass

of the two colliding bodies are located on this line, the impact is a central impact. Otherwise, the

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-6

impact is said to be eccentric. Our present study will be limited to the central impact of two

particles. The analysis of the eccentric impact of two rigid bodies will be considered later.

Line of Line of

impact impact

vB

B

B

A vB

A

vA vA

Fig. 2 (a) Fig. 2 (b)

If the velocities of the two bodies are directed along the line of impact, the impact is said to

be a direct impact as shown in figure 2(a). If either or both bodies move along a line other than the

line of impact, the impact is said to be an oblique impact as in figure 2(b).

Consider two spheres A and B of mass mA and mB, which are moving in the same straight

line and to the right with known velocities vA and vB as shown in figure. If vA is larger than vB,

particle A will eventually strike the sphere B. Under the impact, the two spheres will deform and at

the end of the period of deformation, they will have the same velocity u as shown in figure. A

period of restitution will then take place, at the end of which, depending upon the magnitude of the

impact forces and upon the materials involved, the two spheres either will have regained their

original shape or will stay permanently deformed. Our purpose here is to determine the velocities

vA and vb of the spheres at the end of the period of restitution as shown in figure.

Considering first the two spheres as a single system, we note that there is no impulsive,

external force. Thus, the total momentum of the two particles is conserved, and we write

Since all the velocities considered are directed along the same axis, we had written the

relation involving only scalar components.

vA vB u vA vB

Fig. 3.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-7

A positive value for any of the scalar quantities vA, vB, vA, or vB means that the

corresponding vector is directed to the right; a negative value indicates that the corresponding

vector is directed to the left.

To obtain the velocities vA and vB, it is necessary to establish a second relation between

the scalars vA and vB. For this purpose, we use Newton’s law of restitution according to which

velocity of separation after impact is proportional to the velocity of approach before collisions. In

the present situation,

collision. The value of the coefficient e is always between 0 and 1. It depends to a large extent on

the two materials involved, but it also varies considerably with the impact velocity and the shape

and size of the two colliding bodies.

(i) e = 0, Perfectly Plastic Impact. When e = 0, equation (ii) yields vB = vA. There is no period

of restitution, and both particles stay together after impact. Substituting vB = vA = v into equation

(i), which expresses that the total momentum of the particles is conserved,

This equation can be solved for the common velocity v of the two particles after impact.

vB – vA = vA – vB

Which expresses that the relative velocities before and after impact are equal. The

impulses received by each particle during the period of deformation and during the period of

restitution are equal. The particles move away from each other after impact with the same velocity

with which they approached each other before impact. The velocities vA and vB can be obtained

by solving equation (i) and (ii) simultaneously.

It is worth noting that in the case of a perfectly elastic impact, the total energy of the two

particles, as well as their total momentum, is conserved.

It should be noted, however, that in the general case of impact, i.e., when e is not equal to 1, the

total energy of the particles is not conserved. This can be shown in any given case by comparing

the kinetic energies before and after impact. The lost kinetic energy is in part transformed into heat

and in part spent in generating elastic waves within the two colliding bodies.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-8

Prove that, in a head-on elastic collision of equal masses, the velocities are

interchanged. Can velocities in a head-on collision be interchanged if the masses

are not equal?

velocities of the two colliding sphere are not v B

directed along the line of impact as shown in v A

A B Line of

figure. As already discussed the impact is said

impact n

to be oblique. Since velocities vA and vB of the

particles after impact are unknown in direction

vA vB

and magnitude, their determination will require

the use of four independent equations.

Fig. 4.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-9

We choose as coordinate axes the n-axis along the line of impact, i.e., along the common

normal to the surfaces in contact, and the t-axis along their common tangent. Assuming that the

sphere are perfectly smooth and frictionless, we observe that the only impulses exerted on the

sphere during the impact are due to internal forces directed along the line of impact i.e., along the

n axis. It follows that

t t t

mB vB

mA vA

A B A B A B

n + n = n

mB vB

mA vA

Fig. 5.

(i) The component along the t axis of the momentum of each particle, considered separately,

is conserved; hence the t component of the velocity of each particle remains unchanged. We can

write.

(v A ) t (v A )t ; (v B ) t (v B )t

(ii) The component along the n axis of the total momentum of the two particles is conserved.

We write.

m A (v A ) n m B (v B ) n m A (v A ) n m B (v B ) n

(iii) The component along the n axis of the relative velocity of the two particles after impact is

obtained by multiplying the n component of their relative velocity before impact by the coefficient of

restitution.

(v B ) n (v A ) n e[v A ) n (v B ) n ]

We have thus obtained four independent equations, which can be solved for the

components of the velocities of A and B after impact.

Illustration 3

Question: A block of mass 1.2 kg moving at a speed of 20 cm/s collides head on with a similar

block kept at rest. The coefficient of restitution is 0.6. Find the loss of kinetic energy

(in J) during collision.

Solution: Suppose the first block moves at a speed v1 and the second at v2 after collision. Since the

collision is head on, the two blocks move along the original direction of motion of first block.

Using the principle of conservation of momentum,

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-10

v2 v1 = e (u2 u1)

v2 v1 = 0.6 (0 0.2)

v2 – v1 = 0.12 … (ii)

2v2 = 0.32

v1 = 0.2 0.16

= 0.04 m/s

= 4 cm/s

1 1 1

Loss of K.E. = 1.2 (0.2) 2 1.2 (0.16 ) 2 1.2 (0.04 ) 2

2 2 2

= 0.6 0.0128

Illustration 4

velocities of two identical frictionless balls m m

before they strike each other are as shown.

30° 60°

Assuming e = 0.90, determine the

magnitude of the velocity of the each ball

vA = 3000 cm/s

after the impact. vB = 4000 cm/s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-11

other during the impact are directed along a line

joining the centers of the balls called the line of

A B

impact. Resolving the velocities into m m

components directed, respectively, along the 60° n

30°

line of impact and along the common tangent to

the surfaces in contact, we write vA = 3000 cm/s

vB = 4000 cm/s

(v A ) n v A cos 30° = +2600 cm/s

Since the impulsive forces are directed along the line of impact, the t component of the

momentum, and hence the t component of the velocity of each ball, is unchanged. We have,

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-12

single system and not that by Newton’s third law, the

internal impulses are, respectively, Ft and Ft and m A(v A)n m B(v B)n

cancel. We thus write that the total momentum of the balls

is conserved.

m A(v A)t m B(v B)t

m A (v A ) n m B (v B ) n m A (v A ) n m B (v B ) n Before collision

Ft –Ft

m (2600 ) m( 2000 ) m(v A ) n m(v B ) n

m A(v A)n m B(v B)n

Using law of restitution,

After collision

(v B )n (v A )n (0.90) [2600 ( 2000 )]

(v A' )n (v A )n 4140 … (ii)

1500 cm/s

Solving equations (i) and (ii) simultaneously, we = 40.3°

obtain A

1770 cm/s

(v A ) n 1770 cm /s (v B ) n 2370 c m/s

(v A ) n 1770 cm/ s (v B ) n 2370 c m/s vB = 4190 cm/s

3460cm/s

components of each ball, we obtain

= 55.6°

vA = 2320 cm/s vB = 4190 cm/s B

2370 cm/s

Illustration 5

Question: A ball of mass m hits a floor with a speed v making an angle of incidence = 45° with

normal. The coefficient of restitution is e = 3/4. Find the speed of reflected ball and

the angle of reflection.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-13

collision is v. It is an oblique impact. Resolving the v

velocity v along the normal and tangent, the components v

are v cos and v sin. Similarly, resolving the velocity

after reflection along the normal and along the tangent

the components are – v cos and v sin.

2 2 2 2 2 2

v v 2 sin 2 e 2v 2 cos 2

v v sin 2 e 2 cos 2

5v

4 2

tan

and tan

e

tan

tan 1 = 53°

e

A ball of mass m hits a rough floor with a velocity v at an angle of incidence with

the normal. If coefficient of friction is and coefficient of restitution for collision is e,

find angle of reflection with the normal.

We recall that all the principles established so for were derived for the systems which

neither gain nor lose mass. But there are various situations in which system loses or gains mass

during its motion. e.g. in case of Rocket propulsion, its motion depends upon the continued

ejection of fuel from it.

Let us analyse a system of variable mass. Consider the system S shown in figure. Its

mass, equal to m at the instant t increases by m in the internal of the t. The velocity of S at time

t is v and the velocity of S at time t + t becomes v v , and the absolute velocity of mass

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-14

absorbed is v a with respect to stationary frame. F ext is net external force acting on it during

internal t

Fext m Fext

m m + m

s v v

v va

mv m v a F ext t (m m ) ( v v )

F ext t m v m ( v v a ) m (v )

Here v v a is relative velocity of mass absorbed with respect to system S, let us write it

as v rel . also last term m v can be neglected.

We can write, F t = m v - (m) v rel

d v dm

Dividing both sides by t and letting t approaches zero, we have F m

dt

dt

v rel

dv

Rearranging the terms and recalling a where a is acceleration of system,

dt

we can write

dm

F ext

dt

v rel = m a …(6)

Which shows that the action on S of the mass being absorbed is equivalent to a thrust

force F th given by,

dm

F th v rel …(7)

dt

Therefore while analyzing systems of variable mass, we need to consider external forces

acting on it as well as a thrust force having magnitude equal to the product of rate at which mass

of system changes and the relative velocity of mass coming into the system or going out of the

system with respect to the system. If mass of system is increasing, then the direction of thrust is

same as that of relative velocity v rel and vice versa.

Once we consider the thrust force with the net external force, a system of variable mass

can be analyzed in the same way as we analyse systems of constant mass by considering

external forces only.

Illustration 6

6 6

Question: The mass of a rocket is 2.8 × 10 kg at launch time of this 2 × 10 kg is fuel. The

4

exhaust speed is 2500 m/s and the fuel is ejected at the rate of 1.4 × 10 kg/s.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-15

2

(b) What is initial acceleration (in cm/s ) at launch time? Ignore air resistance.

Solution:

= (1.4 × 10 kg/s) × (2500 ms1)

4

7

= 3.5 × 10 N = 35 M N

dM

Fth v rel .

dt

The direction of thrust will be opposite to the direction of relative velocity as mass is

decreasing, i.e., upward

(b) to find acceleration, we can use

F ext + F th = M a

Here external force F is weight acting downward and thrust force Fth is upward

–mg + Fth = Ma (Taking upward as positive)

F

a = g th

M

3.5 10 7

= 9.8 ms2

6

2.8 10

= 270 cms2

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-16

Illustration 7

and fuel) is fired vertically at time t = 0. The fuel is

consumed at a constant rate q = dm/dt = 1000 kg/s v

relative to the rocket. Find the magnitude of the

velocity of the rocket at time t = 1s, neglecting the

resistance of the air and variation of acceleration

due to gravity. (ln 2 = 0.7)

Solution: At time t, the mass of the rocket shell and remaining fuel is m = m0 – qt, and the velocity is

v. During the time interval t, a mass of fuel m = q t is expelled with a speed u relative to

the rocket. Denoting by ve the absolute velocity of expelled fuel, we apply the principle of

impulse and momentum between time t and time t + t.

mve

[Wt = g(m0 – qt)t]

[mve = qt(u – v)]

We write

(m0 – qt)v – g(m0 – qt) t = (m0 – qt – q t) (v + v) – qt (u – v)

Dividing throughout by t and letting t approach zero, we obtain

dv

g (m0 qt ) (m0 qt ) qu

dt

Separating variables and integrating from t = 0, v = 0 to t = t, v = v

qu

dv g dt

m0 qt

v t

qu

dv m

0 0 0 qt

g dt

t

v = [u ln (m0 – qt) – gt] 0

m0

v = uln gt = 60m/s

m qt

0

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-17

A relief aeroplane is moving horizontally with a speed v at some height from the

surface of earth. If n pockets per minute, each of mass m are dropped from the plane,

what is the magnitude and direction of the thrust force acting on the aeroplane?

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-18

PROFICIENCY TEST

The following questions deal with the basic concepts of this section. Answer the

following briefly. Go to the next section only if your score is at least 80%. Do not consult

the Study Material while attempting the questions.

1. A force acts on a mass of 40 kg and changes its velocity from 3 m/s to 12 m/s. Find the

impulse of the force.

2. A cricket ball of mass 150 g moving at 30 m/s strikes a bat and returns back along the

same line at 20 m/s. If the ball is in contact with the bat for 0.02 second, find the force

exerted by the bat on the ball.

3. A 5 kg body has an initial velocity of 10 m/s to the right and a 10 kg body has a velocity

2 m/s towards the left. Both of them collide and stick together after the collision. With what

velocity would they move after the collision?

4. An explosive shell of mass 10 kg at rest suddenly explodes into two pieces. If one piece

with mass 4 kg is found to move with a velocity 6 m/s towards east, find the velocity of the

other piece.

5. A ball moving with a speed of 9 m/s strikes an identical stationary ball such that after

collision, the direction of each ball makes an angle of 60 with the original line of motion.

Find the speeds of the two balls after collision. Is the kinetic energy conserved in the

collision process?

6. If the kinetic energy of a particle is zero, what is its linear momentum? If the total energy of

a particle is zero, is its linear momentum necessarily zero? Explain.

7. If two particles have equal kinetic energies, are their momenta necessarily equal? Explain.

8. If two objects collide and one is initially at rest, is it possible for both to be at rest after the

collision? Is it possible for one to be at rest after the collision? Explain.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-19

9. Is it possible to have a collision in which all of the kinetic energy is lost? If so, give an

example.

10. Explain how linear momentum is conserved when a ball bounces from a floor.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-20

1. 360 N-s

2. 375 N

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-21

Example 1:

A bomb of 12 kg explodes into two pieces of masses 4 kg and 8 kg. The velocity of 8 kg

mass is 6 m/s. The kinetic energy of the other is

Solution:

Hence momentum of 4 kg mass will be the same as this since the bomb was originally at rest.

48

Hence the speed of 4 kg mass = = 12 m/s

4

1 1

Hence its kinetic energy = mv 2 = 4 144 = 288 J

2 2

(d)

Example 2:

Water flows through a pipe bent at an angle to the horizontal with a velocity v. What is the

force exerted by water on the bend of the pipe of area of cross section S?

(b) 2v S cos (c) 2v S sin (d) 2v S sin cos

2 2 2 2

(a) 2v S sin

2

Solution:

pi = (Initial momentum of water flowing per sec)

^ 2 ^

= (Sv) v i = Sv i

^ ^

(cos i sin j )

2

pf = (Final momentum of water flowing per second)= Sv

Rate of change of momentum = Force exerted by water on the bend of the pipe

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

= Sv

2

(cos i sin j ) Sv 2 i = Sv [(cos 1) i (sin j )] = Sv

2 2

(cos 1) 2 sin2

= 2Sv 2 sin

2

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-22

(a)

Example 3:

Two persons standing on a floating boat run in succession along its length with a speed

4.2 m/s relative to the boat and dive off from the end. The mass of each man is 80 kg and that

of boat is 400 kg. If the boat was initially at rest, find the final velocity of the boat. Neglect

friction.

(a) 0.6 m/s (b) 0.7 m/s (c) 0.1 m/s (d) 1.3 m/s

Solution:

Let u be the velocity of boat after the first man has jumped off. Then the velocity of the first man

relative to the ground is (4.2 u) m/s. Since the momentum of first man is equal and opposite to the

momentum of boat and second man, we have

u = 0.6 m/s

After the first man has jumped off the velocity of the boat with second man in it is 0.6 m/s.

Let the velocity of the boat be v m/s after the second man has jumped off.

The momentum of boat and momentum of man are in opposite directions so that the net momentum

of boat and second man

v = 1.3 m/s

(d)

Example 4:

A block of mass m moving with speed v collides with another block of mass 2m at rest. The

lighter block comes to rest after collision. What is the value of coefficient of restitution?

1 1 3 1

(a) (b) (c) (d)

2 3 4 4

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-23

Solution:

v

By conservation of momentum, mv = 2m v or v =

2

v

Velocity of separation =

2

Velocity of approach = v

Velocity of separation 1

By definition, e= = .

Velocity of approach 2

(a)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-24

Example 5:

speed v undergoes an elastic collision with an identical v

stationary disk B. Find the velocity of the disk B after

d

collision if the impact parameter is d as shown in Figure.

B

2

d vd

(a) v 1 (b)

2 2r

4r

vr

(c) (d) v 4r 2 d 2

2d

Solution:

One of the disks is at rest before impact. After the impact its

v1

v1

velocity will be in the direction of the centre line at the 1 v

moment of contact because this is the direction in which the v2

force acted on it.

2

d

Thus, sin 2

2r

1 2

2 v2

Since the masses of both disks are equal, the triangle of momenta turns into triangle of velocities.

We have

vd d2

v1 = v cos 1 = v sin 2 = , v2 = v cos 2 = v 1

2r 4r 2

(a)

Example 6:

A gun is mounted on a gun carriage movable on a smooth horizontal plane and the gun is

elevated at an angle 45 to the horizon. A shot is fired and leaves the gun inclined at an angle

to the horizon. If the mass of gun and carriage is n times that of the shot, find the value of .

n n 1 2n

(a) tan 1 (b) tan 1 (c) tan 1 (d) = tan1 (2)

n 1 n n1

Solution:

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-25

Since the gun is inclined at an angle to horizontal, the direction of w makes an angle with

horizontal. The horizontal and vertical components are w cos and w sin . When the shot leaves

the muzzle the horizontal velocity relative to ground = w cos v.

The vertical component of shot relative to ground is the same as relative to gun since the gun moves

horizontally. If the shot leaves at an angle to horizontal,

tan =

Horizontal component of velocity of shot

w sin

= ... (i)

w cosv

w cos

mnv = m (w cos v), v=

( n 1)

w sin

Substituting in (i), tan =

w cos

w cos

n 1

(n 1)sin 1

tan = 1 tan ,

ncos n

1 n 1

= tan ( tan 45 = 1)

n

(b)

Example 7:

A neutron of mass m collides elastically with a nucleus of mass M which is at rest. If the

initial kinetic energy of neutron is K0, calculate the kinetic energy that it can lose during the

collision.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(M m ) 2 (M m ) 2 (M m ) 2 (M m )

Solution:

The maximum energy loss occurs in a head on collision. Let v is the velocity of neutron before

collision and v2 its velocity after collision and v1 the velocity of nucleus after collision.

Mv1 + mv2 = mv

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-26

v1 v2 = v

v (m M )

Solving, v 2

( m M )

1 2 1 2

= mv mv2

2 2

2

1 2 v2

= mv 1

2 v2

1 (m M ) 2

= mv 2 1

(m M )

2 2

4m M

= K0

(M m ) 2

(b)

Example 8:

suspended from O. The other end is fitted with a bob B. A A

small sleeve of mass m starts falling from O. Neglecting the

masses of the cord and bob, find the maximum elongation

of the cord.

B

mg 2k mg 2k

(a) 1 1 (b) 1

k mg k mg

mg mg k

(c) (d) 1

k k mg

Solution:

1 2

Let the cord extend by e. Then by conservation of energy, mg ( + e) = ke

2

ke 2mge 2mg = 0

2

2mg 4m 2 g 2 4k 2mg

e=

2k

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-27

mg mg 2k

e= 1

k k mg

mg mg 2k mg 2k

e= 1 = 1 1

k k mg k mg

(a)

Example 9:

Sand drops from a stationary hopper at the rate 5 kg/s on to a conveyor belt moving with

constant speed of 2 m/s. What is the power delivered by the motor drawing the belt?

Solution:

This problem illustrates exertion of tangential force on a body due to gain of mass.

dm

= v

dt

This is the force needed to keep the belt moving with uniform velocity. The motor must exert this

moment of force.

dm

Force needed = v = 2 5 = 10 newton.

dt

(b)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-28

Example 10:

A bullet of mass m is fired from below into a bob of mass M of a long simple pendulum. The

bullet stays inside the bob and the bob rises to a height h. The initial speed of the bullet will

be

M m 2h M m 2h m

(a) hg (b) (c) (d) 2gh M m

m g m g M m m

Sol.: Let the common velocity of bullet and bob be v after the bullet is embedded. Applying the law of

conservation of momentum, we have M m v mu (u = initial speed of bullet)

mu

v

M m

After this, the motion of bob is controlled by gravity v 2 2gh

2gh mu

M m

m

(d)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-29

Example 1:

Two men each of mass m = 50 kg, stand on the edge of a stationary buggy of mass

M = 100kg. Assuming friction to be negligible, find the speed of the buggy after both men

jump off with the same horizontal velocity u =24 m/s relative to buggy one after the other.

Solution:

Let velocity of buggy just after jumping of first man is u 1 .

The real velocity of first man is u u1 u m

0 (M m)u1 mu m

m(u u1 )

u1

M m

mu

u1 …(i)

M 2m

Let the velocity of buggy after jump of second men is u 2

The real velocity of second men is u u 2

Again applying law of conservation of momentum, (M m )u1 Mu 2 m(u u 2 )

m(2M 3m)

From (i), putting the value of u 1 , we get u 2 = u

(M m)(M 2m)

Example 2:

An object of mass 5 kg is projected with a velocity of 20 m/s at an angle of 60° with the

horizontal. At the highest point of its path, the projectile explodes and breaks up into two

fragments of masses 1 kg and 4 kg. The fragments separate horizontally after the explosion.

Due to explosion, the kinetic energy of the system at the highest point gets doubled. Find the

separation (in cm) between the two fragments when they hit the ground. ( 3 1.7 )

Solution:

Then by conservation of linear momentum

5(20 cos 60) 4u 2 u1 …(i)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-30

1 2 1 1

and 4u 2 (1)(u1 ) 2 2 5(20 cos 60 ) 2

2 2 2

u1 = 30m/s

u2 = 5m/s

Relative velocity along x-axis = ux = 25 m/s.

u sin

Separation = x = uxt = u x

g

25 20 sin 60

x

10

= 25 3 = 4250 cm

Example 3:

A wagon of mass M = 7 kg can move without friction along horizontal rails. A simple

pendulum consisting of a bob of mass m = 1 kg is suspended from the ceiling by a string of

length = 23 cm. At the initial moment, the wagon and pendulum are at rest and the string is

deflected through an angle from the vertical. ( = 53°)

Find the velocity of wagon, when the string forms an angle ( < ) with vertical. ( = 37°)

Solution:

(a) Let v be the leftward velocity of wagon (absolute that is relative to earth). Let u be the

velocity of pendulum in a frame fixed to the wagon. Then u cos is the relative horizontal

velocity of the bob and u sin is its vertical velocity. Let vx and vy be the absolute horizontal

and vertical downward velocities of the bob.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-31

0 = m (u cos – v) – Mv

M

u cos – v = v

m

(M m )v

u=

mcos

Before releasing the bob

1

2

m v x2 v y2

v

By the conservation of energy,

1 1 u

mg (1 – cos ) = mg (1 – cos ) + Mv 2 + m

2 2

[(u cos – v) + u sin ]

2 2 2

or, 2mgl (cos – cos )

= Mv 2 m +

m2 m 2 cos 2

M (M m ) 2 v 2

= Mv 2 1 sin2

m mcos 2

= v

m mcos 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

or,

2 2 2

2m 2 g (coscos)cos 2

2

v =

M m M msin 2

2m 2 g (coscos )cos 2

v = = 10 cm/s

M m M msin2

Example 4:

connected by a spring of natural length and

spring constant k = 5 N/m rest on an absolutely

A B C

smooth horizontal surface as shown in Figure. A

third block A of same mass collides elastically

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-32

of blocks, when the spring is compressed as

much as possible and also the maximum

compression.

Solution:

stationary blocks. v

stopped dead and B takes off with its A B C

velocity. Now B and C move under their

mutual action and reaction and so their

momentum is conserved.

mv = m(v1 + v2)

v1 + v2 = v (a constant)

1 1 1 1

mv 2 mv 12 mv 22 kx 2

2 2 2 2

v

For maximum compression v 1 v 2

2

k 2 v2 v2

xmax v 2 ,

m 2 2

m

xmax = v = 1m

2k

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-33

Example 5:

A body A moving with velocity 10 m/s make a head on collision with a stationary body B of

same mass. As a result of collision the kinetic energy of system decreases by one percent.

Find the magnitude and direction of the velocity of particle A after collision.

Solution:

mv1 + mv2 = mv + 0

v1 + v2 = v ... (i)

K i K f 1

Given,

Ki 100

Kf 1 Kf 1 99

1 1

K i 100 Ki 100 100

1 1

mv 22 mv 12

2 2 99

1 100

mv 2

2

v 22 v 12 99

2

v 100

99 2

v 22 v 12 v

100

2 2

(v1 + v2) = v [from (i)]

v 12 v 22 2v 1v 2 v 2

99 2

v 2v 1v 2 v 2

100

v2

2v 1v 2

100

v2

or v 1v 2 , v1 + v2 = 10

200

1010 1

v 1v 2

200 2

1

v1 (10 – v1) =

2

1 1

10v 1 v 12 or v 12 10v 1 0

2 2

2v 12 20v 1 10

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-34

20 400 8

v1

4

= 5 cm/s in the same direction.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-35

Example 6:

A block of mass 37.5 kg is placed on a table of mass 12.25 kg, which can move without

friction on a level floor. A particle of mass 0.25 kg moving horizontally with velocity 302 m/s

strikes the block inelastically (a) Find the distance through which the block moves relative to

the table before they acquire a common velocity (b) also compute the common velocity, if the

coefficient of friction between block and table is 0.25.

Solution:

(a) Applying the principle of conservation of momentum to the inelastic impact, we have

0.25 302 = (0.25 + 37.5 + 12.25)v, where v is the common velocity of the system.

0.2302

Vcommon = = 151 cm/s

50

(b) Let u be the velocity of block immediately after impact. Then, 0.25 302 = (0.25 + 37.5) u

0.25 302

u = = 2 m/s

37 .75

Let a1 and a2 be the retardation of the block and acceleration of the table respectively.

2 2

a1 = 2.45 m/s , a2 = 7.55 m/s

2

Relative retardation of block = a1 + a2 = 2.45 + 7.55 = 10 m/s

v = 2 10 s,

2

v = 2 m/s,

4 = 20 s

4 1

s= m = 20 cm

20 5

Example 7:

Two balls of masses m and 2m are suspended by two threads of same length l = 10 m from

the same point on the ceiling. The ball m is pulled aside through an angle = 60° and

released from rest after a tangential velocity v0 = 80 m/s towards the other stationary ball is

imparted to it. To what heights will the balls rise after collision, if the collision is perfectly

elastic?

Solution:

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-36

1 1

Then, mv 02 mgl (1cos) mv 2

2 2

v 2 v 02 2gl (1cos)

1 1 1

By conservation of kinetic energy, mv 2 mv 12 2mv 22

2 2 2

v 2 v 12 2v 22 , v 2

v 12 2v 22

2 v

Solving (i) and (iii), v 2 v and v1 = – .

3 3

1

Let m rise by h1 and 2m by h2, then mv 12 mgh1

2

or gh1

1 v2

2 9

=

1 2

18

v 0 2gl (1cos )

h1

1 2

18g

v 0 2gl (1cosα) = 1 m

1

2mv 22 2mgh 2

2

1 4v 2 4 2

gh 2

2 9 18

v 0 2gl(1cos)

h2 =

4 2

18g

v 0 2gl(1cos ) = 4 m

Example 8:

A ball of mass m is projected with speed u into the barrel of spring gun of mass M initially at

rest on a frictionless surface. The mass m sticks in the barrel at the point of maximum

compression of the spring. What percentage fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the ball is

stored in the spring? Neglect the friction. (m = 3M)

Solution:

Let v be the velocity of system after the ball of mass m sticks in the barrel. Applying law of

conservation of linear momentum, we have

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-37

mu = (m + M)v … (i)

1 2 1 2

The initial K.E. mu of the ball is converted into elastic potential energy kx of the spring and

2 2

1 2

kinetic energy (m + M)v of the whole system. That is

2

1 2 1 2 1 2

mu = kx + (m + M)v … (ii)

2 2 2

1 2

Dividing equation (ii) by mu ,

2

1 2 1

kx (mM )v 2

1= 2 2 …(iii)

1 2 1

mu mu 2

2 2

k x2 (m M )v 2

1= …(iv)

mu 2 mu 2

v m

From equation (i),

u (M m )

1= 1

mu 2 m (mM ) mu mM

2 2

mu 2 mM (mM )

1 2

The energy stored in spring = kx

2

1 2

Initial K.E. of the ball = mu .

2

k x2

Hence, represents the fraction of initial energy, which is stored in the spring.

mu 2

M

% fraction = 100 = 25%

mM

Example 9:

A ball is dropped on to a horizontal plate from a height h = 9 m above it. If the coefficient of

restitution is e = 1/2, find the total distance travelled before the ball comes to rest.

Solution:

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-38

The impact between the ball and the plate is direct impact. If u is the velocity of the ball before

impact, its velocity after is eu, where e is the coefficient of restitution.

v 12 e 2 2gh

The height h1 to which it rises after first rebound h1 2

=e h

2g 2g

The velocity u2 at which the ball reaches the surface a second time u2 = v1 = e 2gh .

2

The velocity v2 after second rebound v2 = ev1 = e u1

v 22 e 4 u12

The height h2 it rises after rebound h2 e4h

2g 2g

th

In general, the height hn to which the ball rises after n rebound is given by

hn = e nh

2

2 4 6

= h + 2(e h + e h + e h + ……………… )

2 2 4

= h + 2he (1 + e + e + ……………… )

2he 2 2e 2 h(1e 2 )

= h = h1 = = 15 m

1 e2 1e 2 (1e 2 )

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-39

Example 10:

A shell flying with a velocity u = 500 m/s bursts into three identical fragments so that the

kinetic energy of the system increases k times. What maximum velocity can one of the

fragments obtain if k = 1.5?

Solution: mv2

3 mu

the forward direction.

3u = v1 – v2 cos 2 – v3 cos 3

If v1 is to be maximum 2 = 3 = 0

v 3u

v 1 … (iii)

2

1 1 1 1

(3m )u 2 mv 12 2 mv 2

2 k2 2

2

… (iv)

1

Substituting for v from (iii) 3ku2 v 12 (v 12 9u 2 6v 1u )

2

Solving for v1

v 1 u 1 2(k 1)

For u = 500 m/s and k = 1.5

v 1 500 1 2(1.51) = 1000 m/s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-40

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-41

MIND MAP

P Mv momentum the basis of direction of force

If net force acting on a body or Central

P dp system of bodies is zero, the Direct or head-on

F ,F

t dt momentum of body or system Indirect or oblique

of body remains conserved. Eccentric

J F .dt p

IMPULSE AND

MOMENTUM

the basis of nature of Apply conservation of variable mass system

colliding bodies momentum along the line of

collision.

Apply law of restitution along F ext F th M a

Elastic

the line of collision

i.e., v2 v1 = e (u1 u2) dM

Inelastic where, F th v rel

e = 1 for perfectly elastic dt

Perfectly inelastic collision.

e = 0 for perfectly inelastic

collision

0 < e < 1 for other collisions.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-42

EXERCISE – I

speed v on two roads making an angle . They collide v

inelastically at the junction and then move together. The v

speed of the combination is m

v v

(a) v cos (b) 2 v cos (c) cos (d) cos

2 2 2

2.

Two particles having position vectors r1 3iˆ 5 ˆj metres and r2 5iˆ 3 ˆj metres are

moving with velocities v 1 4iˆ 3 ˆj and v 2 aiˆ 7 ˆj m/s. If they collide after 2 seconds,

the value of a is

(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8

3. After perfectly inelastic collision between two identical particles moving with same speed in

different directions the speed of the particles become half the initial speed. The angle

between velocities of the two before collision is

(a) 600 (b) 450 (c) 1200 (d) 300

smooth hemispherical shell of radius 0.2 m. The sphere A

slides down and collides elastically with another sphere B

of mass 1 kg placed on the bottom of the shell. If the A

sphere B has to just reach the top, the height h from B

where the sphere A should be released is h

(c) 0.18 m (d) 0.10 m

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-43

hanging by a string. If is angle of deflection of the bob

after the bullet hits the bob, the angle is maximum when m M

(a) bullet passes through the bob

(b) bullet gets stuck inside the bob

(d) in all circumstances

500 m/s passes through a wooden block of mass 10.0 kg

initially at rest on a surface. The bullet emerges with a speed of

100 m/s and the block slides 20 cm on the surface before

coming to rest, the coefficient of friction between the block and

the surface. (g = 10 m/s2)

7. When two bodies stick together after collision, the collision is said to be

(a) partially elastic (b) elastic

(c) perfectly inelastic (d) none of the above

8. A sphere of mass m moving with a constant velocity u hits another stationary sphere of

same mass. If e is the coefficient of restitution, the ratio of velocities of two spheres after

collision is

1e 1e e1 e1

(a) (b) (c) (d)

1e e e1 e1

9. A body of mass m1 strikes a stationary body of mass m2. If the collision is elastic, the fraction

of kinetic energy transferred by the first body to the second is

m1m2 2m1m2 4m1m 2 2m1m 2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(m1 m2 ) (m1 m2 ) (m1 m 2 ) 2

(m1 m 2 ) 2

10. In the elastic collision of a heavy vehicle moving with a velocity of 10 ms –1 and a small

stone at rest, the stone will fly away with a velocity equal to

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-44

11. A body of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity of 6 m/s strikes inelastically to another body of

same mass at rest. The amount of heat evolved during collision is

(a) 36 J (b) 18 J (c) 9 J (d) 3 J

shown in figure. For what value of coefficient of 1 2

restitution e, the velocity of second ball becomes two

times that of 1 after collision

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-45

u

identical balls placed in the track of first ball, after m m

u

(a) 1st stops, 2nd and 3rd moves with velocity

2

u u

(c) 1st returned with velocity , 2nd moves with velocity and 3rd with velocity u.

2 2

(d) None of these

14. A ball P of mass 2 kg undergoes an elastic collision with another ball Q at rest. After

collision, ball P continues to move in its original direction with a speed one-fourth of its

original speed. What is the mass of ball Q?

(a) 0.9 kg (b) 1.2 kg (c) 1.5 kg (d) 1.8 kg

15. Two masses of 1 g and 9 g are moving with equal kinetic energies. The ratio of the

magnitudes of their respective linear momentum is

(a) 1 : 9 (b) 9 : 1 (c) 1 : 3 (d) 3 : 1

16. The bullet of mass a and velocity b is fired into a large block of mass c. The final velocity of

the system is

ac a ab c

(a) b (b) b (c) a (d) b

a ac c ab

17. The momentum of a particle is numerically equal to its kinetic energy. What is the speed of

the particle?

(a) 9 ms–1 (b) 3 ms–1 (c) 2 ms–1 (d) 1 ms–1

18. Two masses ma and mb moving with velocities v a and v b collide elastically and after that

ma and mb move with velocities v b and v a respectively. Then the ratio ma/mb is

va vb ma mb

(a) (b) (c) 1 (d) ½

va vb ma

19. If two masses m1 and m2 collide, the ratio of change in velocity of m1 and m2 is proportional

to

m1 m1 m2 m2

(a) (b) (c) (d)

m2 m2 m1 m1

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-46

20. If two balls each of mass 0.06 kg moving in opposite directions with same speed 4 m/s

collide and rebound with the same speed, then the impulse imparted to each ball due to

other is

(a) 0.48 kg m/s (b) 0.24 kg m/s (c) 0.81 kg m/s (d) zero

21. A ball approaches a moving wall of infinite mass with speed v along normal to the wall. The

speed of the wall is u away from the ball and u < v. The speed of ball after an elastic

collision is

(a) u + v away from the wall (b) 2u + v away from the wall

(c) v – u towards from the wall (d) v – 2u away from the wall

figure. The surface of A is smooth while B is rough and has

B A

a coefficient of friction 0.1 with surface. The block A moves

with speed 10 m/s and collides with B. The collision is

perfectly elastic. Find the distance moved by B before it

comes to rest.

23. A sphere collides with another sphere of identical mass kept at rest. After collision, the two

spheres move. The collision is perfectly inelastic, then the angle between the directions of

motion of the two spheres is

(a) 0° (b) 45° (c) different from 90° (d) 90°

(a) 44% (b) 55% (c) 66% (d) 77%

25. A bullet is shot from a rifle. As a result the rifle recoils. The kinetic energy of rifle as

compared to that of bullet

(a) is less (b) is greater

(c) is equal (d) cannot be concluded

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-47

EXERCISE – II

point P as shown. Neglecting air resistance, the

magnitude of the change in momentum between 450

P Q

the points P and arriving at Q is

1

(a) zero (b) mv (c) mv 2 (d) 2 mv

2

P is linear momentum and E is kinetic energy, then which of the following graphs is

correct?

E

E E

E

(b) (c) (d)

(a)

P O P

O P2 P2

3. A body of mass 1 kg initially at rest, explodes and breaks into three fragments of masses in

the ratio 1 : 1 : 3. the two pieces of equal mass fly off perpendicular to each other with a

speed of 15 m/s each. The speed of the heavier fragment is

(a) 5 2 m/s (b) 45 m/s (c) 5 m/s (d) 15 m/s

varies as shown in the figure. The momentum acquired

is given by (given initial momentum = 0)

(a) zero (b) 5 N-s 10

(c) 30 N-s (d) 50 N-s

t(s)

0 2 4 6

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-48

horizontal surface with a velocity of 1 m/s towards 1 m/s

another block of equal mass kept at rest. The spring 2 kg 2 kg

constant of the spring fixed at one end is 100 N/m.

Find the maximum compression of the spring.

is released from the position shown in figure. The impulse

imparted by the string to the ball immediately after the string

becomes taut is 2m

7. The truck moving on a smooth horizontal surface with a uniform speed u is carrying stone-

dust. If a mass m of the stone-dust ‘leaks’ from the truck through a hole in its bottom in a

time t, the force needed to keep the truck moving at its uniform speed is

m du

(a) u m/t (b) mdu / dt (c) u (m) (d) zero

t dt

stopped in a distance x, the coefficient of friction between the body and the surface is given

by

p2 p2 p p

(a) (b) (c) (d)

2gm 2 x 2mgx 2mgx 2gm 2 x

9.

A body of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity iˆ 2 ˆj 3kˆ ms 1 collides with another body of

mass 3 kg moving with a velocity 2iˆ ˆj kˆ in ms-1. If they stick together, the velocity in

ms-1 of the composite body is

(a)

5

1 ˆ

8i 7 ˆj 3kˆ (b)

1

5

4iˆ ˆj 3kˆ

(c)

5

1 ˆ ˆ ˆ

8i j k (d)

1

5

4iˆ 7 ˆj 3kˆ

10. A body P strikes another body Q of mass that is p times that of body P and moving with a

1

velocity that is of the velocity of body P. If body P comes to rest, the coefficient of

q

restitution is

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-49

(a) (b) (c) (d)

pq q( p 1) p(q 1) p(q 1)

11. A big particle of mass (3 + m) kg blasts into 3 pieces, such that a particle of mass 1 kg

moves along x-axis, with velocity 2 m/s and a particle of mass 2 kg moves with velocity 1

m/s perpendicular to direction of 1 kg particle. If the third particle moves with velocity 2

m/s, then m is

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-50

12. A shell of mass m is fired from a gun of mass M placed on smooth horizontal surface at an

angle with a speed u with respect to gun then, find the range of the shell.

v 2 sin 2 v 2 sin 2 M

(a) (b)

M m

g g

(v cos v ) 2 mv 2 sin 2

(c) (d)

g Mg

v

towards a vertical wall P (moving away from point A with velocity

v/4) as shown. The distance travelled by the wall till the ball hits

v/4

the floor for the first time is (taking all collisions are elastic) h

2h h

(a) v (b) v

g 8g

3v 2h

(c) (d) none

4 g

with another particle of mass 2m on a horizontal circular tube of v

radius R, then select the correct alternative(s).

2R 2m

(a) the time after which the next collision will take place is

v

(b) the time after which the next collision will take place is

proportional to m

(c) the time after which the next collision will take place is

inversely proportional to m

(d) the time after which the next collision will take place is

dependent of the mass of the balls.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-51

collides elastically to an identical stationary disc as shown in v

figure. The velocity of two discs after collision are

v

(c) 0, v cos (d) v sin , cos

2

arranged as shown. The velocity of block M when it m

loses the contact is

h

m gh

(a) 2 gh (b)

(m M )

M

2m gh 2M gh

(c) (d)

(m M ) (m M )

rope. The other end of the rope is in the hands of a

2M

girl of mass 2M as shown in the figure. The block

M

and the girl are resting on a rough wedge of mass M

as shown in the figure. The whole system is resting 2m

on a smooth horizontal surface. The girl pulls the

M

rope. Pulley is massless and frictionless. What is

the displacement of the wedge when the block

meets the pulley? (girl does not leave her position

during the pull)

18. A uniform chain of length l and mass m is hanging vertically from its ends A and B which

are close together. At a given instant the end B is released. What is the tension at A when

B has fallen a distance x [x < l]?

mg 3 x 2x mg x mg 4 x

(a) 1 (b) mg1 (c) 1 (d) 1

2 l l 2 l 2 l

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-52

19. A ball rolls off a horizontal table with velocity v0 = 5 m/s. v0=5m/s

The ball collides elastically from a vertical wall at a

horizontal distance D (= 8 m) from the table, as shown in

h=20m

figure. The ball then strikes the floor a distance x0 from the

table (g = 10 m/s2). The value of x0 is

(a) 6 m (b) 4 m x0

D

(c) 5 m (d) 7 m

for which the coefficient of friction is 0.6. If a horizontal

force F is applied such that it varies with time as shown 200

Force (N)

in figure, the speed of the block after 10 s is

(g = 10 m/s2)

0 x

(a) 22 m/s (b) 30 m/s 5 10

time (s)

(c) 24 m/s (d) none of these

smooth surface is thrown with velocity 8 m/s towards a

bob of mass 4 kg initially at rest. After the collision mass 3m

1 kg comes to rest. Find coefficient of restitution and the

height to which the bob will rise after the collision. 1 kg

Assuming collision to be head on. (g = 10 m/s2) m 8m/s 4 kg

1 1 1 1

(a) , 0.2 m (b) , 0.1 m (c) , 0.2 m (d) , 0.1 m

4 4 2 2

massless string of length l with another ball of mass

M = 4m. They are released with zero tension in the string l

from a height h as shown. The time when the string M

becomes taut for the first time after the mass M collides h

with the ground is (all collisions are elastic)

l l 2l

(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these

2 2gh 2gh 2gh

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-53

velocity 6 m/s. It is acted upon by a variable force acting

along y-axis as shown in figure, then the velocity of the 1N

particle at 8 s

t

4s 8s 12s 20s

and ball of mass m is placed on smooth surface of the m

box. An impulse J is imparted in horizontal direction to

the ball. Find the time period of oscillation (assuming all d

collision are elastic)

2d m M

2

2dm 2dM 2 2dM

(a) (b) (c) (d)

mJ J m M J m M 2 J

identical and of mass m. In a particular hit the coin is hit

when it is placed close to the edge of the board as shown

in figure such that the coin travels parallel to the edge. If /4

the striker is moving with speed v before the strike, then the v

net impulse on the striker during collision if its moves

perpendicular to the edge is (all collisions the elastic)

5 mv 3

(a) mv (b) 2 mv (c) (d) mv

2 2

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-54

EXERCISE – III

1. A ball hits the floor and rebounds after elastic collision. In this case,

(a) the magnitude of momentum of the ball just after collision is the same as that just

before collision

(b) the mechanical energy of ball remains the same in the collision

(c) the total momentum of ball and earth is conserved

(d) the total energy of the ball and earth is conserved

(a) the velocities are interchanged

(b) the momenta are interchanged

(c) the faster body slows down and the slower body speeds up

(d) kinetic energy is conserved

at an angle with the vertical as shown in the figure.

Then

tan

(a) coefficient of restitution is

tan

(c) if = the collision is elastic

(d) the momentum of the ball is conserved.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-55

(w.r.t. ground) is given to block A B

(a) the momentum of block A is not conserved smooth

(c) the increase in momentum of B is equal to the decrease in momentum of block A

(d) kinetic energy is conserved

the top of a wedge W of mass M. All surfaces are B(m)

frictionless. W can slide on the ground. B slides

down onto the ground, moves along it with a speed

v, has an elastic collision with the wall, and climbs

back onto W then which of the following options is

correct. W(M)

(b) From the beginning, till the collision with the wall,

the centre of mass of B plus W does not move

horizontally.

2mv

(c) after the collision, the centre of mass of B plus W moves with the velocity

mM

2mv

(d) when B reaches its highest position on W, the speed of W is

mM

smooth circular wall as shown in the figure. It

rebounds to point S (diametrically opposite to P),

then 45°

P S

(a) the coefficient of restitution is zero

(b) the coefficient of restitution is less than 1

(c) kinetic energy is conserved in this collision

(d) the coefficient of restitution is 1

7. Which of the following(s) depend(s) on the choice of the inertial reference frame

(a) Momentum

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-56

8. A woman holding a large ball stands on a frictionless, horizontal sheet of ice. She throws

the rock with speed v0 at an angle above the horizontal

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-57

9. A net force with x- component Fx acts on an object from time t1 to time t2. The

x-component of the momentum of the object is same at t1 as it is at t2, then which of the

following option(s) is/are possible

(a) t1 = t2 , Fx is variable

(b) t1 t2 , Fx = 0

(c) t1 t2 , Fx is variable

(d) t1 = t2 , Fx = 0

10. A net force Fx (t) = A + Bt2 in the +x direction is applied to a girl of mass m. The force

starts at t = 0 and continues until time t

(a) impulse of the force is 2B t

A B 3

(b) Her speed at time t is t t

m 3m

B 3

(c) Impulse of the force is At t

3

2B

(d) Her speed at time t is t

m

with a velocity v0 collides with a stationary block of mass M m M

at the back of which a spring of spring constant k is

attached, as shown in the figure. Select the correct

alternative(s)

m

(a) velocity of centre of mass is v0

mM

1 mM 2

(b) initial kinetic energy of the system in centre of mass frame is v 0

4mM

mM 1

(c) maximum compression in the spring is v 0

m M k

(d) when the spring is in state of maximum compression the kinetic energy in the centre of

mass frame is zero

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-58

12. A body moving towards a finite body at rest collides with it. It is possible that

(c) the moving body comes to rest and the stationary body starts moving

(d) the stationary body remains stationary the moving body changes its velocity

smooth horizontal table. Two point masses m and 2m

moving in the same horizontal plane with speeds 2v v 3a

and v, respectively, strike the bar (as shown in figure)

and stick to the bar after collision. Denoting angular C

velocity (about the centre of mass), total energy and

a 2a

centre of mass velocity by , E and Vc respectively, 2v

we have after collision.

m

3v v 3mv 2

(a) Vc = 0 (b) (c) (d) E

5a 5a 5

horizontal smooth surface towards a wedge of same

mass initially kept at rest. Wedge is free to move in u

any direction. Initially the block moves up the smooth m

incline plane of the wedge to a height h and again m

moves down back to the horizontal plane. After this

process, velocity of the

h

(a) wedge will be u (b) wedge will be u

h 1

h

(c) block will be u (d) block will be zero

h 1

length l. Other end of the string is fixed at point O. Bob

is rotating in a circular path of radius l in horizontal O

plane about O with constant speed v, as shown in the l v

figure. The average force exterted by string on the bob m

A

during its

mv 2

(a) half revolution will be

l

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-59

2mv 2

(b) half revolution will be

l

2mv 2

(c) one fourth revolution will be

l

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-60

EXERCISE – IV

Note: Each statement in column – I has one or more than one match in column –II.

1. Consider a head-on collision between two particles of masses m1 and m2. The initial

speeds of the particles are u1 and u2 in the same direction. Coefficient of restitution

between two body is e and speeds after collision are v1 and v2 in same direction as before

collision.

Column-I Column-II

I. m1 = m2, u2 = 0 and e =1 A. v 1 u1 , v 2 u 2

E. v 1 v 2 u 2 u1

Note: Each statement in column – I has only one match in column –II

horizontal surface. Two spheres each of diameter d

(just less than the inner diameter of tube) and mass m u

m enter into the tube with a velocity u as shown in 2m

figure. Taking all collisions to be elastic and all

u

surfaces smooth. Match the following

m

Column-I Column-II

spheres are just about to collide inside the tube.

II. The speed of spheres when spheres are just about B. u/2

to collide.

III. The speed of the spheres when they comes out the 3

tube. C. u

2

IV. The speed of the tube when spheres comes out the D. zero

E. u

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-61

L which is attached to a L shaped massless rod.

L

The rod is fixed on a block which is also of mass

m m

m, the whole assembly is kept on a horizontal

frictionless surface as shown in diagram. A bullet

of mass m moving in horizontal direction collides

m smooth

head on with the hanging ball inelastically with

speed v, so that after collision the ball is just able

to complete the circle.

Column-I Column-II

II. The value of speed of ball just after collision at the B. 5gL

lowest position of circle.

the horizontal position.

IV. The speed of the ball with respect to ground at the gL

topmost position. D. 2 13 1

3

52gL

E.

9

REASONING TYPE

Directions: Read the following questions and choose

(A) If both the statements are true and statement-2 is the correct explanation of

statement-1.

(B) If both the statements are true but statement-2 is not the correct explanation of

statement-1.

1. Statement-1: In oblique elastic collision of two bodies, momentum is not conserved along a

line making non-zero angle with line of impact.

Statement-2: In oblique collision of same masses, one at rest initially, bodies go at right

angle to each other after collision.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-62

2. Statement-1: In elastic collision, kinetic energy may not conserved during the collision time.

Statement-2: In elastic collision potential energy of bodies may change during collision time.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

dP

3. Statement-1: F is true for the system of variable mass as treating the mass variable.

dt

Statement-2: If net external forces on a system of variable mass is zero, instantaneous

acceleration of centre of mass of system may be non zero.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

4. Statement-1: In head on elastic collision of two bodies of equal masses the velocities are

interchanged.

Statement-2: In elastic collisions both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

5. Statement-1: Area per unit mass of force-time graph gives change in velocity.

Statement-2: An impulse I changes the momentum of a body by P then I P

(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

mass m, supported by a vertical string and touches the

neighbouring bob. The centres of gravity of the bobs are h 2h

at a distance of (2h) below their points of suspension. Bob

A is displaced to the left so that its string is taut with its

centre of gravity at a vertical distance h below its point of

suspension. The bob A is then released from rest from the A C D

B

position shown in the figure. Assume the collision between

the bobs to be perfectly elastic.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-63

27 27 1

(a) 2gh (b) 2gh (c) 2gh (d) 2gh

125 29 125

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-64

EXERCISE – V

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

same mass M are smoothly conjugated with the

horizontal plane (as shown in figure). A washer of

h

mass m slides down the left wedge from a height h.

M M

To what maximum height will the washer rise along

the right wedge? All the surfaces are smooth.

hemispherical shape of radius r rests on a smooth m2 r

horizontal surface near the wall as shown in figure.

A small washer of mass m2 slides without friction

from the initial position shown in figure. Find the m1

maximum velocity of the block.

parallel straight lines are at a distance ‘a’ apart with v

velocities v and v (v > v ). The particles are

connected by a string of length l (> a) which was a

loose in the beginning. Calculate the impulse of

tension of the string when it becomes taut.

v

m

4. A cylindrical solid of mass 10-2 kg and cross-sectional area 10-4 m2 is moving parallel to its

axis (the X-axis) with a uniform speed of 103 m/s in the positive direction. At t = 0, its front

face passes the plane x = 0. The region to the right of this plane is filled with stationary dust

particles of uniform density 10-3 kg/m3. When a dust particle collides with the face of the

cylinder, its sticks to its surface. Assuming that the dimensions of the cylinder remain

practically unchanged, and that the dust sticks only to the front face of the cylinder, find the

x-coordinate of the front of the cylinder at t = 150 s.

60

apart, as shown in Figure. AB = 20 m and CD = 30

10 m/s

m. An object of mass ‘m’ is thrown from B

horizontally with a velocity of 10 m/s, towards CD. At B m2 m

10 m/s 30 m

the same instant, another object of mass ‘2m’ is

20 m

projected at an angle of 60 (to the horizontal)

d C

downwards, from D, towards AB with the same A

velocity of 10 m/s. The two objects move in the Ground

same vertical plane, collide in mid air, and stick to

each other.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-65

towers.

objects hit the ground.

(m + M) are connected by a light cord which

passes over a small smooth pulley. A man

of mass M is standing on the platform,

which is at rest. If the man leaps vertically

M+m

upwards with velocity u, find the distance

through which the platform will descend and

show that when the man meets the platform

M

again, both are in their original positions.

m

7. A cannon of mass M located at the base of an inclined plane shoots a shell of mass m in a

horizontal direction with velocity v0. To what vertical height does the cannon ascend the

inclined plane as a result of recoil, if the angle of inclination of plane is and the coefficient

of friction between cannon and plane is ?

the same instant, a ball of equal mass is thrown from a

point on the ground 15 m from the foot of the tower so as 15 m

to strike the first ball when just half way down. Find the

initial velocity and the direction of projection of the C

second ball. If the two balls coalesce, how long will they

take to reach the ground?

15 m

B 15 m D

radius R cut into a large block of mass M, as shown in R

m

figure. Blocks move without friction. The blocks are

initially at rest. Find the horizontal distance from the

bottom of block when cube hits the table.

M

R/2

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-66

on with a block of mass m which is placed on a car of m

mass 4m. Bullet gets embedded in the block. The block 4m

is connected with car by massless spring of constant K.

Neglecting friction between car and horizontal floor and

between block and car. Calculate the maximum

compression in the spring.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-67

ANSWERS

EXERCISE – I

11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (b) 15. (c)

16. (b) 17. (c) 18. (c) 19. (c) 20. (a)

21. (d) 22. (c) 23. (a) 24. (a) 25. (a)

EXERCISE – II

11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (a)

16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (c)

21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (a) 24. (b) 25. (a)

EXERCISE – III

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-68

11. (a,c,d) 12. (b,c) 13. (a,c,d) 14. (b,d) 15. (b,d)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-69

EXERCISE – IV

1. I – C, E ; II – B, E ; III – D, E ; IV – E

2. I – B ; II – C ; III – D ; IV – E

3. I – C ; II – A ; III – E ; IV – D

REASONING TYPE

EXERCISE – V

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

M2

1. h

(M m )2

2m2

2. 2 gr

m1 m2

mm(v v ) l 2 a2

3. T=

(m m) l

4. 105 m

20

5. (i) 10 3 m ; (ii) m from AB

3

M u2

6. d

2(M 2m ) g

m 2v o2 sin

7. h

2M 2g (sin cos )

8. 1.08 s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-70

2M m

9. R

M

m

10. v0

3k

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