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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-1

LESSON
5
IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

This lesson presents third basic method for the solution of problems
dealing with the motion of particles. This method is based on the principle of
impulse and momentum and can be used to solve problems involving force,
mass, velocity and time.

In this lesson, concepts of momentum, impulse, impulse- momentum

equation and conservation of momentum and their applications will be
discussed. It also presents applications of impulse and momentum in Impact.
Finally, we shall study the systems of variable mass.

IITJEE Syllabus: Momentum; conservation of linear momentum; Impulse;

Elastic and inelastic collisions.

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1. IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

1.1 MOMENTUM

The linear momentum of particle is a vector quantity associated with quantity of motion. It is

defined as product of mass of the particle and velocity of particle. i.e, linear momentum P of a

particle of mass m, moving with velocity v is given by
 
P  mv … (1)

The direction of linear momentum is in the direction of velocity v of the particle. The SI unit
for linear momentum is kg ms1 and its dimension is [MLT–1].

Using Newton’s second law of motion we can relate linear momentum of particle and net
force acting on it. The time rate of charge of linear momentum is equal to the resultant force acting
on the particle.

dP
This is, F  … (2)
dt

As we have seen, the force is related to momentum as

 dP  
F   F dt  d P
dt

If momentum of particle changes from P i to P f during a time interval of ti to tf, we can write

tf  Pf 
 F dt  

dP
ti
Pi

tf

  Fdt
ti
 P f  P i  P

The quantity on the left hand side of this equation is called the impulse of force for the time

interval t = tf - ti . Impulse is represented by J and is given by

tf
 

J  F dt  P … (3)
ti

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That is, “The impulse of force equals the change in momentum of the particle.“ This
statement called ‘impulse momentum theorem,’ is equivalent to Newton’s second law.

From the equation of impulse, we can see that impulse is a vector quantity having
magnitude equal to the area under force-time curve as shown in figure by the shaded area.

Since the force can vary with time, we can define F

average force F as

tf
 1 
F 
t  F dt
ti
…(4)
t
ti tf
Therefore we can also write,
Fig. 1.

F t  P … (5)

dP 
From the equation F  , we can see that if the resultant force is zero, the time derivative
dt
of the momentum is zero and therefore the linear momentum of a particle is constant. This is
called ‘conservation of linear momentum. This conservation principle, we apply for a particle as
well as system of particles also. Hence we can define conservation of linear momentum as

“If sum total of forces acting on a particle of system of particles is zero. The linear
momentum of the system will remain conserved”.

Illustration 1

Question: In a particular crash test, an automobile of mass 1500 kg collides with a wall as in
figure (a). The initial and final velocities of the automobile are vi = 15.0 m/s and
vf = 2.6 m/s. If the collision lasts for 0.150 s, find the average force exerted on the
automobile.

Solution:
Before After
-15.0 m/s 2.6 m/s

Fig. (a) Fig. (b)

The initial and final momenta of the automobile are (taking rightward as positive)
4
pi = mvi = (1500 kg) (15.0 m/s) = – 2.25 × 10 kg.m/s

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4
pf = mvf = (1500 kg) (2.6 m/s) = 0.39 × 10 kg.m/s

J = p = pf – pi = 0.39 × 10 kg.m/s – (–2.25 × 10 kg.m/s)

4 4

4
J = 2.64 × 10 kg.m/s

The average force exerted on the automobile is given by

p 2.64  10 4 kg.m / s
F  
5
= 1.76 × 10 N = 176 M N
t 0.150 s

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Illustration 2

Question: A baseball player uses a pitching machine to help him improve his batting average.
He places the 50-kg machine on a frictionless surface as in figure. The machine fires
a 0.15 kg baseball horizontally with a velocity of 36 m/s. What is the recoil speed(in
cm/s) of the machine?

Solution: We take the system which consists of the baseball and the pitching machine. Because of
the force of gravity and the normal force, the system is not really isolated. However, both of
these forces are directed perpendicularly to the motion of the system. Therefore, momentum
is constant in the x-direction because there are no external forces in this direction (as the
surface is frictionless).

The total momentum of the system before firing is zero (m1v1i + m2v2i = 0). Therefore, the
total momentum after firing must be zero; that is,

m1v1f + m2v2f = 0

With m1 = 0.15 kg, v1i = 36 m/s, and m2 = 50 kg, solving for v2f, we find the recoil velocity of
the pitching machine to be

m2
m1
v1f

v2f

m1  0.15 kg 
v 2f   v 1f     (36 m/s) = 0.11 m/s
m2  50 kg 

 speed = 11 cm/s

The negative sign for v2f indicates that the pitching machine is moving to the left after firing,
in the direction opposite the direction of motion of the cannon. In the words of Newton’s third
law, for every force (to the left) on the pitching machine, there is an equal but opposite force
(to the right) on the ball. Because the pitching machine is much more massive than the ball,
the acceleration and consequent speed of the pitching machine are much smaller than the
acceleration and speed of the ball.

2. IMPACT

A collision between two bodies which occurs in a very small interval of time and during
which the two bodies exert relatively large forces on each other is called impact. The common
normal to the surfaces in contact during the impact is called the line of impact. If centers of mass
of the two colliding bodies are located on this line, the impact is a central impact. Otherwise, the
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impact is said to be eccentric. Our present study will be limited to the central impact of two
particles. The analysis of the eccentric impact of two rigid bodies will be considered later.

Line of Line of
impact impact

vB
B
B
A vB
A
vA vA

Direct central impact Oblique central impact

Fig. 2 (a) Fig. 2 (b)

If the velocities of the two bodies are directed along the line of impact, the impact is said to
be a direct impact as shown in figure 2(a). If either or both bodies move along a line other than the
line of impact, the impact is said to be an oblique impact as in figure 2(b).

2.1 DIRECT CENTRAL IMPACT OR HEAD ON IMPACT

Consider two spheres A and B of mass mA and mB, which are moving in the same straight
line and to the right with known velocities vA and vB as shown in figure. If vA is larger than vB,
particle A will eventually strike the sphere B. Under the impact, the two spheres will deform and at
the end of the period of deformation, they will have the same velocity u as shown in figure. A
period of restitution will then take place, at the end of which, depending upon the magnitude of the
impact forces and upon the materials involved, the two spheres either will have regained their
original shape or will stay permanently deformed. Our purpose here is to determine the velocities
vA and vb of the spheres at the end of the period of restitution as shown in figure.

Considering first the two spheres as a single system, we note that there is no impulsive,
external force. Thus, the total momentum of the two particles is conserved, and we write

mAvA + mBvB = mAvA + mBvB …(i)

Since all the velocities considered are directed along the same axis, we had written the
relation involving only scalar components.

vA vB u vA vB

Fig. 3.

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A positive value for any of the scalar quantities vA, vB, vA, or vB means that the
corresponding vector is directed to the right; a negative value indicates that the corresponding
vector is directed to the left.

To obtain the velocities vA and vB, it is necessary to establish a second relation between
the scalars vA and vB. For this purpose, we use Newton’s law of restitution according to which
velocity of separation after impact is proportional to the velocity of approach before collisions. In
the present situation,

Here e is a constant called as coefficient of restitution. Its value depends on type of

collision. The value of the coefficient e is always between 0 and 1. It depends to a large extent on
the two materials involved, but it also varies considerably with the impact velocity and the shape
and size of the two colliding bodies.

Two particular cases of impact are of special interest.

(i) e = 0, Perfectly Plastic Impact. When e = 0, equation (ii) yields vB = vA. There is no period
of restitution, and both particles stay together after impact. Substituting vB = vA = v into equation
(i), which expresses that the total momentum of the particles is conserved,

we write, mAvA + mBvB = (mA + mB)v

This equation can be solved for the common velocity v of the two particles after impact.

(ii) e = 1, Perfectly Elastic Impact. When e = 1, equation (ii) reduce to

vB – vA = vA – vB

Which expresses that the relative velocities before and after impact are equal. The
impulses received by each particle during the period of deformation and during the period of
restitution are equal. The particles move away from each other after impact with the same velocity
with which they approached each other before impact. The velocities vA and vB can be obtained
by solving equation (i) and (ii) simultaneously.

It is worth noting that in the case of a perfectly elastic impact, the total energy of the two
particles, as well as their total momentum, is conserved.

It should be noted, however, that in the general case of impact, i.e., when e is not equal to 1, the
total energy of the particles is not conserved. This can be shown in any given case by comparing
the kinetic energies before and after impact. The lost kinetic energy is in part transformed into heat
and in part spent in generating elastic waves within the two colliding bodies.

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Prove that, in a head-on elastic collision of equal masses, the velocities are
interchanged. Can velocities in a head-on collision be interchanged if the masses
are not equal?

Let us now consider the case when the t

velocities of the two colliding sphere are not v B
directed along the line of impact as shown in v A
A B Line of
figure. As already discussed the impact is said
impact n
to be oblique. Since velocities vA and vB of the
particles after impact are unknown in direction
vA vB
and magnitude, their determination will require
the use of four independent equations.
Fig. 4.

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We choose as coordinate axes the n-axis along the line of impact, i.e., along the common
normal to the surfaces in contact, and the t-axis along their common tangent. Assuming that the
sphere are perfectly smooth and frictionless, we observe that the only impulses exerted on the
sphere during the impact are due to internal forces directed along the line of impact i.e., along the
n axis. It follows that

t t t
mB vB
mA vA
A B A B A B
n + n = n
mB vB
mA vA

Fig. 5.

(i) The component along the t axis of the momentum of each particle, considered separately,
is conserved; hence the t component of the velocity of each particle remains unchanged. We can
write.

(v A ) t  (v  A )t ; (v B ) t  (v  B )t

(ii) The component along the n axis of the total momentum of the two particles is conserved.
We write.

m A (v A ) n  m B (v B ) n  m A (v  A ) n  m B (v  B ) n

(iii) The component along the n axis of the relative velocity of the two particles after impact is
obtained by multiplying the n component of their relative velocity before impact by the coefficient of
restitution.

(v  B ) n  (v  A ) n  e[v A ) n  (v B ) n ]

We have thus obtained four independent equations, which can be solved for the
components of the velocities of A and B after impact.

Illustration 3

Question: A block of mass 1.2 kg moving at a speed of 20 cm/s collides head on with a similar
block kept at rest. The coefficient of restitution is 0.6. Find the loss of kinetic energy
(in J) during collision.

Solution: Suppose the first block moves at a speed v1 and the second at v2 after collision. Since the
collision is head on, the two blocks move along the original direction of motion of first block.
Using the principle of conservation of momentum,

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By Newton’s law of restitution,

v2  v1 =  e (u2  u1)

v2  v1 =  0.6 (0  0.2)

v2 – v1 = 0.12 … (ii)

2v2 = 0.32

v2 = 0.16 m/s or 16 cm/s

v1 = 0.2  0.16

= 0.04 m/s

= 4 cm/s

1 1 1
Loss of K.E. =  1.2  (0.2) 2   1.2  (0.16 ) 2   1.2  (0.04 ) 2
2 2 2

= 0.6  0.0128

Illustration 4

Question: The magnitude and direction of the A B

velocities of two identical frictionless balls m m
before they strike each other are as shown.
30° 60°
Assuming e = 0.90, determine the
magnitude of the velocity of the each ball
vA = 3000 cm/s
after the impact. vB = 4000 cm/s

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Solution: The impulsive force that the balls exert on each t

other during the impact are directed along a line
joining the centers of the balls called the line of
A B
impact. Resolving the velocities into m m
components directed, respectively, along the 60° n
30°
line of impact and along the common tangent to
the surfaces in contact, we write vA = 3000 cm/s
vB = 4000 cm/s
(v A ) n  v A cos 30° = +2600 cm/s

(v B ) t  v B sin 60° = +3460 cm /s

Since the impulsive forces are directed along the line of impact, the t component of the
momentum, and hence the t component of the velocity of each ball, is unchanged. We have,

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In the n direction, we consider the two balls as a

single system and not that by Newton’s third law, the
internal impulses are, respectively, Ft and Ft and m A(v A)n m B(v B)n
cancel. We thus write that the total momentum of the balls
is conserved.
m A(v A)t m B(v B)t
m A (v A ) n  m B (v B ) n  m A (v  A ) n  m B (v  B ) n Before collision
Ft –Ft
m (2600 )  m( 2000 )  m(v  A ) n  m(v  B ) n

(v A' )n  (v B )n  600 … (i) at the collision

m A(v A)n m B(v B)n
Using law of restitution,

(v B ) n  (v A ) n  e [(v A ) n  (v B ) n ] m A(v A)t m B(v B)t

After collision
(v B )n  (v A )n  (0.90) [2600  ( 2000 )]

vA = 2320 cm/s

(v A' )n  (v A )n  4140 … (ii)
1500 cm/s
Solving equations (i) and (ii) simultaneously, we = 40.3°
obtain A
1770 cm/s
(v A ) n   1770 cm /s (v B ) n   2370 c m/s
(v A ) n  1770 cm/ s  (v B ) n  2370 c m/s  vB = 4190 cm/s
3460cm/s

Resultant Motion: Adding vectorially the velocity

components of each ball, we obtain
 = 55.6°
vA = 2320 cm/s vB = 4190 cm/s B
2370 cm/s

Illustration 5

Question: A ball of mass m hits a floor with a speed v making an angle of incidence  = 45° with
normal. The coefficient of restitution is e = 3/4. Find the speed of reflected ball and
the angle of reflection.

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Solution: Suppose the angle of reflection is  and the speed after

collision is v. It is an oblique impact. Resolving the   v
velocity v along the normal and tangent, the components v
are v cos and v sin. Similarly, resolving the velocity
after reflection along the normal and along the tangent
the components are – v cos and v sin.

v' = v sin  + e v cos 

2 2 2 2 2 2

v   v 2 sin 2   e 2v 2 cos 2 

v    v sin 2   e 2 cos 2   
5v
  4 2

tan 
and tan  
e

 tan  
  tan 1  = 53°
 e 

A ball of mass m hits a rough floor with a velocity v at an angle of incidence  with
the normal. If coefficient of friction is  and coefficient of restitution for collision is e,
find angle of reflection with the normal.

3. SYSTEMS OF VARIABLE MASS

We recall that all the principles established so for were derived for the systems which
neither gain nor lose mass. But there are various situations in which system loses or gains mass
during its motion. e.g. in case of Rocket propulsion, its motion depends upon the continued
ejection of fuel from it.

Let us analyse a system of variable mass. Consider the system S shown in figure. Its
mass, equal to m at the instant t increases by m in the internal of the t. The velocity of S at time
  
t is v and the velocity of S at time t + t becomes v  v , and the absolute velocity of mass

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 
absorbed is v a with respect to stationary frame.  F ext is net external force acting on it during
internal t

Fext m Fext
m m + m
s v  v

v va

Applying the Impulse-Momentum theorem,

    
mv  m v a  F ext t  (m  m ) ( v   v )
   
  F ext t  m v  m ( v  v a )  m (v )
 
Here v  v a is relative velocity of mass absorbed with respect to system S, let us write it

as v rel . also last term m v can be neglected.
  
We can write,  F t = m v - (m) v rel

 d v dm 
Dividing both sides by t and letting t approaches zero, we have  F m
dt

dt
v rel

dv  
Rearranging the terms and recalling  a where a is acceleration of system,
dt
we can write

 dm 
 F ext 
dt
v rel = m a …(6)
Which shows that the action on S of the mass being absorbed is equivalent to a thrust
force F th given by,
 dm 
F th  v rel …(7)
dt
Therefore while analyzing systems of variable mass, we need to consider external forces
acting on it as well as a thrust force having magnitude equal to the product of rate at which mass
of system changes and the relative velocity of mass coming into the system or going out of the
system with respect to the system. If mass of system is increasing, then the direction of thrust is

same as that of relative velocity v rel and vice versa.
Once we consider the thrust force with the net external force, a system of variable mass
can be analyzed in the same way as we analyse systems of constant mass by considering
external forces only.

Illustration 6

6 6
Question: The mass of a rocket is 2.8 × 10 kg at launch time of this 2 × 10 kg is fuel. The
4
exhaust speed is 2500 m/s and the fuel is ejected at the rate of 1.4 × 10 kg/s.

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2
(b) What is initial acceleration (in cm/s ) at launch time? Ignore air resistance.

Solution:

(a) The magnitude of thrust is given by

= (1.4 × 10 kg/s) × (2500 ms1)
4

7
= 3.5 × 10 N = 35 M N
dM
Fth  v rel .
dt
The direction of thrust will be opposite to the direction of relative velocity as mass is
decreasing, i.e., upward
(b) to find acceleration, we can use
  
 F ext + F th = M a

Here external force F is weight acting downward and thrust force Fth is upward
 –mg + Fth = Ma (Taking upward as positive)
F
 a = g  th
M
 3.5  10 7 
=   9.8  ms2
 6 
2.8  10 

= 270 cms2

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Illustration 7

Question: A rocket of initial mass m0 = 2000 kg (including shell

and fuel) is fired vertically at time t = 0. The fuel is
consumed at a constant rate q = dm/dt = 1000 kg/s v

and is expelled at a constant speed u = 100m/s

relative to the rocket. Find the magnitude of the
velocity of the rocket at time t = 1s, neglecting the
resistance of the air and variation of acceleration
due to gravity. (ln 2 = 0.7)

Solution: At time t, the mass of the rocket shell and remaining fuel is m = m0 – qt, and the velocity is
v. During the time interval t, a mass of fuel m = q t is expelled with a speed u relative to
the rocket. Denoting by ve the absolute velocity of expelled fuel, we apply the principle of
impulse and momentum between time t and time t + t.

(m0 – qt)v + Wt = (m0 – qt – q t)(v + v)

mve
[Wt = g(m0 – qt)t]
[mve = qt(u – v)]

We write
(m0 – qt)v – g(m0 – qt) t = (m0 – qt – q t) (v + v) – qt (u – v)
Dividing throughout by t and letting t approach zero, we obtain
dv
 g (m0  qt )  (m0  qt )  qu
dt
Separating variables and integrating from t = 0, v = 0 to t = t, v = v
 qu 
dv    g dt
 m0  qt 
v t
 qu 
 dv    m
0 0 0  qt
 g  dt

t
v = [u ln (m0 – qt) – gt] 0
 m0 
 v = uln    gt = 60m/s
 m  qt 
 0 

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-17

A relief aeroplane is moving horizontally with a speed v at some height from the
surface of earth. If n pockets per minute, each of mass m are dropped from the plane,
what is the magnitude and direction of the thrust force acting on the aeroplane?

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-18

PROFICIENCY TEST

The following questions deal with the basic concepts of this section. Answer the
following briefly. Go to the next section only if your score is at least 80%. Do not consult
the Study Material while attempting the questions.

1. A force acts on a mass of 40 kg and changes its velocity from 3 m/s to 12 m/s. Find the
impulse of the force.

2. A cricket ball of mass 150 g moving at 30 m/s strikes a bat and returns back along the
same line at 20 m/s. If the ball is in contact with the bat for 0.02 second, find the force
exerted by the bat on the ball.

3. A 5 kg body has an initial velocity of 10 m/s to the right and a 10 kg body has a velocity
2 m/s towards the left. Both of them collide and stick together after the collision. With what
velocity would they move after the collision?

4. An explosive shell of mass 10 kg at rest suddenly explodes into two pieces. If one piece
with mass 4 kg is found to move with a velocity 6 m/s towards east, find the velocity of the
other piece.

5. A ball moving with a speed of 9 m/s strikes an identical stationary ball such that after
collision, the direction of each ball makes an angle of 60 with the original line of motion.
Find the speeds of the two balls after collision. Is the kinetic energy conserved in the
collision process?

6. If the kinetic energy of a particle is zero, what is its linear momentum? If the total energy of
a particle is zero, is its linear momentum necessarily zero? Explain.

7. If two particles have equal kinetic energies, are their momenta necessarily equal? Explain.

8. If two objects collide and one is initially at rest, is it possible for both to be at rest after the
collision? Is it possible for one to be at rest after the collision? Explain.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-19

9. Is it possible to have a collision in which all of the kinetic energy is lost? If so, give an
example.

10. Explain how linear momentum is conserved when a ball bounces from a floor.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-20

1. 360 N-s

2. 375 N

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-21

SOLVED OBJECTIVE EXAMPLES

Example 1:

A bomb of 12 kg explodes into two pieces of masses 4 kg and 8 kg. The velocity of 8 kg
mass is 6 m/s. The kinetic energy of the other is

Solution:

Momentum of 8 kg mass = 8  6 = 48 kg m/s

Hence momentum of 4 kg mass will be the same as this since the bomb was originally at rest.
48
Hence the speed of 4 kg mass = = 12 m/s
4

1 1
Hence its kinetic energy = mv 2 =  4  144 = 288 J
2 2

 (d)

Example 2:

Water flows through a pipe bent at an angle  to the horizontal with a velocity v. What is the
force exerted by water on the bend of the pipe of area of cross section S?

(b) 2v S cos  (c) 2v S sin  (d) 2v S sin  cos 
2 2 2 2
(a) 2v S sin
2

Solution:

Let us take horizontal direction as X-axis and perpendicular to it as Y-axis

pi = (Initial momentum of water flowing per sec)

^ 2 ^
= (Sv) v i = Sv i

 ^ ^
(cos  i  sin j )
2
pf = (Final momentum of water flowing per second)= Sv

Rate of change of momentum = Force exerted by water on the bend of the pipe

^ ^ ^ ^ ^
= Sv
2
(cos  i  sin j ) Sv 2 i = Sv [(cos  1) i  (sin  j )] = Sv
2 2
(cos  1) 2  sin2 

= 2Sv 2 sin
2

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-22

 (a)

Example 3:

Two persons standing on a floating boat run in succession along its length with a speed
4.2 m/s relative to the boat and dive off from the end. The mass of each man is 80 kg and that
of boat is 400 kg. If the boat was initially at rest, find the final velocity of the boat. Neglect
friction.

(a) 0.6 m/s (b) 0.7 m/s (c) 0.1 m/s (d) 1.3 m/s

Solution:

Let u be the velocity of boat after the first man has jumped off. Then the velocity of the first man
relative to the ground is (4.2  u) m/s. Since the momentum of first man is equal and opposite to the
momentum of boat and second man, we have

80(4.2  u) = (400 + 80) u

u = 0.6 m/s

After the first man has jumped off the velocity of the boat with second man in it is 0.6 m/s.

= 288 m/s ... (i)

Let the velocity of the boat be v m/s after the second man has jumped off.

Momentum of second man = 80  velocity of man relative to ground = 80 (4.2  v)

The momentum of boat and momentum of man are in opposite directions so that the net momentum
of boat and second man

Equation (i) and (ii) are equal 400 v  80 (4.2  v) = 288

v = 1.3 m/s

 (d)

Example 4:

A block of mass m moving with speed v collides with another block of mass 2m at rest. The
lighter block comes to rest after collision. What is the value of coefficient of restitution?

1 1 3 1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
2 3 4 4

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-23

Solution:

Suppose the second block moves at a speed v after collision.

v
By conservation of momentum, mv = 2m v  or v  =
2

v
Velocity of separation =
2

Velocity of approach = v

Velocity of separation 1
By definition, e= = .
Velocity of approach 2

 (a)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-24

Example 5:

A disk A of radius r moving on perfectly smooth surface at a A

speed v undergoes an elastic collision with an identical v
stationary disk B. Find the velocity of the disk B after
d
collision if the impact parameter is d as shown in Figure.
B
2
d vd
(a) v  1 (b)
2 2r
4r

vr
(c) (d) v 4r 2 d 2
2d

Solution:

One of the disks is at rest before impact. After the impact its
v1
v1
velocity will be in the direction of the centre line at the 1 v
moment of contact because this is the direction in which the v2
force acted on it.
2
d
Thus, sin 2 
2r

 1  2 
2 v2

Since the masses of both disks are equal, the triangle of momenta turns into triangle of velocities.

We have

vd d2
v1 = v cos 1 = v sin 2 = , v2 = v cos 2 = v 1
2r 4r 2

 (a)

Example 6:

A gun is mounted on a gun carriage movable on a smooth horizontal plane and the gun is
elevated at an angle 45 to the horizon. A shot is fired and leaves the gun inclined at an angle
 to the horizon. If the mass of gun and carriage is n times that of the shot, find the value of .

 n   n 1   2n 
(a)  tan 1   (b)  tan 1   (c) tan 1   (d)  = tan1 (2)
 n 1   n   n1 

Solution:

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-25

Since the gun is inclined at an angle  to horizontal, the direction of w makes an angle  with
horizontal. The horizontal and vertical components are w cos  and w sin . When the shot leaves
the muzzle the horizontal velocity relative to ground = w cos   v.

The vertical component of shot relative to ground is the same as relative to gun since the gun moves
horizontally. If the shot leaves at an angle  to horizontal,

Verticalcomponent of velocity of shot

tan  =
Horizontal component of velocity of shot

w sin
= ... (i)
w cosv

By conservation of momentum in horizontal direction,

w cos
mnv = m (w cos   v), v=
( n 1)

w sin
Substituting in (i), tan  =
w cos
w cos 
n 1

(n 1)sin  1 
tan  = 1 tan ,
ncos  n 

 1 n 1 
 = tan   ( tan 45 = 1)
 n 

 (b)

Example 7:

A neutron of mass m collides elastically with a nucleus of mass M which is at rest. If the
initial kinetic energy of neutron is K0, calculate the kinetic energy that it can lose during the
collision.

MmK 0 4MmK 0 2MmK 0 MmK 0

(a) (b) (c) (d)
(M  m ) 2 (M  m ) 2 (M  m ) 2 (M  m )

Solution:

The maximum energy loss occurs in a head on collision. Let v is the velocity of neutron before
collision and v2 its velocity after collision and v1 the velocity of nucleus after collision.

Mv1 + mv2 = mv

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-26

v1  v2 = v

v (m M )
Solving, v 2 
( m M )

1 2 1 2
= mv  mv2
2 2

 2
1 2  v2 
= mv 1
2  v2 
 

1  (m M ) 2 
= mv 2 1 
 (m M ) 
2 2

4m M
= K0
(M  m ) 2

 (b)

Example 8:

A smooth rubber cord of length  with spring constant k is O

suspended from O. The other end is fitted with a bob B. A A
small sleeve of mass m starts falling from O. Neglecting the
masses of the cord and bob, find the maximum elongation
of the cord.
B

mg  2k  mg  2k 
(a) 1 1  (b)  1 
k  mg  k  mg 

mg mg  k 
(c) (d) 1 
k k  mg 

Solution:

1 2
Let the cord extend by e. Then by conservation of energy, mg ( + e) = ke
2

ke  2mge  2mg = 0
2

2mg  4m 2 g 2  4k 2mg
e=
2k

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-27

mg mg 2k
e=  1
k k mg

mg mg 2k mg  2k 
e=  1 = 1 1 
k k mg k  mg 

 (a)

Example 9:

Sand drops from a stationary hopper at the rate 5 kg/s on to a conveyor belt moving with
constant speed of 2 m/s. What is the power delivered by the motor drawing the belt?

(a) 10 watt (b) 20 watt (c) 30 watt (d) 40 watt

Solution:

This problem illustrates exertion of tangential force on a body due to gain of mass.

Tangential force = Rate of gain of tangential momentum.

dm
= v
dt

This is the force needed to keep the belt moving with uniform velocity. The motor must exert this
moment of force.

dm
Force needed = v = 2  5 = 10 newton.
dt

 (b)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-28

Example 10:

A bullet of mass m is fired from below into a bob of mass M of a long simple pendulum. The
bullet stays inside the bob and the bob rises to a height h. The initial speed of the bullet will
be

 M  m   2h   M  m   2h   m 
(a) hg   (b)     (c)     (d) 2gh   M  m 
 m   g  m   g  M  m   m 

Sol.: Let the common velocity of bullet and bob be v after the bullet is embedded. Applying the law of
conservation of momentum, we have M  m v  mu (u = initial speed of bullet)

 mu 
v  
M  m
After this, the motion of bob is controlled by gravity v 2  2gh

 2gh   mu 

M  m

 m 
 (d)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-29

SOLVED SUBJECTIVE EXAMPLES

Example 1:

Two men each of mass m = 50 kg, stand on the edge of a stationary buggy of mass
M = 100kg. Assuming friction to be negligible, find the speed of the buggy after both men
jump off with the same horizontal velocity u =24 m/s relative to buggy one after the other.

Solution:

Let velocity of buggy just after jumping of first man is u 1 .
  
The real velocity of first man is u  u1  u m

Applying conservation of linear momentum,

 
0  (M  m)u1  mu m
 
  m(u  u1 )
u1 
M m

  mu
u1  …(i)
M  2m

Let the velocity of buggy after jump of second men is u 2
 
The real velocity of second men is u  u 2
   
Again applying law of conservation of momentum, (M  m )u1  Mu 2  m(u  u 2 )

  m(2M  3m) 
From (i), putting the value of u 1 , we get u 2 =  u
(M  m)(M  2m)

Speed of buggy after both men will jump is u 2 = 14m/s

Example 2:

An object of mass 5 kg is projected with a velocity of 20 m/s at an angle of 60° with the
horizontal. At the highest point of its path, the projectile explodes and breaks up into two
fragments of masses 1 kg and 4 kg. The fragments separate horizontally after the explosion.
Due to explosion, the kinetic energy of the system at the highest point gets doubled. Find the
separation (in cm) between the two fragments when they hit the ground. ( 3  1.7 )

Solution:

Let the velocities of 1 kg fragment be u1 and 4 kg fragment be u2.

Then by conservation of linear momentum
5(20 cos 60)  4u 2  u1 …(i)

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-30

1 2 1 1 
and 4u 2  (1)(u1 ) 2  2 5(20 cos 60 ) 2 
2 2 2 

From (i) and (ii)

u1 = 30m/s
u2 = 5m/s
Relative velocity along x-axis = ux = 25 m/s.

 u sin  
 Separation = x = uxt = u x  
 g 

25  20  sin 60
x
10

= 25 3 = 4250 cm

Example 3:

A wagon of mass M = 7 kg can move without friction along horizontal rails. A simple
pendulum consisting of a bob of mass m = 1 kg is suspended from the ceiling by a string of
length  = 23 cm. At the initial moment, the wagon and pendulum are at rest and the string is
deflected through an angle  from the vertical. ( = 53°)

Find the velocity of wagon, when the string forms an angle  ( < ) with vertical. ( = 37°)

Solution:

(a) Let v be the leftward velocity of wagon (absolute that is relative to earth). Let u be the
velocity of pendulum in a frame fixed to the wagon. Then u cos  is the relative horizontal
velocity of the bob and u sin  is its vertical velocity. Let vx and vy be the absolute horizontal
and vertical downward velocities of the bob.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-31

0 = m (u cos  – v) – Mv

M
 u cos  – v = v
m

(M m )v
 u=
mcos
Before releasing the bob

Kinetic energy of bob =

1
2

m v x2 v y2 

v
By the conservation of energy,

1 1 u
mg (1 – cos ) = mg (1 – cos ) + Mv 2 + m
2 2
[(u cos  – v) + u sin ]
2 2 2

After releasing the bob

or, 2mgl (cos  – cos )

M 2v 2 msin2 (M m) 2 v 2

= Mv 2  m +
m2 m 2 cos 2 

 M  (M  m ) 2 v 2
= Mv 2 1  sin2 
 m  mcos 2 

= v 
m mcos 2 

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
or,

= (M + m)v [M cos  + (M + m) sin ]

2 2 2

2m 2 g  (coscos)cos 2  

2
v =  
M m  M msin 2  

2m 2 g  (coscos )cos 2  
 v =   = 10 cm/s
M m  M msin2  

Example 4:

Two blocks B and C of mass m = 10kg each v

connected by a spring of natural length  and
spring constant k = 5 N/m rest on an absolutely
A B C
smooth horizontal surface as shown in Figure. A
third block A of same mass collides elastically

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-32

block B velocity v = 1m/s. Calculate the velocities

of blocks, when the spring is compressed as
much as possible and also the maximum
compression.

Solution:

Let A be the moving block and B and C the m m m

stationary blocks. v

Since A and B are of equal mass, A is

stopped dead and B takes off with its A B C
velocity. Now B and C move under their
mutual action and reaction and so their
momentum is conserved.

By the principle of conservation of momentum,

mv = m(v1 + v2)

v1 + v2 = v (a constant)

By the principle of conservation of energy,

1 1 1 1
mv 2  mv 12  mv 22  kx 2
2 2 2 2

v
For maximum compression v 1  v 2 
2

k 2 v2 v2
 xmax  v 2   ,
m 2 2

m
xmax = v = 1m
2k

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-33

Example 5:

A body A moving with velocity 10 m/s make a head on collision with a stationary body B of
same mass. As a result of collision the kinetic energy of system decreases by one percent.
Find the magnitude and direction of the velocity of particle A after collision.

Solution:

By the principle of conservation of momentum,

mv1 + mv2 = mv + 0

 v1 + v2 = v ... (i)

K i K f 1
Given, 
Ki 100

Kf 1 Kf 1 99
 1  1 
K i 100 Ki 100 100

1 1
mv 22  mv 12
2 2 99
 
1 100
mv 2
2
v 22 v 12 99
 2

v 100

99 2
 v 22 v 12  v
100
2 2
(v1 + v2) = v [from (i)]
 v 12 v 22 2v 1v 2 v 2
99 2
v 2v 1v 2 v 2
100
v2
 2v 1v 2 
100
v2
or v 1v 2  , v1 + v2 = 10
200
1010 1
v 1v 2  
200 2
1
v1 (10 – v1) =
2
1 1
10v 1 v 12  or v 12 10v 1  0
2 2
2v 12 20v 1 10

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-34

20  400 8
v1
4
= 5 cm/s in the same direction.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-35

Example 6:

A block of mass 37.5 kg is placed on a table of mass 12.25 kg, which can move without
friction on a level floor. A particle of mass 0.25 kg moving horizontally with velocity 302 m/s
strikes the block inelastically (a) Find the distance through which the block moves relative to
the table before they acquire a common velocity (b) also compute the common velocity, if the
coefficient of friction between block and table is 0.25.

Solution:

(a) Applying the principle of conservation of momentum to the inelastic impact, we have

0.25  302 = (0.25 + 37.5 + 12.25)v, where v is the common velocity of the system.

0.2302
Vcommon = = 151 cm/s
50

(b) Let u be the velocity of block immediately after impact. Then, 0.25  302 = (0.25 + 37.5) u

0.25 302
u = = 2 m/s
37 .75

Let a1 and a2 be the retardation of the block and acceleration of the table respectively.

Because Fk = k mg = 0.25  [0.25 + 37.5] g = 0.25  37.75 g

2 2
a1 = 2.45 m/s , a2 = 7.55 m/s
2
Relative retardation of block = a1 + a2 = 2.45 + 7.55 = 10 m/s

 v = 2  10  s,
2

v = 2 m/s,

4 = 20 s

4 1
s=  m = 20 cm
20 5

Example 7:

Two balls of masses m and 2m are suspended by two threads of same length l = 10 m from
the same point on the ceiling. The ball m is pulled aside through an angle  = 60° and
released from rest after a tangential velocity v0 = 80 m/s towards the other stationary ball is
imparted to it. To what heights will the balls rise after collision, if the collision is perfectly
elastic?

Solution:

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-36

1 1
Then, mv 02  mgl (1cos)  mv 2
2 2

v 2 v 02  2gl (1cos)

v = v1 + 2v2 or v – v1 = 2v2 … (i)

1 1 1
By conservation of kinetic energy, mv 2  mv 12  2mv 22
2 2 2

v 2 v 12 2v 22 , v 2

v 12 2v 22

Using (i) in (ii), v1 + v = v2 … (iii)

2 v
Solving (i) and (iii), v 2  v and v1 = – .
3 3

1
Let m rise by h1 and 2m by h2, then mv 12 mgh1
2

or gh1 
1 v2

2 9
=
1 2
18

v 0 2gl (1cos ) 

h1
1 2
18g

v 0 2gl (1cosα) = 1 m 
1
2mv 22 2mgh 2
2

1 4v 2 4 2
gh 2  
2 9 18

 v 0 2gl(1cos) 

h2 =
4 2
18g

v 0 2gl(1cos ) = 4 m 

Example 8:

A ball of mass m is projected with speed u into the barrel of spring gun of mass M initially at
rest on a frictionless surface. The mass m sticks in the barrel at the point of maximum
compression of the spring. What percentage fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the ball is
stored in the spring? Neglect the friction. (m = 3M)

Solution:

Let v be the velocity of system after the ball of mass m sticks in the barrel. Applying law of
conservation of linear momentum, we have

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-37

mu = (m + M)v … (i)

1 2 1 2
The initial K.E. mu of the ball is converted into elastic potential energy kx of the spring and
2 2
1 2
kinetic energy (m + M)v of the whole system. That is
2

1 2 1 2 1 2
mu = kx + (m + M)v … (ii)
2 2 2

where k is the spring constant and x is its maximum compression.

1 2
Dividing equation (ii) by mu ,
2

1 2 1
kx (mM )v 2
1= 2  2 …(iii)
1 2 1
mu mu 2
2 2

k x2 (m M )v 2
1=  …(iv)
mu 2 mu 2

v m
From equation (i), 
u (M  m )

kx2 (mM ) m 2 kx2 m kx2 m M

1=     1 
mu 2 m (mM ) mu mM
2 2
mu 2 mM (mM )

1 2
The energy stored in spring = kx
2

1 2
Initial K.E. of the ball = mu .
2

k x2
Hence, represents the fraction of initial energy, which is stored in the spring.
mu 2

M
 % fraction =  100 = 25%
mM

Example 9:

A ball is dropped on to a horizontal plate from a height h = 9 m above it. If the coefficient of
restitution is e = 1/2, find the total distance travelled before the ball comes to rest.

Solution:

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-38

The impact between the ball and the plate is direct impact. If u is the velocity of the ball before
impact, its velocity after is eu, where e is the coefficient of restitution.

So the velocity of the ball at the first rebound = v1 = eu1 = e 2gh .

v 12 e 2  2gh
The height h1 to which it rises after first rebound h1   2
=e h
2g 2g

The velocity u2 at which the ball reaches the surface a second time u2 = v1 = e 2gh .

2
The velocity v2 after second rebound v2 = ev1 = e u1

v 22 e 4 u12
The height h2 it rises after rebound h2    e4h
2g 2g
th
In general, the height hn to which the ball rises after n rebound is given by

hn = e nh
2

= h + 2h1 + 2h2 + 2h3 + ……………… + 2hn+ ………………… to 

2 4 6
= h + 2(e h + e h + e h + ……………… )
2 2 4
= h + 2he (1 + e + e + ……………… )

2he 2  2e 2  h(1e 2 )
= h = h1  = = 15 m
1 e2  1e 2  (1e 2 )
 

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-39

Example 10:

A shell flying with a velocity u = 500 m/s bursts into three identical fragments so that the
kinetic energy of the system increases k times. What maximum velocity can one of the
fragments obtain if k = 1.5?

Solution: mv2

3 mu

The particle with maximum velocity must be in 3 mv1

the forward direction.

3mu = mv1 – mv2 cos 2  mv3 cos 3

3u = v1 – v2 cos 2 – v3 cos 3

Also mv2 sin 2 = mv3 sin 3 … (ii)

If v1 is to be maximum 2 = 3 = 0

v 3u
v 1 … (iii)
2

Using the principle of conservation of energy

1 1 1 1 
(3m )u 2   mv 12 2 mv 2 
2 k2 2 

3ku = v12 2v 2

2
… (iv)

1
Substituting for v from (iii) 3ku2 v 12  (v 12 9u 2 6v 1u )
2

Solving for v1

v 1 u 1 2(k 1) 
For u = 500 m/s and k = 1.5

 
v 1 500 1 2(1.51) = 1000 m/s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-40

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-41

MIND MAP

1. Important formulae 2. Conservation of linear 3. Classification of impact on

 P  Mv momentum the basis of direction of force
 If net force acting on a body or  Central
P dp system of bodies is zero, the  Direct or head-on
 F  ,F 
t dt momentum of body or system  Indirect or oblique
  of body remains conserved.  Eccentric
 J   F .dt   p

IMPULSE AND
MOMENTUM

4. Classification of impact on 5. Analysis of collision 6. Equation of motion for

the basis of nature of  Apply conservation of variable mass system
colliding bodies momentum along the line of
collision.
 Apply law of restitution along  F ext  F th  M a
 Elastic
the line of collision
i.e., v2  v1 = e (u1  u2) dM
 Inelastic  where, F th  v rel
 e = 1 for perfectly elastic dt
 Perfectly inelastic collision.
 e = 0 for perfectly inelastic
collision
 0 < e < 1 for other collisions.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-42

EXERCISE – I

1. Two vehicles of equal masses are moving with same m

speed v on two roads making an angle . They collide  v
inelastically at the junction and then move together. The  v
speed of the combination is m
v v 
(a) v cos  (b) 2 v cos  (c) cos  (d) cos
2 2 2

2.

 
Two particles having position vectors r1  3iˆ  5 ˆj metres and r2   5iˆ  3 ˆj metres are  

 
  
moving with velocities v 1  4iˆ  3 ˆj and v 2  aiˆ  7 ˆj m/s. If they collide after 2 seconds,
the value of a is
(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 6 (d) 8

3. After perfectly inelastic collision between two identical particles moving with same speed in
different directions the speed of the particles become half the initial speed. The angle
between velocities of the two before collision is
(a) 600 (b) 450 (c) 1200 (d) 300

4. A sphere A of mass 4 kg is released from rest on a

smooth hemispherical shell of radius 0.2 m. The sphere A
slides down and collides elastically with another sphere B
of mass 1 kg placed on the bottom of the shell. If the A
sphere B has to just reach the top, the height h from B
where the sphere A should be released is h

(a) 0.08 m (b) 0.02 m

(c) 0.18 m (d) 0.10 m

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-43

5. A bullet of mass m is fired along the bob of a pendulum

hanging by a string. If  is angle of deflection of the bob
after the bullet hits the bob, the angle  is maximum when m M
(a) bullet passes through the bob
(b) bullet gets stuck inside the bob

(c) bullet is reflected back

(d) in all circumstances

6. A bullet of mass 20 g travelling horizontally with a speed of 500 m/s

500 m/s passes through a wooden block of mass 10.0 kg
initially at rest on a surface. The bullet emerges with a speed of
100 m/s and the block slides 20 cm on the surface before
coming to rest, the coefficient of friction between the block and
the surface. (g = 10 m/s2)

(a) 0.16 (b) 0.6 (c) 0.5 (d) 0.25

7. When two bodies stick together after collision, the collision is said to be
(a) partially elastic (b) elastic
(c) perfectly inelastic (d) none of the above

8. A sphere of mass m moving with a constant velocity u hits another stationary sphere of
same mass. If e is the coefficient of restitution, the ratio of velocities of two spheres after
collision is
1e 1e e1 e1
(a) (b) (c) (d)
1e e e1 e1

9. A body of mass m1 strikes a stationary body of mass m2. If the collision is elastic, the fraction
of kinetic energy transferred by the first body to the second is
m1m2 2m1m2 4m1m 2 2m1m 2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(m1  m2 ) (m1  m2 ) (m1  m 2 ) 2
(m1  m 2 ) 2

10. In the elastic collision of a heavy vehicle moving with a velocity of 10 ms –1 and a small
stone at rest, the stone will fly away with a velocity equal to

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-44

(a) 5 ms–1 (b) 10 ms–1 (c) 20 ms–1 (d) 40 ms–1

11. A body of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity of 6 m/s strikes inelastically to another body of
same mass at rest. The amount of heat evolved during collision is
(a) 36 J (b) 18 J (c) 9 J (d) 3 J

12. Ball 1 collides with an another identical ball 2 at rest as

shown in figure. For what value of coefficient of 1 2
restitution e, the velocity of second ball becomes two
times that of 1 after collision

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-45

13. A ball moving with velocity u collides with two m

u
identical balls placed in the track of first ball, after m m

the elastic collision,

u
(a) 1st stops, 2nd and 3rd moves with velocity
2

(b) 1st and 2nd stops, 3rd moves with velocity u.

u u
(c) 1st returned with velocity , 2nd moves with velocity and 3rd with velocity u.
2 2
(d) None of these

14. A ball P of mass 2 kg undergoes an elastic collision with another ball Q at rest. After
collision, ball P continues to move in its original direction with a speed one-fourth of its
original speed. What is the mass of ball Q?
(a) 0.9 kg (b) 1.2 kg (c) 1.5 kg (d) 1.8 kg

15. Two masses of 1 g and 9 g are moving with equal kinetic energies. The ratio of the
magnitudes of their respective linear momentum is
(a) 1 : 9 (b) 9 : 1 (c) 1 : 3 (d) 3 : 1

16. The bullet of mass a and velocity b is fired into a large block of mass c. The final velocity of
the system is
ac a ab c
(a) b (b) b (c) a (d) b
a ac c ab

17. The momentum of a particle is numerically equal to its kinetic energy. What is the speed of
the particle?
(a) 9 ms–1 (b) 3 ms–1 (c) 2 ms–1 (d) 1 ms–1

 
18. Two masses ma and mb moving with velocities v a and v b collide elastically and after that
 
ma and mb move with velocities v b and v a respectively. Then the ratio ma/mb is

va  vb ma  mb
(a) (b) (c) 1 (d) ½
va  vb ma

19. If two masses m1 and m2 collide, the ratio of change in velocity of m1 and m2 is proportional
to

m1 m1 m2 m2
(a) (b) (c) (d)
m2 m2 m1 m1

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-46

20. If two balls each of mass 0.06 kg moving in opposite directions with same speed 4 m/s
collide and rebound with the same speed, then the impulse imparted to each ball due to
other is
(a) 0.48 kg m/s (b) 0.24 kg m/s (c) 0.81 kg m/s (d) zero

21. A ball approaches a moving wall of infinite mass with speed v along normal to the wall. The
speed of the wall is u away from the ball and u < v. The speed of ball after an elastic
collision is
(a) u + v away from the wall (b) 2u + v away from the wall
(c) v – u towards from the wall (d) v – 2u away from the wall

22. Blocks A and B of equal masses are arranged as shown in

figure. The surface of A is smooth while B is rough and has
B A
a coefficient of friction 0.1 with surface. The block A moves
with speed 10 m/s and collides with B. The collision is
perfectly elastic. Find the distance moved by B before it
comes to rest.

(a) 25 m (b) 100 m (c) 50 m (d) 75 m

23. A sphere collides with another sphere of identical mass kept at rest. After collision, the two
spheres move. The collision is perfectly inelastic, then the angle between the directions of
motion of the two spheres is
(a) 0° (b) 45° (c) different from 90° (d) 90°

24. If momentum is increased by 20%, then K.E. increased by

(a) 44% (b) 55% (c) 66% (d) 77%

25. A bullet is shot from a rifle. As a result the rifle recoils. The kinetic energy of rifle as
compared to that of bullet
(a) is less (b) is greater
(c) is equal (d) cannot be concluded

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-47

EXERCISE – II

1. A projectile of mass m is fired with velocity v from a v

point P as shown. Neglecting air resistance, the
magnitude of the change in momentum between 450
P Q
the points P and arriving at Q is

1
(a) zero (b) mv (c) mv 2 (d) 2 mv
2

2. A particle is projected from a point at an angle with the horizontal, at t = 0. At an instant t, if

P is linear momentum and E is kinetic energy, then which of the following graphs is
correct?

E
E E
E
(b) (c) (d)
(a)

P O P
O P2 P2

3. A body of mass 1 kg initially at rest, explodes and breaks into three fragments of masses in
the ratio 1 : 1 : 3. the two pieces of equal mass fly off perpendicular to each other with a
speed of 15 m/s each. The speed of the heavier fragment is
(a) 5 2 m/s (b) 45 m/s (c) 5 m/s (d) 15 m/s

4. A body of mass 3 kg is acted on by a force which F/N

varies as shown in the figure. The momentum acquired
is given by (given initial momentum = 0)
(a) zero (b) 5 N-s 10
(c) 30 N-s (d) 50 N-s
t(s)
0 2 4 6

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-48

5. A block of mass 2 kg is moving on a frictionless

horizontal surface with a velocity of 1 m/s towards 1 m/s
another block of equal mass kept at rest. The spring 2 kg 2 kg
constant of the spring fixed at one end is 100 N/m.
Find the maximum compression of the spring.

6. A ball of mass 1 kg is attached to an inextensible string. The ball

is released from the position shown in figure. The impulse
imparted by the string to the ball immediately after the string
becomes taut is 2m

(a) 2 g (b) 4 g (c) 3 g (d) 2 2g

7. The truck moving on a smooth horizontal surface with a uniform speed u is carrying stone-
dust. If a mass m of the stone-dust ‘leaks’ from the truck through a hole in its bottom in a
time t, the force needed to keep the truck moving at its uniform speed is
m du
(a) u m/t (b) mdu / dt (c) u  (m) (d) zero
t dt

8. A body of mass m, having momentum p, is moving on a rough horizontal surface. If it is

stopped in a distance x, the coefficient of friction between the body and the surface is given
by
p2 p2 p p
(a)   (b)   (c)   (d)  
2gm 2 x 2mgx 2mgx 2gm 2 x

9.  
A body of mass 2 kg moving with a velocity iˆ  2 ˆj  3kˆ ms 1 collides with another body of
 
mass 3 kg moving with a velocity 2iˆ  ˆj  kˆ in ms-1. If they stick together, the velocity in
ms-1 of the composite body is

(a)
5

1 ˆ
8i  7 ˆj  3kˆ  (b)
1
5

 4iˆ  ˆj  3kˆ 
(c)
5

1 ˆ ˆ ˆ
8i  j  k  (d)
1
5

 4iˆ  7 ˆj  3kˆ 

10. A body P strikes another body Q of mass that is p times that of body P and moving with a
1
velocity that is of the velocity of body P. If body P comes to rest, the coefficient of
q
restitution is

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-49

pq pq pq pq

(a) (b) (c) (d)
pq q( p  1) p(q  1) p(q  1)

11. A big particle of mass (3 + m) kg blasts into 3 pieces, such that a particle of mass 1 kg
moves along x-axis, with velocity 2 m/s and a particle of mass 2 kg moves with velocity 1
m/s perpendicular to direction of 1 kg particle. If the third particle moves with velocity 2
m/s, then m is

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-50

12. A shell of mass m is fired from a gun of mass M placed on smooth horizontal surface at an
angle  with a speed u with respect to gun then, find the range of the shell.

v 2 sin 2  v 2 sin 2  M 
(a) (b)  
 M  m 
g  g 

(v cos   v ) 2 mv 2 sin 2
(c) (d)
g Mg

13. A ball is projected horizontally from a point A with velocity v A

v
towards a vertical wall P (moving away from point A with velocity
v/4) as shown. The distance travelled by the wall till the ball hits
v/4
the floor for the first time is (taking all collisions are elastic) h

2h h
(a) v (b) v
g 8g

3v 2h
(c) (d) none
4 g

14. A particle of mass m moving with a speed v collides elastically m

with another particle of mass 2m on a horizontal circular tube of v
radius R, then select the correct alternative(s).

2R 2m
(a) the time after which the next collision will take place is
v

(b) the time after which the next collision will take place is
proportional to m

(c) the time after which the next collision will take place is
inversely proportional to m
(d) the time after which the next collision will take place is
dependent of the mass of the balls.

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-51

15. A disc of mass m moving on a horizontal surface with velocity v

collides elastically to an identical stationary disc as shown in  v
figure. The velocity of two discs after collision are

(a) v sin  , v cos  (b) v sin , 0

v
(c) 0, v cos  (d) v sin , cos 
2

16. Two masses M and m are tied with a string and

arranged as shown. The velocity of block M when it m
loses the contact is
h
m gh
(a) 2 gh (b)
(m  M )

M
2m gh 2M gh
(c) (d)
(m  M ) (m  M )

17. A block of mass M is tied to one end of a massless

rope. The other end of the rope is in the hands of a
2M
girl of mass 2M as shown in the figure. The block
M
and the girl are resting on a rough wedge of mass M
as shown in the figure. The whole system is resting 2m
on a smooth horizontal surface. The girl pulls the
M
rope. Pulley is massless and frictionless. What is
the displacement of the wedge when the block
meets the pulley? (girl does not leave her position
during the pull)

(a) 0.5 m (b) 1 m (c) zero (d) 2/3 m

18. A uniform chain of length l and mass m is hanging vertically from its ends A and B which
are close together. At a given instant the end B is released. What is the tension at A when
B has fallen a distance x [x < l]?

mg  3 x   2x  mg  x  mg  4 x 
(a)  1  (b) mg1  (c) 1  (d) 1 
2  l   l  2  l 2  l 

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-52

19. A ball rolls off a horizontal table with velocity v0 = 5 m/s. v0=5m/s
The ball collides elastically from a vertical wall at a
horizontal distance D (= 8 m) from the table, as shown in
h=20m
figure. The ball then strikes the floor a distance x0 from the
table (g = 10 m/s2). The value of x0 is
(a) 6 m (b) 4 m x0
D
(c) 5 m (d) 7 m

20. A 20 kg block is initially at rest on a horizontal surface y

for which the coefficient of friction is 0.6. If a horizontal
force F is applied such that it varies with time as shown 200

Force (N)
in figure, the speed of the block after 10 s is
(g = 10 m/s2)
0 x
(a) 22 m/s (b) 30 m/s 5 10
time (s)
(c) 24 m/s (d) none of these

21. In an arrangement shown here mass 1 kg lying on a

smooth surface is thrown with velocity 8 m/s towards a
bob of mass 4 kg initially at rest. After the collision mass 3m
1 kg comes to rest. Find coefficient of restitution and the
height to which the bob will rise after the collision. 1 kg
Assuming collision to be head on. (g = 10 m/s2) m 8m/s 4 kg

1 1 1 1
(a) , 0.2 m (b) , 0.1 m (c) , 0.2 m (d) , 0.1 m
4 4 2 2

22. A small ball of mass m is connected by an inextensible m

massless string of length l with another ball of mass
M = 4m. They are released with zero tension in the string l
from a height h as shown. The time when the string M
becomes taut for the first time after the mass M collides h
with the ground is (all collisions are elastic)

l l 2l
(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these
2 2gh 2gh 2gh

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23. A particle of mass 500 g is projected along x-axis with a F

velocity 6 m/s. It is acted upon by a variable force acting
along y-axis as shown in figure, then the velocity of the 1N
particle at 8 s
t
4s 8s 12s 20s

24. A box of mass M is placed on a smooth horizontal surface M

and ball of mass m is placed on smooth surface of the m
box. An impulse J is imparted in horizontal direction to
the ball. Find the time period of oscillation (assuming all d
collision are elastic)

2d m  M 
2
2dm 2dM 2 2dM
(a) (b) (c) (d)
mJ J m  M J m  M 2 J

25. In a carom-board game the striker and the coins are

identical and of mass m. In a particular hit the coin is hit
when it is placed close to the edge of the board as shown
in figure such that the coin travels parallel to the edge. If /4
the striker is moving with speed v before the strike, then the v
net impulse on the striker during collision if its moves
perpendicular to the edge is (all collisions the elastic)

5 mv 3
(a) mv (b) 2 mv (c) (d) mv
2 2

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EXERCISE – III

ONE OR MORE THAN ONE CHOICE CORRECT

1. A ball hits the floor and rebounds after elastic collision. In this case,
(a) the magnitude of momentum of the ball just after collision is the same as that just
before collision
(b) the mechanical energy of ball remains the same in the collision
(c) the total momentum of ball and earth is conserved
(d) the total energy of the ball and earth is conserved

2. In head on elastic collision of two bodies of equal masses

(a) the velocities are interchanged
(b) the momenta are interchanged
(c) the faster body slows down and the slower body speeds up
(d) kinetic energy is conserved

3. A ball strikes the ground at an angle  and rebound

at an angle  with the vertical as shown in the figure.
Then
tan   
(a) coefficient of restitution is
tan 

(b) if  <  the collision is inelastic

(c) if  =  the collision is elastic
(d) the momentum of the ball is conserved.

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4. In a two blocks system an initial velocity V0 A V0 Rough

(w.r.t. ground) is given to block A B
(a) the momentum of block A is not conserved smooth

(b) the momentum of system of blocks A and B is conserved

(c) the increase in momentum of B is equal to the decrease in momentum of block A
(d) kinetic energy is conserved

5. In figure, the block B of mass m starts from rest at

the top of a wedge W of mass M. All surfaces are B(m)
frictionless. W can slide on the ground. B slides
down onto the ground, moves along it with a speed
v, has an elastic collision with the wall, and climbs
back onto W then which of the following options is
correct. W(M)

(a) B will reach the top of W again

(b) From the beginning, till the collision with the wall,
the centre of mass of B plus W does not move
horizontally.

2mv
(c) after the collision, the centre of mass of B plus W moves with the velocity
mM
2mv
(d) when B reaches its highest position on W, the speed of W is
mM

6. A body is fired from point P and strikes at Q inside a Q

smooth circular wall as shown in the figure. It
rebounds to point S (diametrically opposite to P),
then 45°
P S
(a) the coefficient of restitution is zero
(b) the coefficient of restitution is less than 1
(c) kinetic energy is conserved in this collision
(d) the coefficient of restitution is 1

7. Which of the following(s) depend(s) on the choice of the inertial reference frame

(a) Momentum

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(d) change in kinetic energy

8. A woman holding a large ball stands on a frictionless, horizontal sheet of ice. She throws
the rock with speed v0 at an angle  above the horizontal

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9. A net force with x- component  Fx acts on an object from time t1 to time t2. The
x-component of the momentum of the object is same at t1 as it is at t2, then which of the
following option(s) is/are possible

(a) t1 = t2 ,  Fx is variable

(b) t1  t2 ,  Fx = 0

(c) t1  t2 ,  Fx is variable

(d) t1 = t2 ,  Fx = 0

10. A net force  Fx (t) = A + Bt2 in the +x direction is applied to a girl of mass m. The force
starts at t = 0 and continues until time t
(a) impulse of the force is 2B t

A  B  3
(b) Her speed at time t is t  t
m  3m 

B 3
(c) Impulse of the force is At   t
3
 2B 
(d) Her speed at time t is  t
m

11. A block of mass m moving on a smooth horizontal plane v0 k

with a velocity v0 collides with a stationary block of mass M m M
at the back of which a spring of spring constant k is
attached, as shown in the figure. Select the correct
alternative(s)
m
(a) velocity of centre of mass is v0
mM

1  mM  2
(b) initial kinetic energy of the system in centre of mass frame is  v 0
4mM 

mM 1
(c) maximum compression in the spring is v 0
m  M  k
(d) when the spring is in state of maximum compression the kinetic energy in the centre of
mass frame is zero

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12. A body moving towards a finite body at rest collides with it. It is possible that

(b) both the bodies move after collision

(c) the moving body comes to rest and the stationary body starts moving

(d) the stationary body remains stationary the moving body changes its velocity

13. A uniform bar of length 6a and mass 8m lies on a 2m

smooth horizontal table. Two point masses m and 2m
moving in the same horizontal plane with speeds 2v v 3a
and v, respectively, strike the bar (as shown in figure)
and stick to the bar after collision. Denoting angular C
velocity (about the centre of mass), total energy and
a 2a
centre of mass velocity by , E and Vc respectively, 2v
we have after collision.
m

3v v 3mv 2
(a) Vc = 0 (b)   (c)   (d) E 
5a 5a 5

14. A block of mass m is moving with velocity u on a

horizontal smooth surface towards a wedge of same
mass initially kept at rest. Wedge is free to move in u
any direction. Initially the block moves up the smooth m
incline plane of the wedge to a height h and again m
moves down back to the horizontal plane. After this
process, velocity of the
 h 
(a) wedge will be  u (b) wedge will be u
 h  1

 h 
(c) block will be  u (d) block will be zero
 h  1

15. A bob of mass m is attached at one end of a string of B

length l. Other end of the string is fixed at point O. Bob
is rotating in a circular path of radius l in horizontal O
plane about O with constant speed v, as shown in the l v
figure. The average force exterted by string on the bob m
A
during its
mv 2
(a) half revolution will be
l

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2mv 2
(b) half revolution will be
l

2mv 2
(c) one fourth revolution will be
l

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EXERCISE – IV

MATCH THE FOLLOWING

Note: Each statement in column – I has one or more than one match in column –II.

1. Consider a head-on collision between two particles of masses m1 and m2. The initial
speeds of the particles are u1 and u2 in the same direction. Coefficient of restitution
between two body is e and speeds after collision are v1 and v2 in same direction as before
collision.

Column-I Column-II

I. m1 = m2, u2 = 0 and e =1 A. v 1  u1 , v 2  u 2

IV. m2 >> m1, e =1 D. v 2  2u1, v 1  u1

E. v 1  v 2  u 2  u1

Note: Each statement in column – I has only one match in column –II

2. A U shaped tube of mass 2m is placed on a

horizontal surface. Two spheres each of diameter d
(just less than the inner diameter of tube) and mass m u
m enter into the tube with a velocity u as shown in 2m
figure. Taking all collisions to be elastic and all
u
surfaces smooth. Match the following
m

Column-I Column-II

I. The speed of the tube with respect to ground, when A. 2u

spheres are just about to collide inside the tube.
II. The speed of spheres when spheres are just about B. u/2
to collide.
III. The speed of the spheres when they comes out the 3
tube. C. u
2
IV. The speed of the tube when spheres comes out the D. zero
E. u

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3. A ball of mass m is hanging from a string of length

L which is attached to a L shaped massless rod.
L
The rod is fixed on a block which is also of mass
m m
m, the whole assembly is kept on a horizontal
frictionless surface as shown in diagram. A bullet
of mass m moving in horizontal direction collides
m smooth
head on with the hanging ball inelastically with
speed v, so that after collision the ball is just able
to complete the circle.

Column-I Column-II

I. The value of v is A. 13gL

II. The value of speed of ball just after collision at the B. 5gL
lowest position of circle.

III. The speed of L shaped rod when ball is passing C. 52gL

the horizontal position.

 
IV. The speed of the ball with respect to ground at the gL
topmost position. D. 2 13  1
3

52gL
E.
9

REASONING TYPE
Directions: Read the following questions and choose
(A) If both the statements are true and statement-2 is the correct explanation of
statement-1.

(B) If both the statements are true but statement-2 is not the correct explanation of
statement-1.

(D) If statement-1 is False and statement-2 is True.

1. Statement-1: In oblique elastic collision of two bodies, momentum is not conserved along a
line making non-zero angle with line of impact.
Statement-2: In oblique collision of same masses, one at rest initially, bodies go at right
angle to each other after collision.
(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

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2. Statement-1: In elastic collision, kinetic energy may not conserved during the collision time.
Statement-2: In elastic collision potential energy of bodies may change during collision time.
(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

 dP
3. Statement-1: F  is true for the system of variable mass as treating the mass variable.
dt
Statement-2: If net external forces on a system of variable mass is zero, instantaneous
acceleration of centre of mass of system may be non zero.
(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

4. Statement-1: In head on elastic collision of two bodies of equal masses the velocities are
interchanged.
Statement-2: In elastic collisions both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.
(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

5. Statement-1: Area per unit mass of force-time graph gives change in velocity.
   
Statement-2: An impulse I changes the momentum of a body by P then I  P
(a) (A) (b) (B) (c) (C) (d) (D)

Figure shows on arrangement of four steel bob of

mass m, supported by a vertical string and touches the
neighbouring bob. The centres of gravity of the bobs are h 2h
at a distance of (2h) below their points of suspension. Bob
A is displaced to the left so that its string is taut with its
centre of gravity at a vertical distance h below its point of
suspension. The bob A is then released from rest from the A C D
B
position shown in the figure. Assume the collision between
the bobs to be perfectly elastic.

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4. If coefficient of restitution is e = 0.2, then velocity of D after impact is

27 27 1
(a) 2gh (b) 2gh (c) 2gh (d) 2gh
125 29 125

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EXERCISE – V

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

1. The inclined surfaces of two movable wedges of the m

same mass M are smoothly conjugated with the
horizontal plane (as shown in figure). A washer of
h
mass m slides down the left wedge from a height h.
M M
To what maximum height will the washer rise along
the right wedge? All the surfaces are smooth.

2. A symmetric block of mass m1 with a notch of

hemispherical shape of radius r rests on a smooth m2 r
horizontal surface near the wall as shown in figure.
A small washer of mass m2 slides without friction
from the initial position shown in figure. Find the m1
maximum velocity of the block.

3. Two particles of masses m and m  moving in m

parallel straight lines are at a distance ‘a’ apart with v
velocities v and v (v > v ). The particles are
connected by a string of length l (> a) which was a
loose in the beginning. Calculate the impulse of
tension of the string when it becomes taut.
v
m

4. A cylindrical solid of mass 10-2 kg and cross-sectional area 10-4 m2 is moving parallel to its
axis (the X-axis) with a uniform speed of 103 m/s in the positive direction. At t = 0, its front
face passes the plane x = 0. The region to the right of this plane is filled with stationary dust
particles of uniform density 10-3 kg/m3. When a dust particle collides with the face of the
cylinder, its sticks to its surface. Assuming that the dimensions of the cylinder remain
practically unchanged, and that the dust sticks only to the front face of the cylinder, find the
x-coordinate of the front of the cylinder at t = 150 s.

5. Two towers AB and CD are situated at a distance d,  D

60
apart, as shown in Figure. AB = 20 m and CD = 30
10 m/s
m. An object of mass ‘m’ is thrown from B
horizontally with a velocity of 10 m/s, towards CD. At B m2 m
10 m/s 30 m
the same instant, another object of mass ‘2m’ is
20 m
projected at an angle of 60 (to the horizontal)
d C
downwards, from D, towards AB with the same A
velocity of 10 m/s. The two objects move in the Ground
same vertical plane, collide in mid air, and stick to
each other.

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towers.

(ii) Find the position on the ground, where the

objects hit the ground.

6. A platform of mass m and a counterpoise

(m + M) are connected by a light cord which
passes over a small smooth pulley. A man
of mass M is standing on the platform,
which is at rest. If the man leaps vertically
M+m
upwards with velocity u, find the distance
through which the platform will descend and
show that when the man meets the platform
M
again, both are in their original positions.
m

7. A cannon of mass M located at the base of an inclined plane shoots a shell of mass m in a
horizontal direction with velocity v0. To what vertical height does the cannon ascend the
inclined plane as a result of recoil, if the angle of inclination of plane is  and the coefficient
of friction between cannon and plane is ?

8. A ball is dropped from the top of a tower 30 m high. At A

the same instant, a ball of equal mass is thrown from a
point on the ground 15 m from the foot of the tower so as 15 m
to strike the first ball when just half way down. Find the
initial velocity and the direction of projection of the C
second ball. If the two balls coalesce, how long will they
take to reach the ground?
15 m

B 15 m D

9. A small cube of mass m slides down a circular path of

radius R cut into a large block of mass M, as shown in R
m
figure. Blocks move without friction. The blocks are
initially at rest. Find the horizontal distance from the
bottom of block when cube hits the table.
M
R/2

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10. A bullet of mass m moving with velocity v0 collides head m v0 K

on with a block of mass m which is placed on a car of m
mass 4m. Bullet gets embedded in the block. The block 4m
is connected with car by massless spring of constant K.
Neglecting friction between car and horizontal floor and
between block and car. Calculate the maximum
compression in the spring.

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EXERCISE – I

6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (c)

11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (b) 15. (c)

16. (b) 17. (c) 18. (c) 19. (c) 20. (a)

21. (d) 22. (c) 23. (a) 24. (a) 25. (a)

EXERCISE – II

6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (a) 10. (d)

11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (a)

16. (c) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (a) 20. (c)

21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (a) 24. (b) 25. (a)

EXERCISE – III

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6. (c,d) 7. (a,c,d) 8. (c,d) 9. (a,b,c,d) 10. (b,c)

11. (a,c,d) 12. (b,c) 13. (a,c,d) 14. (b,d) 15. (b,d)

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EXERCISE – IV

MATCH THE FOLLOWING

1. I – C, E ; II – B, E ; III – D, E ; IV – E

2. I – B ; II – C ; III – D ; IV – E

3. I – C ; II – A ; III – E ; IV – D

REASONING TYPE

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (a)

EXERCISE – V

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS

M2
1. h
(M  m )2
2m2
2. 2 gr
m1  m2

mm(v  v ) l 2  a2
3. T=
(m  m) l
4. 105 m
20
5. (i) 10 3 m ; (ii) m from AB
3

M u2
6. d
2(M  2m ) g

m 2v o2 sin
7. h 
2M 2g (sin cos )

8. 1.08 s

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IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM OP-MI-P-70

2M  m 
9. R
M

m
10. v0
3k

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