You are on page 1of 9

Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6, Dec.

, 427±435

Quantification of the influence of cracks in


concrete structures on carbonation and chloride
penetration
G. De Schutter

University of Ghent

In order to study the influence of existing cracks in concrete structures on the carbonation and chloride penetration,
small-scale experiments were carried out on mortar prisms. Six different mortar compositions were investigated,
stored in five different environmental conditions. At regular times, the carbonation and chloride penetration of
cracked and uncracked specimens were examined experimentally. On the basis of the experimental results, a
tentative formula is established, quantifying the influence of the cracks as a function of crack width and crack
length. The statistical variation of the influence factor can be modelled by means of a log-normal distribution.

Notation
ëM
CL factor describing statistical variation of ãM
CL
A constant depending on diffusion resistance of
material
ACA constant depending on carbon diffusion resis-
Introduction
tance of material
ACL constant depending on chloride ion diffusion The durability of concrete structures is a very impor-
resistance of material tant issue in actual concrete research. Especially, con-
d crack depth crete structures in a marine environment seem to be
d0 1 mm prone to durability problems because of the presence of
t time chlorides, leading to an important number of corrosion
w crack width problems. Furthermore, concrete structures in a marine
w0 1 mm environment often tend to be rather massive, such as
X carbonation depth quay walls, locks and concrete armour units on break-
ãCA crack influence factor for carbonation waters. The service life of these massive concrete struc-
ãMCA crack influence factor based on maximum tures can severely be reduced because of early-age
values for carbonation thermal cracking due to the heat of hydration, in com-
ãCL crack influence factor for chloride penetration bination with subsequent acceleration of degradation
ãM
CL crack influence factor based on maximum owing to, for example, carbonation, chloride and sulfate
values for chloride penetration diffusion and frost.
ëCA factor describing statistical variation of ãCA At the Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research,
ëM
CA factor describing statistical variation of ãM
CA University of Ghent, several research programmes have
ëCL factor describing statistical variation of ãCL been conducted concerning massive concrete armour
units for breakwaters, dealing especially with thermal
stresses due to the heat of hydration. A new simulation
 Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structur-
method for early-age concrete thermal cracking has been
al Engineering, University of Ghent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 9,
developed, based entirely on the degree of hydration,
B-9052 Ghent, Belgium. 1
including basic creep behaviour and basic shrinkage.
(MCR 780) Paper received 28 April 1999; last revised 3 August The work reported in this paper is a result of a
1999; accepted 25 August 1999 recently started durability evaluation project concerning
427

0024-9831 # 1999 Thomas Telford Ltd

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
De Schutter

possibly cracked massive concrete structures in a mar- the notches contained more cement than the surface of
ine environment. By means of some selected experi- a real crack in a concrete element. The effect of this
ments, the influence of existing thermal cracks on the difference will be studied in a subsequent experimental
further degradation of the concrete structure is exam- programme.
ined. The main purpose of the entire project is a prob- Six different mortar compositions were investigated,
abilistic formulation of the service life of marine as given in Table 1. CEM I 42.5 R is a rapid-hardening
concrete structures taking into account possible early- Portland cement, CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA is a high-
age thermal cracking due to the heat of hydration, and sulfate-resisting blastfurnace slag cement with a limited
considering the interaction between different degrada- alkali content, and CEM V/A 32.5 is a composite ce-
tion mechanisms. ment made of Portland clinker, blastfurnace slag and
fly ash. In some series, fly ash or silica fume was
added. Owing to practical limitations, only one water±
cement ratio (0´50) was considered. STD sand was
Durability of cracked concrete structures
used, as prescribed for traditional mortar tests. Six dif-
It is important to note that the parameters controlling ferent combinations of crack width and crack depth
strength are not completely identical to those control- were considered, as given in Table 2. Zero crack width
ling durability. Especially, the condition of the outer and depth means that no crack is present.
concrete layer, the concrete cover, will be a main con- During the first 28 days the mortar specimens were
trolling factor in the rate of deterioration. The occur- stored under water. At the age of 28 days an epoxy
rence of small cracks in the skin of the concrete will coating was applied to all surfaces, except on the sur-
not always jeopardize the durability of the material. face containing the crack. In this way the coated sur-
However, under certain conditions, an extensive growth faces were protected from carbon and chloride
of this cracking can favour reinforcement corrosion, a penetration. Starting from 28 days, the specimens were
2
very frequent type of pathology in concrete structures. stored in different conditions as given in Table 3. Five
Although a consensus exists about the fact that a different treatments were considered: a 10% CO2 en-
cracked concrete cover zone is harmful to the durability vironment, a 3´5% NaCl solution and combinations of
3,4
of reinforced concrete structures, no quantification of CO2 environment, NaCl solution and water.
this phenomenon is found in the literature. For a global At regular times (8, 12, 16, . . . weeks) the carbona-
evaluation of the durability of concrete structures and a tion and the chloride penetration were examined experi-
reliable service life prediction, a good knowledge of
the effect of cracks is definitely needed. By means of
experiments on small mortar prisms in different en- Table 2. Combinations of crack width and crack depth
vironmental conditions, a first attempt has been made Crack depth: Crack width: mm
to quantify the influence of cracks in concrete struc- mm
tures on carbonation and chloride penetration. 0 0´2 0´3 0´5
0 X
5 X X X
10 X X
Experimental programme
In the experimental programme carbonation and
chloride penetration tests were performed on mortar Table 3. Treatments
specimens of size 40 mm 3 40 mm 3 160 mm, pro- Code Treatment
vided with different sizes of artificial cracks with a A Permanent 10% CO2 environment
width up to 0´5 mm and a depth up to 10 mm. The B Permanent 3´5% NaCl solution
specimens were made using traditional mortar moulds. C Cycle 1 week 10% CO2 environment/1 week 3´5% NaCl
The cracks were realized as notches by means of the solution
D Cycle 1 week 10% CO2 environment/1 week water
positioning and removal afterwards of thin copper
E Cycle 1 week water/1 week 3´5% NaCl solution
sheets inside the specimens. As a result the surface of

Table 1. Mortar composition (parts by mass)


Series Cement Pozzolan Water (total) Sand
1
1 CEM I 42.5 R, 1 part None 2 part 3 parts
1
2 CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA, 1 part None 2 part 3 parts
1
3 CEM V/A 32.5, 1 part None 2 part 3 parts
1
4 CEM I 42.5 R, 0´85 parts Fly ash, 0´15 parts 2 part 3 parts
1
5 CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA, 0´85 parts Fly ash, 0´15 parts 2 part 3 parts
1
6 CEM I 42.5 R, 0´9 parts Silica fume, 0´1 parts 2 part 3 parts

428 Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Influence of cracks in concrete structures

mentally. At each time, two slices of thickness 1 cm penetration depth in treatment B is given in Fig. 5 for
were sawn from each mortar specimen. The first slice the uncracked specimens and in Fig. 6 for the speci-
was sprayed with a phenolphthalein solution in order to mens with a crack width of 0´2 mm and crack depth of
5
determine the carbonated zone. The second slice was 5 mm.
sprayed with a 0´1 N aqueous solution of silver nitrate The carbonation of mortar and concrete can be con-
in order to determine the depth of penetration of chlor- sidered as a Fickian diffusion problem8 governed by
ide ions. For a discussion of the accuracy of the silver the equation
6
nitrate solution method, see Otsuki et al. According to p
6 XˆA t (1)
Otsuki et al. the (soluble) chloride ion concentration
at the colour change border is recognized to be of the in which X is the carbonation depth, t is the exposure
order of 0´15% by weight of cement. This value is not time, and A is a constant depending on the diffusion
a threshold value of chloride above which corrosion resistance of the material. Assuming as a first approxi-
would be regarded as taking place. The silver nitrate mation that capillary absorption can be neglected, the
solution method consequently does not indicate chloride penetration can also be considered to be dif-
whether corrosion would occur or not, but merely fusion controlled. Equation (1) is valid for a homo-
serves as a quick tool to compare chloride penetration geneous material. A cracked material is not
in different circumstances, e.g. cracked and uncracked. homogeneous, providing preferential channels for the
As the onset of corrosion itself is not the subject of this diffusion of gases and fluids. However, as a first ap-
7
paper, reference is made to the literature. proximation, equation (1) can still be considered in
After sawing the two slices, the remaining mortar order to quantify the influence of the existing cracks on
specimen was covered again with the carbon- and carbonation and chloride penetration. In a further re-
chloride-resisting epoxy coating (except for the search project, a more detailed simulation procedure
`cracked' surface) and the treatment according to Table will be worked out, evaluating the approximations
3 was continued. made in this section.
On the basis of the experimentally obtained carbona-
tion depths and chloride penetration profiles, the con-
stant A can be estimated by means of regression
Experimental results analysis for each combination of mortar composition,
treatment and crack size. The results for the carbona-
At the age of 28 days the density, strength and water tion, indicated by ACA, are given in Table 5. The results
absorption of the different mortar compositions were for the chloride penetration, indicated by ACL, are given
determined. The results are given in Table 4. The ab- in Table 6. Owing to an erroneous application of the
sorption results were obtained by immersion of the protective epoxy layer on some uncracked reference
specimens in water until saturation. No significant dif- specimens, some A values could not be determined,
ferences were noticed between the different composi- leaving some blank fields in Tables 5 and 6. The
tions. erroneous application of the protective epoxy layer also
For each specimen the carbonation depth and the explains the fact that in Fig. 5 some curves decrease
chloride penetration were determined as described with time.
above. Fig. 1 shows some carbonation profiles for ser-
ies 1, whereas Fig. 2 shows some chloride penetration
profiles for series 2. For an initial quantification of the
effect of the cracks, the mean carbonation and chloride
Quantification of the influence of cracks
penetration depths were calculated from the measured
profiles. As an example, the mean carbonation depth The influence of the cracks on the carbonation and
for the different mortar compositions tested in treat- chloride penetration can be quantified by looking at the
ment A is given in Fig. 3 for the uncracked specimens, ratio between the A value for uncracked prisms and the
and in Fig. 4 for the specimens with a crack width of A value for the cracked prisms. This ratio is called the
0´5 mm and crack depth of 10 mm. The mean chloride crack influence factor and is denoted by the symbol ã,

Table 4. Density, strength and water absorption at 28 days


Series Density: kg=m3 Bending strength: N=mm2 Compressive strength: N=mm2 Water absorption: %
1 2255 8´65 57´2 8´8
2 2280 10´75 46´2 9´3
3 2240 6´75 46´4 9´1
4 2255 8´40 50´3 9´2
5 2260 8´90 43´2 9´4
6 2240 9´90 65´2 9´1

Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6 429

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
De Schutter

40 40
No crack Crack width 0.2 mm
Crack depth 5 mm

Carbonation depth: mm
Carbonation depth: mm
28w 28w
30 20w 30 20w
16w 16w
12w 12w
20 8w
20 8w

10 10

0 0
220 210 0 10 20 220 210 0 10 20
Distance from crack: mm Distance from crack: mm

40 40
Crack width 0.3 mm Crack width 0.3 mm
Crack depth 5 mm Crack depth 10 mm
Carbonation depth: mm

Carbonation depth: mm
28w 28w
30 20w 30 20w

16w 16w

12w 12w
20 20 8w
8w

10 10

0 0
220 210 0 10 20 220 210 0 10 20
Distance from crack: mm Distance from crack: mm

40 40
Crack width 0.5 mm Crack width 0.5 mm
Crack depth 5 mm Crack depth 10 mm
Carbonation depth: mm

Carbonation depth: mm

28w 28w
30 20w 30 20w

16w 16w

12w 12w
20 8w
20 8w

10 10

0 0
220 210 0 10 20 220 210 0 10 20
Distance from crack: mm Distance from crack: mm

Fig. 1. Carbonation depths for series 1, treatment A (w = weeks)

"  0:3270  0:6803 #


with a subscript CA for carbonation and CL for chlor- d w
ide penetration. It depends on the crack width w and ãCA ˆ exp 0:3173 (3)
d0 w0
the crack depth d: "  0:5202  0:2652 #
ACA (w, d ) d w
ãCA (w, d ) ˆ ãCL ˆ exp 0:2541 (4)
ACA (w ˆ 0, d ˆ 0) d0 w0

with d 0 ˆ w0 ˆ 1 mm. It is important to note that


and
equations (3) and (4) result from experiments on small
ACL (w, d ) mortar prisms, provided with artificial cracks with a
ãCL (w, d ) ˆ (2) crack width ranging from 0 mm to 0´5 mm and crack
ACL (w ˆ 0, d ˆ 0)
depth ranging from 0 mm to 10 mm, and with treat-
It can be verified statistically that the crack influence ments as given in Table 3.
factor does not depend significantly on the mortar The relations expressed by equations (3) and (4) are
composition, nor on the treatment applied. Accepting shown graphically in Figs 7 and 8. The crack influence
on the basis of this observation that the crack influence factor seems to be significantly higher for chloride
factor is affected by the crack width and crack depth penetration than for carbonation.
9
only, a least-squares regression analysis yields the In the literature a linear relation is given for the
following relations: carbonation and subsequent corrosion of reinforcing
430 Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Influence of cracks in concrete structures
40 40
No crack 28w
Crack width 0.2 mm 28w

Chloride penetration: mm

Chloride penetration: mm
20w
Crack depth 5 mm 20w
30 30
16w 16w
12w 12w
8w 8w
20 20

10 10

0 0
220 210 0 10 20 220 210 0 10 20
Distance from crack: mm Distance from crack: mm

40 40
Crack width 0.3 mm 28w Crack width 0.3 mm 28w

Chloride penetration: mm
Chloride penetration: mm

Crack depth 5 mm 20w Crack depth 10 mm 20w


30 16w 30 16w
12w 12w
8w 8w
20 20

10 10

0 0
220 210 0 10 20 220 210 0 10 20
Distance from crack: mm Distance from crack: mm

40 40
Crack width 0.5 mm 28w
Crack width 0.5 mm 28w
Chloride penetration: mm
Chloride penetration: mm

Crack depth 5 mm Crack depth 10 mm 20w


20w
30 30 16w
16w
12w
12w
8w
8w 20
20

10 10

0 0
220 210 0 10 20 220 210 0 10 20
Distance from crack: mm Distance from crack: mm

Fig. 2. Carbonation penetration for series 2, treatment B

30

25 CEM I 42.5 R
Mean carbonation depth: mm

CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA


20
CEM V/A 32.5
15
CEM I 42.5 R 1 fly ash
CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA
10 1 fly ash
CEM I 42.5 1 silica
5 fume

0
0 10 20 30
Exposure time: weeks

Fig. 3. Mean carbonation depth for treatment A, uncracked


Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6 431

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
De Schutter
30

25 CEM I 42.5 R

Mean carbonation depth: mm


CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA
20
CEM V/A 32.5
15
CEM I 42.5 R 1 fly ash
CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA
10 1 fly ash
CEM I 42.5 1 silica
5 fume

0
0 10 20 30
Exposure time: weeks

Fig. 4. Mean carbonation depth for treatment A, crack width 0´5 mm, crack depth 10 mm

20
Mean chloride penetration: mm

CEM I 42.5 R
15
CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA

CEM V/A 32.5


10
CEM I 42.5 R 1 fly ash
CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA
1 fly ash
5 CEM I 42.5 1 silica
fume

0
0 10 20 30
Exposure time: weeks

Fig. 5. Mean chloride penetration for treatment B, uncracked

20
Mean chloride penetration: mm

CEM I 42.5 R
15
CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA

CEM V/A 32.5


10
CEM I 42.5 R 1 fly ash
CEM III/B 32.5 HSR LA
1 fly ash
5 CEM I 42.5 1 silica
fume

0
0 10 20 30
Exposure time: weeks

Fig. 6. Mean chloride penetration for treatment B, crack width 0´2 mm, crack depth 5 mm

Statistical variation
steel as a function of the crack width, ranging between
0´1 mm and 0´3 mm. This is in good agreement with The statistical variation of the crack influence factor
equation (3) when considering crack widths ranging can be described by adding a factor ë to equations (3)
from 0´1 mm to 0´3 mm. and (4):
432 Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Influence of cracks in concrete structures

Table 5. ACA values for carbonation: mm=Ïyear


Crack Crack depth: Treatment Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6
width: mm mm
0 0 A 5´7 29´5 19´6 14´8 32´3 4´3
0´2 5 A 5´6 37´6 25´0 16´1 31´9 3´5
0´3 5 A 7´4 33´3 24´2 16´9 29´9 4´6
0´3 10 A 7´5 36´3 29´8 18´5 32´4 2´4
0´5 5 A 9´2 35´3 25´0 19´9 31´6 4´4
0´5 10 A 10´9 46´4 31´4 22´6 39´6 6´1
0 0 C ± 11´8 8´1 4´6 14´3 ±
0´2 5 C 2´5 13´5 10´7 6´2 16´6 0´6
0´3 5 C 4´1 14´7 10´0 7´2 17´0 0´3
0´3 10 C 4´5 15´5 13´1 6´1 18´6 0´4
0´5 5 C 5´0 17´2 12´6 8´6 17´3 0´3
0´5 10 C 4´7 20´2 16´1 5´4 19´7 0´5
0 0 D 3´3 19´9 11´5 5´3 19´0 1´6
0´2 5 D 3´2 18´9 13´8 7´2 23´3 2´6
0´3 5 D 4´9 18´5 16´1 9´4 21´8 3´0
0´3 10 D 6´0 22´1 17´0 10´4 22´3 2´5
0´5 5 D 5´3 21´3 16´4 9´2 21´7 2´8
0´5 10 D 4´9 28´6 20´1 8´3 26´8 1´9

Table 6. ACL values for chloride penetration: mm=Ïyear


Crack Crack depth: Treatment Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6
width: mm mm
0 0 B ± 16´2 14´8 ± 15´4 ±
0´2 5 B 21´3 14´6 23´3 19´3 13´7 5´7
0´3 5 B 23´0 18´7 26´2 21´7 16´8 9´3
0´3 10 B 30´2 23´0 28´1 24´3 19´8 12´9
0´5 5 B 27´4 19´4 27´6 22´5 16´8 5´4
0´5 10 B 32´4 22´2 32´2 30´9 22´5 12´7
0 0 C 15´7 25´0 27´3 20´6 26´8 9´6
0´2 5 C 26´5 28´0 30´6 25´6 27´8 12´4
0´3 5 C 27´3 27´8 30´6 28´1 27´2 12´7
0´3 10 C 32´1 30´4 34´9 31´7 31´0 14´4
0´5 5 C 29´0 30´7 32´6 30´3 28´2 10´0
0´5 10 C 29´0 36´5 39´3 35´8 33´3 13´7
0 0 E ± 9´5 4´5 ± 10´0 ±
0´2 5 E 14´9 13´5 15´3 14´7 13´1 7´5
0´3 5 E 15´7 15´3 17´6 13´8 14´0 6´5
0´3 10 E 20´9 18´1 23´2 22´0 20´2 10´7
0´5 10 E 19´8 14´4 20´8 17´3 15´5 0´9
0´5 10 E 25´8 19´2 25´5 24´4 20´0 7´5

"  0:3270  0:6803 #


d w Extreme penetration values
ãCA ˆ ëCA exp 0:3173 (5)
d0 w0
" For the quantification of the influence of the cracks,
 0:5202  0:2652 #
d w the mean carbonation and mean chloride penetration
ãCL ˆ ëCL exp 0:2541 (6) depths in the crack zone (20 mm at both sides of the
d0 w0
crack) were considered as described above. Alterna-
The mean values of ëCA and ëCL are equal to one. tively, the maximum or peak carbonation and chloride
The standard deviations of ëCA and ëCL are equal to 0´2 penetration depths in the crack zone can be considered.
and 0´5, respectively. By means of a statistical Sha- On the basis of the maximum values, similar formulae
piro±Wilk test, a log-normal distribution can be ac- can be developed:
cepted for the factor ë. This yields for the factor ëCA a "  0:3426  0:4760 #
5% and a 95% fractile equal to 0´7079 and 1´3582, d w
respectively. For the factor ëCL the 5% and 95% fractile ãM
CA ˆ ëM
CA exp 0:4376 (7)
d0 w0
are given by 0´5140 and 1´9455, respectively.
Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6 433

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
De Schutter

10 10
1.5

1.8
1.4
8 8

1.3 1.6
Crack depth: mm

Crack depth: mm
6 6

1.2 1.4
4 4
Crack influence
Crack influence
factor based on
factor
maximum values
2 2
1.1 1.2

0 0
0 0.1 0 .2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Crack width: mm Crack width: mm

Fig. 7. Crack influence factor for carbonation Fig. 9. Crack influence factor based on maximum values for
carbonation
10
2

1.8 10
8
2.6
1.6 8
Crack depth: mm

2.2
Crack depth: mm

1.4 6
4

Crack influence factor 4


1.8
2 1.2
Crack influence factor based on
2 maximum values
1.4
0
0 0.1 0.2 0 .3 0.4 0.5
Crack width: mm
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Fig. 8. Crack influence factor for chloride penetration
Crack width: mm

"  0:4676  0:1020 # Fig. 10. Crack influence factor based on maximum values for
: d w chloride penetration
ãM
CL ˆ ëM
CL exp 0 3976 (8)
d0 w0

The mean values of ëM M


CA and ëCL are equal to one.
The standard deviations of ëCA and ëM
M
CL are equal to 0´3 elements of an apartment building built 20 years ago.
and 0´7, respectively. A log-normal distribution can be In the uncracked zones the mean carbonation depth
accepted again. was 22 mm. In a certain crack zone, with crack width
In Figs 9 and 10 the mean crack influence factors 0´12 mm and crack depth 80 mm, the mean carbonation
based on the maximum penetration values are given for depth was 34 mm. As for any particular age the ratio of
carbonation and chloride penetration. the ACA values is equal to the ratio of the carbonation
depths, this results in a real crack influence factor equal
to 1´55 (ˆ 34 mm=22 mm). This coincides reasonably
well with the value predicted by means of equation (3),
Comparison with real concrete structures
namely 1´37. The real value lies within the 90% con-
In De Panne, a small town on the Belgian coast, fidence interval [0:93, 1:79] calculated by means of
carbonation measurements were done on some concrete equation (5).
434 Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
Influence of cracks in concrete structures

Extrapolation to real concrete structures Conclusion


Equations (5) and (6) are based on measurements on On the basis of an experimental research programme
small mortar prisms provided with artificial cracks. For on cracked and uncracked mortar prisms exposed to
real cracks the crack factor values can be estimated different environmental conditions, a tentative formula
using the mean values of crack width and depth. As has been developed quantifying the influence of the
shown above, a good correlation was found with the cracks on the carbonation and the chloride penetration.
results obtained on a building at the Belgian coast. The main parameters are the crack width and the crack
However, a general extrapolation of equations (5) and depth. The statistical variation of the influence factor
(6) to real concrete structures has to be verified by can be modelled by means of a log-normal distribution.
means of further research, in the laboratory as well as An initial experimental result obtained on a real con-
in real concrete structures. crete structure showed a reasonable agreement.
The artificially provided cracks in the mortar prisms
were not real cracks. Real cracks are normally wedge-
shaped. The cement content at the surfaces of the
References
notches is higher than at real crack surfaces. Moreover,
the notches are regularly shaped, unlike real cracks, 1. De Schutter G. Fundamental and Practical Study of Thermal
which show a more rough pattern. The differences be- Stresses in Hardening Massive Concrete Elements. PhD thesis,
University of Ghent, 1996 [in Dutch].
tween real cracks and notches probably also have a 2. Abdunur C., Acker P. and Miao B. Surface shrinkage of con-
significant influence on `self-healing'. Besides crack crete: evaluation and modelling. IABSE Symposium `Durability of
width and depth other parameters might be important, Structures'. Lisbon, 1989, pp. 157±162.
such as crack number and crack geometry, described, 3. Gerwick B. C. and Mehta P. K. Concrete durabilityÐa holistic
10 approach. Concrete across Borders. Odense, Denmark, 1994, pp.
for example, by means of the fractal dimension. In a
535±546.
future research programme the importance of the differ-
4. Lacasse M. A. and Vanier D. J. Durability of Building Materi-
ences between real cracks and notches will be investi- als and Components 8. National Research Council of Canada,
gated, as well as the difference between mortar and 1999.
concrete. 5. RILEM. Recommendations, TC56-MHM hydrocarbon materials,
CPC-18 measurement of hardened concrete carbonation depth.
Materials and Structures, 1988, 21, No. 126, 453±455.
6. Otsuki N., Nagataki S. and Nakashita K. Evaluation of
AgNO3 solution spray method for measurement of chloride pene-
tration into hardened cementitious matrix materials. ACI Materi-
als Journal, 1992, 89, No. 6, 587±592.
Influence of binder type 7. Gonzalez J. A., Feliu S., Rodriguez E., Ramirez E., Alon-
so C. and Andrade D. Some questions on the corrosion of steel
It has already been noticed that the crack influence in concreteÐpart I: when, how and how much steel corrodes.
Materials and Structures, 1996, 29, 40±46.
factor does not depend significantly on the mortar com-
8. Schiessl P. Zur Frage de zulaÈssigen Rissbreite und der erforder-
position. The absolute values of carbonation and chlor- lichen Betondeckung im Stahlbetonbau unter besonderer Ber-
ide penetration do of course depend on the binder type, uÈcksichtigung der Karbonatisierung des Betons. Deutscher Aus-
11
as already known from the literature. Although this is schuss for Stahlbeton. Berlin, 1976, Part 255.
somewhat outside the scope of this paper, it can be 9. Ding Dajun. Untersuchungen zur Dauerhaftigkeit von Massiv-
bauwerken in China. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, 1997, 92, Part 7,
mentioned here that the lowest carbonation values were
183±188.
obtained for Portland cement (series 6, 1 and 4), while 10. De Ridder J. and Lowie P. Fractal Characterization of Cracks
the highest carbonation values were obtained for the in Concrete. Thesis, University of Ghent, 1998 [in Dutch].
blastfurnace slag cements (series 2 and 5). Portland 11. Neville A. M. Properties of Concrete, 4th edn. Longman, Har-
cement with fly ash addition (series 6) also yields the low, 1995.
lowest chloride penetration. No really significant differ-
ences were found among the chloride penetrations of
series 1±5, all of them being two to three times higher Discussion contributions on this paper should reach the editor by
than the chloride penetration obtained for series 6. 31 May 2000

Magazine of Concrete Research, 1999, 51, No. 6 435

Downloaded by [ Mr Michel Di Tommaso] on [25/08/17]. Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.