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The Role of United Nations in Peace Movement
Submitted to: Saber Ahmed Chowdhury Assistant professor Dept. of Peace and Conflict Studies University of Dhaka Submitted by: Sahiduzzaman Sohel 4th year BSS (Honors), roll – 005 Dept. of Peace and Conflict Studies University of Dhaka
Date of submission: April 13, 2010
Serial no. 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 12. 13. 14. 15. Contents: Abstract Introduction Peace movement Types of peace movement Transformations of peace movement Objectives of peace movement Systems of United Nations Purposes and principles of United Nations Characteristics of UN peace movement: Dissimilarity of UN peace movement from others organization: Role of United Nations in peace movement UN approaches to preventing and managing conflicts Role of Security Council in peace movement: Economic and Social Council Human rights and humanitarian assistance: A common framework of action UN and peace making UN and peace keeping UN and peace building Current UN peacekeeping missions The United Nations Peace building Fund (PBF) The Other UN Organizations That Contribute to Peace The UN peace agreements: Individual initiative of secretary general Noble Peace Prize: Achievement of UN in peace movement: United Nations actions for peace in various regions of the world The UN role in Haiti Burundi peace process The UN’s current initiatives in ME UN role of peace movement in Guinea_ Bissau: UN role of peace movement in West Africa: Balkan conflict Success and failure of UN peace movement An Evaluation of UN peace movement Concluding remarks References Page no. 03 04 05 06 06 07 07 08 08 09 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 17-18 19 20-21 22 22 23 23 23 24 25 25 26 26 26-27 27-30 30 31
Peace is probably as old as humanity and it is our ultimate goal. There is no way to peace, peace is the only way. Peace movement is a significant tool for establishing peace in all over the world and it is very much essential concern in peace studies. Peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war and tries to create positive peace such as social justice, human rights, democracy, protect environment, eradication of poverty, removing illiteracy, refugee settlement and so on. After the bloodshed and destruction of World War II UN was established. Main purpose of the United Nations is to maintain international peace and security, to strengthen universal peace and to achieve international co-operation in solving international problems. The United Nation was created to be a comprehensive organization not only in terms of its membership, but also interims of wideness of its competencies. Each aspect of its works peace keeping, human rights, development cooperation, and environmental protection and so on will be the search for cooperative solutions for economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problem, and the encouragement of behavior that accords with the principle of international law. The main purpose of this article to focus the UN role in peace movement and it covered all the initiatives of United Nations for establishing peace in all over the world through various peace movements. Firstly this paper paying attention on various organs of united nations activities such as Security council : issues of war and peace ,General assembly : the main parliamentary , budget and decision making organ, Economic and social council : quality of life worldwide, International court of justice: adjudication of international legal disputes, General Assembly First Committee (Disarmament and International Security) ,General Assembly Fourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization) ,Peace building Commission, Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force, Disarmament Commission, Conference on Disarmament, Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(www.un.org). Beside these issues, peace movement is accelerated by the UN subsidiary organizations, such asthe UNDP, the FAO, the UNFPA, the UNICEF, the WHO and so many so on. A large share of this article is engaged by several case studies of the UN peace movements in different parts of the sphere. These case studies are selected in region basis and their degrees of magnitude have tried to show the achievement of the United Nations in case of peace movement and the UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures.
peace making process. In this paper I have tried to focus peace movement shortly and the role of United Nations in peace movement comprehensively. and the struggle to end world poverty and hunger.Introduction: Today we face a world almost infinite promise and or potentially terminal destruction. These programs did not only focus on peace keepers. in the last 50 years. 4 . all over the world every generation had had "its" war. As for World War II. not everyone in the world has known peace. including 6 million Jews in the Nazi concentration camps. World War I took the lives of more than 9 million people. all the factors leading to outbreaks in conflicts. 55 million people died. but also on economic and social development. United Nations is contributing in peace movement through its various activities such as preventive diplomacy. Rise of United Nations initiated a great transformation in peace movements. peace keeping mission. However it is the place where we can best hope to avoid the worst of war and establishment of world peace. The UN was thus created and equipped with instruments that its predecessor lacked. agreed to establish a new global organization that would be set up with the goal of preserving peace among nations. killing between 20% to 25% of the male population of France and Germany. It is certainly true that. But peace is the ultimate goal of all human being. 1945. After the bloodshed and destruction of World War II. toward that end. human rights. all of these United Nations programs contribute directly or indirectly to the peace movement and thus to peace on earth. Faced with the largest catastrophes in human history. men and women around the planet began to dream of a better. The dream of peace in the world is becoming less and less utopian and more and more attainable. 51 States ratified the United Nations Charter with the hope of freeing our world from the possibility of war.The idea of world peace is.social and economical development process. a relatively recent idea. On October 24. Indeed. peaceful world. I think the United Nations cannot. as much as possible. peace building measures. Not so long ago. but it is gradually gaining ground. and was never intended to solve all of the problems of international community. who intervene after a conflict has erupted. the victorious Allied states pledged that history would not repeat itself and. The UN established several programs intended to reduce. in itself. human rights and humanitarian interventions .
moral purchasing. “It is only through a conscious choice and through a deliberate policy that humanity can survive. Only in peace and through peace can respect for human dignity and its inalienable rights be guaranteed. They have also had a radical. social justice. boycotts. creating Open Government and Transparency tools. Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism. Peace movements may be divided into three categories Movement to eliminate war in general movement to stop particular aspects of war 5 . Types of peace movement: There are various types of peace movement such as Religious pacifism. demonstrations. 2000.com) Pope John Paul II said about peace movement “War is defeat for humanity. Peace movement is a social movement. Marxist—has often taken antiwar and antimilitarist stances. often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Often there was a commitment to refusing to participate in specific wars. non-violent resistance. or opposing military conscription. world day of peace. social democrat. ecological pacifism. or liberal dimension that critiqued the links of capitalism to imperialism and militarism. nuclear pacifism. January 1. and supporting anti-war political candidates. minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation. liberal internationalism.wikipedia. In sense of positive peace it covers human rights. socialist internationalism. abolishing certain weapons or weapons systems. (www. often in alliance with more traditional peace groups.” [Pope John Paul II. diplomacy. syndicalism.” [Approach to peace. economic and political development. Peace movements have always had a pacifist dimension. human security.Peace movement: A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars). democracy.2000] Pope John Paul II also said about peace movement. and social. Page 227] Peace movements have tended to coalesce around goals related to preventing or stopping specific wars. opposing all war. communist internationalism. anti conscription. socialist. feminist anti militarism. and National political lobbying groups to create legislation. The political left— anarchist.
Long-term opponents of war preparations are primarily characterized by a belief that military power is not the equivalent of justice. and National political lobbying groups to create legislation……. Movement to stop particular war (David P. In the 20th century. creating Open Government and Transparency tools. it is one of several movements that led to the formation of Green Party political associations in many democratic countries.Webel:2002) Transformation of peace movement: In 19th century Peace Movement was viewed as “Peace Movement is efforts to utter the foreign and military policy of government and is organized by private citizen usually in constitutionally governed nation”. often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. ……. and supporting anti-war political candidates. diplomacy. such as in Germany. minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation. moral purchasing. Objectives and purposes of the Peace movement: To create the consciousness of world peace To faster friendship and harmony among the people 6 . race or natural resources or ethical conflict over religion or ideology. Barash.the common goal of peace and humane sustainability”. Charles P. non-violent resistance. The more mainstream technology critics such as the Green parties. perhaps reflecting that country's negative experiences with militarism in the 20th century. The Peace movement is primarily characterized by a belief that humans should not wage war on each other or engage in violent ethnic cleansings over language. demonstrations. Wikipedia says “A Peace Movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars). Greenpeace and the ecology movement they are part of.. The peace movement has a very strong influence in some countries' green parties. boycotts..advocacy of pacifism.
To assure international justice and universal human rights by world government. educated and living conditions of peace on earth. Membership to the United Nations is open to all peace-loving nations that accept the principles and obligations set out in its Charter. It has six (6) principal organs. chemical and nuclear weapons in the entire world. 7 . Of these. Liberia and South Africa). Allow me to briefly sketch the interdependent parts of the United Nations. Egypt. To promote and protect human rights. and as a result membership rose from 51 in 1945 to 192 in 2010. What is the United Nations? The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization or gathering of sovereign states. founded in the closing days of the Second World War. To purify and maintain a clean and ecological balanced environment To alleviate poverty and hunger To improve the healthy. With the surge in decolonization. related uniquely with each other. Its Charter was adopted and signed on 26 June 1945 by 51 founding members. 4 were from Africa (Ethiopia. To achieve disarmament and total elimination of all biological. The United Nations System The UN is a three-tiered system of independent inter-governmental organizations. many states gained their independence and admission to the UN. .
8 . culture and humanitarian problems and in promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. The United Nations acts in accordance with the following principles: It is based on the sovereign equality of all as members. The purposes of the United Nations. are: To maintain international peace and security To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self determination of peoples: To cooperate in solving international economic . To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. as set forth in the Charter. social.Figure: United Nations system Purposes’ and principles of UN: We can easily guess the inspiration of peace movement of UN through its purposes and principles..
they are settle their international disputes by peaceful means and without enduring international peace and security and justice.cultural and humanitarian problems United Nations develops friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights It creates the consciousness of world peace It works for promoting and protecting human rights in all over the world United Nations can take preventive measures and enforcement action for peace United Nations covers whole objectives and purposes of peace movement. Dissimilarity of UN peace movement from others organization: • • • It is a universal organization It has vast work of actions It involves more than190 states 9 . It works for international justice United nations peace movement is a collective action plan and efforts of all member states Every initiatives of UN somehow is involved in peace process United Nations has a great acceptance in all over the world and it can take actions easily than others. All members are to fulfills in good faith their charter obligations. from antiwar movement to sustainable and durable peace process. Nothing in the charter is to authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state. They are to give the United nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the charter and shall not assist states against which the United nations is taking preventive or enforcement action. social . They are to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other state . Characteristics of UN peace movement: United Nations works for international peace and security It cooperates in solving international economic.
there were more than 5.000 were police personnel. anti war movements.000 UN Volunteers from over 160 nations. peaceful settlements etc Only United Nations uses the collective security approach for establishing peace and minimizing war. Only UN uses peacemaking.• • • • • UN not only works for anti war but also works for peaceful settlements and post conflict situation. Only the United States deploys more military personnel to the field than the United Nations. More than 77. UN and its various specialized organ work effectively of their own sectors for peace such as UNESCO. it proves the specialty of UN incase of peace movement. UNDP. 12. The UN is the largest multilateral contributor to post-conflict stabilization worldwide.000 serving on 20 peace operations led by the UN Departments of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Field Support (DFS) on four continents directly impacting the lives of hundreds of millions of people. FAO. UN secretary general and various organs won noble peace prizes. human rights. WHO etc. Women are increasingly performing key leadership functions in peacekeeping: between February 2007 and January 2008.000 of those serving were troops and military observers and about 11. it depends on contributions from Member States. UNHCR. there was an increase of over 40% of women serving in peacekeeping • • • • • • • • 10 . As of 31 March 2008.000 local civilian staff and some 2. 118 countries contributed military and police personnel to UN peacekeeping. In addition. There are almost 110.000 international civilian personnel. peace keeping and peace building process. The UN does not have its own military force. Others organization works for single issues but UN covers huge areas of peace such as Millennium Development Goals. Only UN can use force for peace process UN has straightforward access in all over the world but others organizations cannot get this. UNICE.
various techniques by which disputes are settled. mediation.theory and practice where by all states thwart an aggressor state by joining together against the aggressor.efforts of bring parties to agreement. aggressor is met with force. such as adjudication.UN approaches to preventing and managing conflicts Figure: Approaches of UN peace movement Collective security. arbitration. Peacemaking. Peaceful settlement. but if an attack occurs. conciliation and good officers. Preventive diplomacy-practice of engaging in diplomatic intervention before the outbreak of conflict and monitoring hot spots through the use of peace keeping forces or surveillance technology. Attempts to prevent the outbreak of conflict. 11 .
Peacekeeping. such as development aid . p 76] Role of Security Council in peace movement: Security Council plays a key role in peace movement in all over the world. banning of air flights or communications. provision of humanitarian aid and intervention. 2000.efforts to persuade states to limit reduce or eliminate specific types of weapons.the use of multilateral forces to achieve several. civilian administration and human rights and election monitoring. Recommend procedures for peaceful resolution of a dispute. Peace building.Based on discussion in Mingst and karns. Call upon other member nations to completely or partially interrupt economic relations as well as sea. postal. or by any means necessary. different objectives: observation of truce and ceasefire lines. Enforcement measures – direct actions taken to ensure compliance with UN measures. The UN's role in international collective security is defined by the UN Charter. Collective security which is very much important for peace movement was adopted by Security Council. and use of force. and radio communications. Enforce its decisions militarily. separation of forces. such as imposition of economic sanctions.post conflict activities to strengthen and preserve peace. which gives the Security Council the power to: • • • • • Investigate any situation threatening international peace. or to sever diplomatic relations. air. [Source. 12 . Avoid conflict and maintain focus on cooperation. promotion of law and order. Arms control and Disarmament.
The court has heard cases related to war crimes.icj-cij.org/court/index.)International court of justice is playing a good role for promoting justice in all over the world. (http://www. Such as International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 13 . among others.Economic and Social Council and peace movement: The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. Figure: Millennium Development Goals International court of justice: Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing. and continues to hear cases . This council set down Millennium Development Goals which are very much important for Social and economic development and it is a great effort of UN peace movement in all over the world.
(http://www. established in 2006. The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues. The purpose of the United Nations Human Rights Council. which was often criticized for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens. was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.com/2006/02/26/opinion/26sun2. though not legally binding. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights.Special Court for Sierra Leone Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia Special Tribunal for Lebanon Human rights and humanitarian assistance: The pursuit of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN.nytimes. human rights" and to take "joint and separate action" to that end. is to address human rights violations. and observance of. The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote "universal respect for.html) UN Bodies for human rights 14 .
A common framework of action: It is possible to find out a common framework action in the UN operations for peace. 15 . This figure shows how actions of the UN take place one after another.
un. [www. the parties. violent or latent. peacemaking is "action to bring hostile parties to agreement. peacemaking is the diplomatic effort intended to move a violent conflict into nonviolent dialogue. Peacekeeping missions allow the Security Council to watch over the cease-fire and participate in the creation of conditions for peace. the Security Council has authorized member States to use all the necessary means to keep the peace.un. the Security Council or the General Assembly may call upon the United Nations Secretary General to exercises his "Good Offices" to facilitate the resolution of the conflict. Pacific Settlement of Disputes. On a few rare occasions. 16 . The Secretary General may also undertake independent peacemaking initiatives by offering his "Good Offices" to parties to resolve the conflict in a peaceful way." These actions are carried out during a conflict. including collective military action. They entail the diplomatic process of brokering an end to conflict. the UN Mission The UN Security Council is the main organization of the United Nations dedicated to the resolution of conflicts and peacekeeping. essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations. unless imposed action is taken by the Security Council to facilitate the peacemaking process.org/peacemaker) The United Nations and Peacekeeping: Keeping the Peace.html)In this sense. United Nations Peacemaking excludes the use of force.org/Docs/SG/agpeace. According to the UN. ("http://www. United Nations peacemaking is an extension of the parties' own efforts to manage their conflict. principally through the use of mediation and negotiation skills. former United Nations Secretary General Boutros-Boutros Ghali defined peacemaking as "action to bring hostile parties to agreement. Pacific Settlement of Disputes. essentially through such peaceful (means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the Charter of the United Nations.The United Nations and peacemaking : The term "peacemaking" is used in several different ways. In An Agenda for Peace. When they cannot.
the DRC. Mozambique. police and civilian personnel to restore peace. limitation. which is organized and directed at the international level and which calls upon military. 17 . reconstruction and development.Burundi cote d’Ivorie. social and economic dimensions of societies emerging from conflict. defines peace keeping as being "the prevention.Liberia.com/ The United Nations and Peace building: Peace building is defined as the medium to long term process of rebuilding war affected communities through identifying and supporting structure to consolidate peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict peace building currently includes the process of rebuilding the political. It is critical to ensure the UN commitment to peace building in Africa since there are currently ten key war affected and post conflict countries on the continent including Angol.Sierra Leon Sudan and western sahara.General Indar Jit Rktye. as well as security sector reform. Peace building further involves demobilization. disarmament and reintegration. the former president of the International Peace Academy who has participated in several peacekeeping missions. moderation and cessation of hostilities between or within States due to the intervention of a third party." United Nations Peacekeeping System Hierarchy Source : georgipolitov.tripod. security. as well as putting in place political structure of governance and rule of the law in order to consolidate reconciliation. this includes addressing the root causes of conflicts and promoting social and economic justice.
The map following map is a of all the current UN mission: 19 .
established in 2006 by the Secretary General at the request of the General Assembly with an initial funding target of $250 million. The fund aims therefore to extend critical support during the early stages of a peace process. 20 . The fund was established out of the recognition that among the impediments to successful peace building is the scarcity of resources. most notably financial resources.The United Nations Peace building Fund (PBF) which promotes peace movement: The Peace building Fund is a multi-year standing trust fund for post-conflict peace building.
577 Côte d’Ivoire US$ 700. justice and human rights. civil society members. between the Government. Sierra Leone US$ 15. youth employment and empowerment.982. and capacity-building build confidence between ex-belligerents of the Ivorian conflict and contribute to the implementation of the Ouagadougou Political Agreement. including a period of mediation by international facilitators.unpbf. leading to the organization of free and fair elections to support political dialogue. such as the conflicts in Bosnia and Rwanda 21 .883. many operations have become multidimensional to include PK. support of elections.intra-state conflicts with transnational effects. The type of conflict also has changed . and humanitarian aid.000 Central African Republic US$ 801. namely governance.org Expenditures for PKOs also have increased dramatically as depicted in Figure 1 Moreover. the security sector. opposition political parties and armed opposition groups Source : http://www. and land issues. security and justice sector reform. peace enforcement (PE).Country Burundi Budget US$ 26.000 Purposes Burundi Government Peace building Fund priority plan.975 good governance.
the United Nations Children's Fund (www.unicef. UNICEF. helps to protect the rights of children.org). 22 .com The Other UN Organizations That Contribute to Peace : There are other UN organizations that help promote a culture of peace and this is very much important for peace movement to bring peace in all over the world.tripod.Source: georgipolitov.
the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (www. . it will be some time before we reach this enviable state on our planet.who. or another 23 . FAO. UNESCO designated as Focal Point which are very much important for peace movement in all over the world. Promoting respect for all human rights by distributing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Ensuring equality between women and men Fostering democratic participation by. However.org). the United Nations Population Fund (www. Advancing understanding. As study shows two thirds of world conflicts. promotes scientific cooperation in health matters. This being true. Eight action areas of UNESCO which are very much significant for UN peace movement: Fostering a culture of peace Promoting sustainable economic and social development.int). The UN peace agreements: The UN actively participated in different peace agreements between or among contending parties or nations. Actually the UN hardly a party of any accord but everywhere its key role is to facilitate the conflicting parties so that they can reach in an agreement and can be able to implement the agreement. to prevent conflicts and have a world that is free of violence.unfpa. the UN will have to continue to separate belligerents by intervening through peacekeeping missions. which sets up programs to help foster greater agricultural productivity. UNFPA. with the means that are available to them. also helps to promote a culture of peace WHO. the World Health Organization (www. tolerance and solidarity Supporting participatory communication and the free flow of information and knowledge Promoting international peace and security All of these UN programs are attempting. at one stage.fao.org).
reconstruction and stability efforts following devastating earthquake. To settle Rwanda and Burundi conflict the UN cooperated with African Union and in Balkan conflict the UN cooperated actively with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Commission (EC). some conflicts have actually ended through a decision in the SC. Following his visit to the capital. Mr. 24 . negotiation. SG’s good office agreements came into reality in the past.000 uniformed personnel already on the ground. to augment its 9. but it was way the Iran-Iraq War was terminated (Wallensteen: 2002). Port-au-Prince. Individual initiative of Secretary General: The role of the Secretary General has grown with the passage of time and the office has now become the focus of multilateral diplomacy to resolve disputes among states. U Thant’s intervention prevented full scale war between the US and the Soviet Union in 1962 on Cuba The efforts of Prewz de Cueller scaled down the Falkland’s War in 1982 Kofi Anan’s diplomatic efforts averted a crisis between the US and Iraq in 1998 in inspection of sites in Iraq relating to weapons of mass destruction. that the UN and its subsidiary organizations cooperate actively with other organizations those who are also parties. known as MINUSTAH. He proposed a number of priority areas in his Millennium Report Freedom from want Freedom from fear and Sustainable future Boutros Boutros Ghali’s agenda for peace in 1992 19 January 2010 – The Security Council backed Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s call to increase the overall force levels of the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti to support the immediate recovery.000 troops to reinforce the mission. Noble Peace Prize: Achievement of UN in peace movement: Both the organizations of the United Nations and staffs specially the Secretary General gained noble peace prize. Peace agreements facilitated by the UN have concluded many conflicts. Ban asked the Council for an additional 1.have come to concern of the UN.500 police officers and 2. Through some other ways like mediation. Hammarskjold’s efforts eliminate danger of war between the US and China in the 50s. This is rare. It is necessary to say.
2005) After 2004.053. UNITED NATIONS ACTIONS FOR PEACE IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF THE WORLD A FEW CASE STUDIES: The UN role in Haiti A military coup dislodged the legitimate government of president Jean Bernard Aristide in 1991. Burundi peace process Initially the UN had little role to mitigate Burundi conflict. Till December 25 . through resolution 1529 the SC authorized the immediate deployment of Multinational Interim Force (MIF).036. In 1965 United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) obtained noble prize for its contribution to build a safer world for children. The US then landed troops and restored the Aristide government. President fled the country.2. Even in 2003. United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) established. when conflict intensified the UN withdraw its non essential staffs from Bujumbura. Thereafter the UN sent peace keeping troops to take over from the US forces.troops. In 1993 the UN under Chapter vii decided to restore the legitimate government by “all possible means”.211. international civilian.7. Fatalities recorded 39 and approved budget is 07/08-09/06 $601. United Nations and SG Kofi Anan awarded with noble peace prize. It is working now for the positive change in political environment in Haiti (UN: 2008). In 1981 United Nations High Commission for refugees awarded by noble peace prize for its significant humanitarian assistance to refugee and internally displaced people. the UN ended its peace keeping mission in 1997. local civilian.1. direct intervention in terms of peacekeeping force was absent.58 million (Year In Review: 2008). UN volunteer210 and in total 11. police. At last in 2001. The UN continued its programs to build up a new police force and a small army after election in 1996 in Haiti. Despite some comments from the SC and SG. the AU played very significant role to mitigate the conflict. The UN again has been involved in peace keeping mission in the country since 2004.492. Under the SC resolution 1542. In 1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces received noble peace prize for its role in peace establishment in different parts of the world. Since June 2004 to December 2008 strength of MINUSTAH was. Were it is mandatory to say that.(Harun ur Rashid. In 1969 International Labor Organization gained Noble prize in peace for its active contribution to establish dignity of labor and to protect laborers rights all over the world.002 personnel.
56 in the case of sierra Leone. the un experiences were defined by differences of approach between the un mission in Sierra Leone(UNAMSIL)and Britain –sierra Leone former colonial power-in how to address the conflict.31 2008. Strength of this mission is .the UN experience of peace keeping in west Africa demonstrated the tension as well as the potential involved in establishing a powerful partnership between UN actors and regional organization in Africa.435. local civilian -213. and the UN volunteer -50.with a mandate initially to observe.000 returned refugees. local civilian – 640 and in total 13. Recorded fatalities are 279 and approves budget is 07/08-06/09 $680. the security council authorized the deployment of 40. French interests in managing dispute also affected the UN peacekeeping mission cote d Ivory . in November 1998. international civilian – 317.93 million. The UN’s current initiatives in ME Currently the UN has three different missions in ME.and cote divorce(2004). The struggle between London and sub regional hegemony Nigeria which had led an ECOWAS mission in the country between 1997 and 1999 for control in mediating the dispute also had a negative impact on UNAMSIL effectiveness. Following the signing of an agreement in Nigeria’s Capital.ECOMOG provided security for humanitarian assistance in Guinea_ Bissau. observers were deployed in a buffer zone between warring parties along with the border Guinea. UN role of peace movement in West Africa: In the case of west Africa. of the observer 26 . to keep and maintain peace in conflict situations where the political will to sustain such interventions was questionable. there were internal divisions within UNAMASIL on how to manage the conflict. The office of the United Nations Coordinator for Middle East (UNSCO) and Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for Lebanon (UNSCOL) are working since 1 October 1991 and 16 February 2007 respectively ( Year In Review: 2008). There are two peacebuilding missions in ME and Lebanon.15 years after the end of the cold war. The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) is working in Lebanon. troops – 12. military observer -8.Liberia(2003). Abuja. Prompting the fight of 200. BINUB is one of the most important political or peace building missions directed and supported by the Department of peace building operations. BINUB was lead by Executive Representative of the SG: Youssef Mahmoud (Tunisia). In addition. The strength if this mission was –International civilian -117. UN role of peace movement in Guinea_ Bissau: Guinea_ Bissau.Bissau and Senegal.000 troops to Sierra Leone(1999). and later. police -12.392 personnel are working there.
under the leadership of Joseph Martial Tito it protected its unity among six republics viz. The trial of former president of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milosevic accused of master minding”ethnic cleansing” began in 2002 and it would end by 2004.. first to Croatia and then to Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnia. The UN together with the European negotiated with parties and the UN sent a UN Protection Force. has continued to stall over the date of referendum to determine the wishes of the people of Western Sahara. UN role of peace movement in WEST Sahara: In western Sahara the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)has been present in the territory since April1991.In terms of peacekeeping missions. And two other additional autonomous regions of Vojvodina and Kosovo. Macedonia and Montenegro. Conflict mainly centralized in former Yugoslavian Federation. the United Nation mission in sierra Leone grew from 6000 (1999)to 20000 the United Nations Mission in Liberia totaled 15000 and the United Nations mission in cote d Ivory had 9183 total uniform personnel in 2007. Balkan conflict: The Balkan region is the main conflicting region in Europe.observing a ceasefire between the government of Morocco and the Frente popular Para la Liberian de Sangria el Harm y Rio de Oro (Frente POLISARIO)to date.mission 368 military observers were authorized to be deployed to Liberia (UNOMIL) and 192 to sierra Leone(United Nations observer Mission in sierra Leone. The contingent included 14.Herzegovina.(UNOMSIL). In 1995 the UN permitted NATO to carry out air attacks on targets in Bosnia.However. Croatia. Serbia. The UN has begun supervising the administration in Kosovo 27 . Thus it is obvious that the then Yugoslavia contained numerous national and ethnic groups (Cronobrnja: 1994). In 1999 NATO attacked Yugoslavia to halt “ethnic cleansing” in Kosovo. Since the Second World War. backed by France and the US.ooo soldiers however ethnic conflicts turned into genocide or “ethnic cleansing” in Croatia and Bosnia_ Herzegovina. which has been occupied by Morocco since 1975. Yugoslavia was a founding member of the UN in 1945. this UN peace keeping mission has been successful in maintaining a ceasefire in the region.the Moroccan government. (Harun ur Rashid.2005) In 1993 the UN created a criminal tribunal to try to those accused of “ethnic cleansing”.Metohija located within Serbia included in the new federation. Former Yugoslavia: The ethnic conflicts in Yugoslavia began in 1992 and the UN began to approve a number of resolutions that eventually numbered more than 100 to deal with situation. Slovenia.
and was never intended to solve all of the problems of international community. a veto from any of the permanent members may cripple any possible UN armed 28 . Failure to intervene in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre and protect a refugee haven by the authorizing the peacekeepers to use force. and Continuing failure to prevent genocide or provide assistance in Darfur. 216217)genocide and terrorism that occurred between the moral clarity of its founding period and the present day. Failure to deliver food to starving people in Somalia. starting in 2003. member states have shown reluctance to achieve or enforce Security Council resolutions. Haiti. • • • • • • • • • • • Disagreements in the Security Council about military action and intervention are seen as having failed to prevent the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. (International Herald Tribune. Gold specifically mentions Yasser Arafat's 1988 invitation to address the General Assembly as a low point in the UN's history. Failure to provide humanitarian aid and intervene in the Second Congo War.( Gold. UN peacekeepers have also been accused of child rape. Failure of United Nations peace movement: The UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures. less than half of respondents thought the performance of the United Nations was satisfactory. In many cases. Though United Nations is working for global peace and prosperity UN has also drawn criticism for perceived failures and also is being honored for its success. who are all nuclear powers. not an independent organization. UN is not playing a proper role in Afghanistan and Iraq. in the Congo. former Israeli ambassador to the UN Dore Gold criticized what it called the organization's moral relativism in the face of (and occasional support of) ( Gold. have created an exclusive nuclear club Another criticism of the Security Council involves the veto power of the five permanent nations. However it is the place where we can best hope to avoid the worst of war and establishment of world peace. 2007-11-02.) In 2004. 38) There has been criticism that the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.Success and failure of UN peace movement: United Nations cannot. Failure to implement provisions of Security Council resolutions related to the IsraeliPalestinian conflict. Sri Lankan peacekeepers in Haiti to be repatriated after claims they paid prostitutes". peace making process is weak in position. an issue that stems from the UN's intergovernmental nature—seen by some as simply an association of 192 member states who must reach consensus. sexual abuse or soliciting prostitutes during various peacekeeping missions. According to a 1999 international Gallup poll.
especially within the south. o the plight of children (New York). Another concern is that the five permanent members of the UN Security Council are five of the top ten largest arms dealing countries in the world. which in the end foster cooperation The River Blindness Control Program in West Africa has fostered cooperation among 11 West African states. o environment(Rio).or diplomatic response to a crisis. o Human Settlement (Istanbul). Providing shelter and relief to millions of refugees from war and persecution. Tackling common problems together. which the UN is funding all over the developing countries. Promoting cooperation among various countries. These nations gained independence and joined the UN as sovereign states. immunization campaigns by WHO and UNICEF of children under five years have reached over 80% of the world’s children who are under five years. o human rights. the UN has been instrumental in the eradication of smallpox. and supporting the repatriation and resettlement of refugees and displaced persons. Thirdly. Ensuring that international agreements are implemented by the member states. Helping African countries to prepare regional forecasts and analysis of socio-economic indicators among African countries. The entire planet had been scarred by the ravages of that war. which were formerly under colonial rule and some were under UN Trusteeship arrangements. Supporting the decolonization of more than 80 nations. Promoting technical assistance in various fields to its member states in the third world. An Evaluation of UN peace movement: This year marks the 60th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations at the end of World War II. Raising public awareness through organizing international conferences.) Successes of United Nations in peace movement: The following are some of the successes of the UN: Promoting international relations and diplomacy over the last fifty years. Currently. Retrieved 15 January 2010. (Global Issues – The arms trade is big business by Anup Shah. o Gender (Beijing). and millions of lives had 29 . normally done by the UN Economic Commission for Africa. Secondly. there are many development and humanitarian activities.
been lost. where the U.” (Jim Van de Water February 24. The United Nations provided much of that assistance through its specialized agencies and programs. led by the United States. although there have been disappointments along the way. there are 18 peacekeeping missions in the world with more requests for new missions than the United Nations can handle. We focus on Kosovo. peacekeeping has failed. If U. UNICEF. pledged to end this scourge and created the United Nations to preserve the peace. for example. mission met stiff resistance. why does this demand exist? • It is important to remember the context in which the United Nations struggled for peace over the last 60 years. where the United Nations has preserved the peace since 1964. The United Nations is a voluntary association of member states – not a world government. and served as the principle agency providing aid to 30 . each having its own economy. Last year UNICEF gathered more than $700 million in supplies for children. 80 nations and more than 750 million people were freed from the shackles of colonial oppression and exploitation.N. The survivors.N. which can readily force cooperation. where the "blue hats" of the United Nations have played a role in keeping the peace between the nuclear powers of India and Pakistan since 1949. Today. Historians will look at the last half of the 20th century and mark it as the period when the world largely ended more than 300 years of colonial rule. the wonder is not that there have been problems in the peace process but rather that there has been so much success. • • • We remember Rwanda and forget successful operations in El Salvador. The problem is that we tend to remember failures and discount success. The fact is that the number of state-to-state conflicts in the last half of the 20th century was half that of the first half without the United Nations. “We believe that the United Nations has made a major contribution to world peace. Given the number and diversity of states. The fact is that we did not have a third world war despite the titanic struggle between the free world and the Communist bloc during those years. Mozambique and Nambia. operated safe water and sanitation programs in 90 countries. These emerging nations also needed assistance from the world community to survive. Since the founding of the United Nations in 1945. language and culture. We remember the disaster in Somalia and forget the mission in Kashmir. arranged for assistance to hundreds of million of children over the last 60 years. The 51 original signatories to the United Nations Charter have now grown to 191 members. and forget Cyprus. 2005) The process of creating world peace requires cooperative effort.
family. or deal with the AIDS crisis or the contributions it has made to control diseases such as smallpox and malaria. Recent questions about the relevance of the United Nations are misguided.N. A device was needed to provide food and medicine to Iraq.'s World Health Organization is critical to the entire world's "health security. Could we do without any of these agencies. The oil-for-food program in Iraq.N. Saddam was willing to let this to occur only if he could have some control of the program. The flawed nature of the program and other considerations should also be taken into account when judging the actions of Secretary-General Kofi Annan.N. could we do without other lesser known agencies. Second. developing weapons of mass destruction and providing significant assistance to terrorists. or for that matter. A deliberate decision was made to meet his demands and accept the likely risk of corruption to keep the embargo in place. action. are not the only beneficiaries of cooperative U. officials who helped negotiate the deal with Saddam have stated that the choice was between allowing some leakage or having no embargo at all. Who would do the work of UNESCO to foster cooperative scientific and cultural programs? Who would provide the cooperative framework for ensuring safe air travel if we did not have the U. which are part of the U. Yet despite its flaws. First. It thus prevented Saddam Hussein from fully rearming his military forces. This year it was the agency the world turned to to provide much of the leadership needed to bring aid to victims of the Asian tsunami. and member states did not want to provide additional resources. International support for the oil embargo was waning due to civilian casualties resulting from malnutrition and disease.N. was a flawed program from its inception. It was the right decision. U. it worked by keeping U. however.N. the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization to stabilize and improve the world economy to the benefit of everyone. Or consider the work of the World Bank. much of the management of oil-for-food program was outside of his direct control and under Committee 661 of the Security Council. 31 . which arranges co-operative agreements for international mail delivery? What agency would provide the coordination agreements that put the WW in the World Wide Web if we did not have the International Telecommunications Agency? We need the United Nations for all of these peacekeeping and humanitarian functions. The poor and disadvantaged." No sensible observer of the international scene discounts the value of its work in the fight to end polio. One only need consider the fact that the deadly SARS epidemic in China has been contained to know the value of this organization. there were not enough resources within the Secretariat to adequately audit and monitor the program. The U.the 13 million children in Africa orphaned by the AIDS pandemic.S. oil trading sanctions in place. a focal point of the recent attacks. and we need to be thoughtful about our criticism of the United Nations. Third.'s Civil Aviation Agency? Who would do the work of the International Postal Union.
Introduction to peace and conflict studies .Oxford University Press: New York Barash David P. Constructive criticism leading to thoughtful reform of the United Nations may be needed. it did not find evidence of widespread or systemic corruption or wrongdoing by the secretary-general.N. Concluding remarks: In the era of globalization Peace movement becomes a wide-reaching movement and it is very much appropriate to lead this movement by internationally recognized organizations. but let's wait for the final Volker report before we act. California 32 . As the most universal and most representative organization in the world.Sage publications. fresh analysis and risk taking (Darby: 2003). official is guilty of wrongdoing. References: Barash David P. although the interim Volker report has found evidence of some corruption by U. The UN agencies have come a long way in alleviating sufferings of the poor.. humanitarian action. we should take appropriate action.2000. Webel Charles P. Fourth. officials and criticized implementation of the program. peace keeping and post conflict peace building and human rights are some of the goals the UN has been trying to achieve for almost six decades. The United Nations cannot..N. the United Nations must play the central role to deal with the new challenges of peace movement and it should take more initiatives to resolve the conflicting issues in all over the world for bringing peace which is the ultimate goal of peace loving people. But fairness demands proof. Despite its limitations its record on peace movement areas has been noteworthy and UN has a lot of contribution in peace movement. and was never intended to solve all of the problems of international community. If it is found that the secretary-general or any U.The united nation is a unique institution of concerted action for peace movement. They need conscious decisions. Peace processes do not emerge from a vacuum. initial steps. He is simply not the CEO of the entire United Nations either theoretically or practically.. However it is the place where we can best hope to avoid the worst of war and establishment of world peace. International cooperation.member states have always strictly limited the power of the secretary-general. United Nations is the best one of them. and this reality is abundantly evident in the administration of the oil-for-food program.Approaches to peace .
un. Published by United Nations Department of Public Information .shtml :http://www. Cotemporary Peace Making. Rahid Harun ur.un. 2005.un.) Global Issues – The arms trade is big business by Anup Shah. University press. 2007-11-02. introduction to peace and conflict studies.html? http://www. 2008.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/home.unpbf.nytimes. Retrieved 15 January 2010 Jim Van de Water February 24.org/court/index http://www. 2008. Dhaka Unied Nations Peace Operation : Year In Review.un. The Unied Nations Today. 2008. New York.org http://www. Published by United Nations Department of Public Information .org http://www.org http://www.com http://www. 2003.wikipedia. New York.Darby.sUnion-Tribune Publishing Co Web sources: http://www. Palgrave Macmillan Press.unfpa.html http://www. John(s) ed.unicef. International Herald Tribune.org/peacemaker http://www.com/2006/02/26/opinion/26sun2. New York. The Unied Nations Today.org http://www. New York.org/Docs/SG/agpeace. Published by United Nations Department of Public Information .icj-cij.who.int 33 .
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