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Using the VELOCICALC

Application Note TSI-124

The VELOCICALC calculates heat flow by making temperature, humidity and flow measurements

upstream and downstream of the coil in the duct. The following steps and calculations are util-

ized to make the heat flow measurement:

• The current upstream measurements of temperature, humidity and flow are displayed.

Highlight the desired measurement and hit the measurement key. This will update the

reading. The flow rate will be calculated using either the thermal anemometer or pitot

tube depending if the TA probe is attached.

• Select Downstream to make readings downstream of the coil.

• The unit will display real time values based on the temperature and humidity readings

from the probe.

Sensible heat is dry heat. It causes a change in temperature in a substance, but not a change in the

moisture content of that substance.

QS = 60cpρqΔt (English units) OR QS = cpρqΔt/3600 (metric units)

where QS = sensible heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

cp = specific heat in Btu/lb °F = 0.2388 Btu/lb °F (1.0048 kJ/kg K)

ρ = air density at standard conditions = 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.202 kg/m3)

q = measured air flow in ft3/min (m3/hr) (assuming flow is the same at first and second

measurement location)

Δt = temperature difference in °F (°C) (difference between first and second measurement

location)

Replacing constant values gives:

QS = 1.0746qΔt (English units) OR QS = 1.21qΔt/3600 (metric units)

Latent heat is the heat that when supplied to, or removed from, a substance there is a change in

the moisture content of the substance (change in state), but the temperature of that substance

does not change.

QL = 60hfgρqΔW (English units) OR QL = hfgρqΔW/3600 (metric units)

where QL = latent heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

hfg = latent heat of vaporization of water in Btu/lb = 1060 Btu/lb (2,465.56 kJ/kg)

ρ = air density at standard conditions = 0.075 lb/ft3 (1.202 kg/m3)

q = measured air flow in ft3/min (m3/hr)

ΔW = humidity ratio difference in lb water/lb dry air (kg water/kg dry air) (difference in

water content of air between first and second measurement location)

Replacing constant values gives:

QL = 4770qΔW (English units) OR QL = 0.8287qΔW (metric units)

Total heat is the sum of latent heat and sensible heat.

QT = QS + QL

where QT = total heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

QS = sensible heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

QL = latent heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

The sensible heat factor equals sensible heat divided by total heat in the air.

dry bulb temperature t1 = 76 °F

%RH1 = 49.0% (φ1 = .490)

barometric pressure = 29.921 in. Hg

dry bulb temperature t2 = 53 °F

%RH2 = 88.0% (φ2 = .880)

flow rate q = 15,000 std ft3/min

Find: sensible heat flow QS, latent heat flow QL, total heat flow QT, and sensible heat factor

SHF.

QS = 1.0746qΔt = 1.0746 (15000)(|53-76|) = 370,737 Btu/h of heat removal

-2-

Latent heat flow QL

QL = 4770qΔW , so we need to find W1 and W2.

W = 0.62198pws(td)/(29.921 - pws(td))

pws(td) = (φ1)(pws(t))

Definitions of terms used to calculate W:

pws(td) = saturation pressure of the air stream at the dew point temperature (inches

Hg)

pws(t) = saturation pressure of the air stream at ambient temperature (inches Hg)

φ = humidity (expresses as a value between 0 -1, not as %RH)

To find W1:

pws(t1) = pws(76 °F) = 0.90532 in. Hg (from lookup table – TA460 has this data programmed into

its memory)

pws(td1) = (φ1)(pws(t1)) = (0.490)(0.90532) = 0.4436068

W1 = 0.62198pws(td1)/(29.921 - pws(td1)) = 0.62198(0.4436068)/(29.921 - 0.4436068) =

0.00936021 lb H2O/lb dry air

SHF = QS/QT

where SHF = sensible heat factor (ratio of sensible heat load to total heat load)

QS = sensible heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

QT = total heat flow in Btu/hr (kW)

To find W2:

pws(t2) = pws(53 °F) = 0.40516 in. Hg (from lookup table – TA460 has this data programmed into

its memory)

pws(td2) = (φ2)(pws(t2)) = (0.880)(0.40516) = 0.3565408

W2 = 0.62198pws(td2)/(29.921 - pws(td2)) = 0.62198(0.3565408)/(29.921 - 0.3565408) =

0.00750094 lb H2O/lb dry air

To find QL:

QL = 4770qΔW = 4770(15,000)(|0.00750094 - 0.00936021|) = 133,031 Btu/h heat removed

QT = QS + QL = 370,737 + 133,031 = 503,768 Btu/h heat removed

SHF = QS/QT = 370,737/503,768 = 0.74

-3-

EXAMPLE 2: (Metric Units)

Given at measurement location 1 (conditions inside room):

dry bulb temperature t1 = 24.4 °C

%RH1 = 49.0% (φ1 = .490)

barometric pressure = 760 mm Hg

dry bulb temperature t2 = 11.7 °C

%RH2 = 88.0% (φ2 = .880)

flow rate q = 25486 std m3/hr

Find: sensible heat flow QS, latent heat flow QL, total heat flow QT, and sensible heat factor

SHF.

QS = 1.21qΔt/3600 = 1.21 (25486)(|24.4 - 11.7|) = 108.79 kW of heat removal

QL = 0.8287qΔW , so we need to find W1 and W2.

W = 0.62198pws(td)/(760 - pws(td))

pws(td) = (φ1)(pws(t))

Definitions of terms used to calculate W:

pws(td) = saturation pressure of the air stream at the dew point temperature (mm Hg)

pws(t) = saturation pressure of the air stream at ambient temperature (mm Hg)

φ = humidity (expresses as a value between 0 -1, not as %RH)

To find W1:

pws(t1) = pws(24.4 °C) = 22.922 mm Hg (from lookup table – TA460 has this data programmed

into its memory)

pws(td1) = (φ1)(pws(t1)) = (0.490)(22.922) = 11.232 mm Hg

W1 = 0.62198pws(td1)/(760 - pws(td1)) = 0.62198(11.232)/(760 - 11.232)

= 0.00933 kg H2O/kg dry air

To find W2:

pws(t2) = pws(11.7 °F) = 10.312 mm Hg (from lookup table – TA460 has this data programmed

into its memory)

pws(td2) = (φ2)(pws(t2)) = (0.880)(10.312) = 9.075 mm hg

W2 = 0.62198pws(td2)/(760 - pws(td2)) = 0.62198(9.075)/(760 - 9.075)

= 0.00752 kg H2O/kg dry air

-4-

To find QL:

QL = 0.8287qΔW = 0.8287(25486)(|0.00752 - 0.00933|) = 38.228 kW heat removed

Total heat flow QT

QT = QS + QL = 108.79 + 38.228 = 147.018 kW heat removed

SHF = QS/QT = 108.79/147.018 = 0.74

The pws(t) and W that are being used in these equations are the same W that is calculated when

finding the wet bulb temperature.

-5-

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