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Test 1 - MATH 3130 - Fall 2017

YOU HAVE 50 MIN TO COMPLETE THE TEST.

Problem 1. [1pt]Give the definition of the left cosets of the equivalence


relation ∼ on a group (G, ·) given by a a subgroup H ≤ G.

Here the definition in the notes was sufficient: left cosets are given by the
equivalence relation

a ∼ b iff b−1 a ∈ H ⇔ a ∈ bH

Problem 2. [4pts] Let G = {e, a, a2 , ...., a5 } a group with operation ·,


where the powers of a are in Z6 . Answer the following:
1. Show that H = {e, a2 , a4 } is a subgroup of G. [1pt]

Here we needed to verify that ab−1 ∈ H for all a, b ∈ H. One can


do so by direct computation, noting that e−1 = e, (a2 )−1 = a4 and
(a4 )−1 = a2 .

2. Without computing them, estimate the number of distinct right cosets


of the relation x ∼ y iff xy −1 ∈ H? [1pt]

Since the order of the group |G| = 6 and the order of H is 3, then
the number of distinct right cosets = the index of H in G= 36 = 2.

3. Write all cosets of the equivalence relation given in the previous sub-
question. [1pt]

Here we just write:

[e] = {x ∈ G | x ∈ H · e} = {x ∈ G | x ∈ H} = H

[a] = {x ∈ G | x ∈ H · a} = Ha = {a, a3 , a5 }.
Then [a2 ] = [a4 ] = H and [a3 ] = [a5 ] = Ha

1
4. Compute C(a3 ). [1pt]

Group G is commutative, so all elements in G commute with a3 , thus


C(a3 ) = G.

Problem 3. [2pts] Show that if a mapping f : S → S is 1-1 and S is a


finite set, then f is bijective.

Here there were several possibilities to prove this. The simplest one is to
show that the preimage of any element in S is a singleton set, due to the fact
that f is 1-1 and S is finite.

Problem 4. [2pts] If in a group (G, ·) we have a3 = e and aba−1 = b2 ,


then compute the order of the element b 6= e, denoted by o(b).

HINT: 1) Compute b2 · b2 = ...(∗).


2) Use the expression of b2 again in (∗).

Following the hints exactly, without assuming that G is abelian, we get:

b4 = a2 b(a−1 )2 .

Then by the same logic as in the hint, we get that


a3 =e, b2 =aba−1
b8 = b4 · b4 = a2 b(a−1 )2 a2 b(a−1 )2 = b =⇒ b7 = e

so the order of b is 7.

Problem 5. [1pts] Is U7 a cyclic group? Motivate your answer with a


brief statement.

HINT: Recall U7 = {[a] ∈ Z7 | (a, 7) = 1}.

Everyone got [1pt] here.