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The detection of weld cracks

using ultrasonic testing

T. Arakawa, S. Hirose and T. Senda

The detection of cracks in weldments using ultrasonic testing has been studied
with particular reference to the directivity of the reflected waves from the crack
surface, and to the relation between crack size and height of the echo from the
beam incident perpendicularly on the crack surface. Results obtained from scans
with probes providing different beam angles indicate that adopting as a standard
defect a transverse hole of 3.2 mm diameter, and with a sensitivity level set at
-1 4 dB, searching from one examination surface with probes with straight, 45 °
and 60 ° beams would ensure detection of a crack of size corresponding to the
standard defect irrespective of the orientation of the crack. It was also judged
effective to supplement searches using the above probes with additional scans
by using a 75* angle beam and by a full skip beam with tandem probes, for
evaluating whether a detected flaw is harmful.

Keywords: ultrasonic testing, cracks, welding

The trend towards increasing size and refinement in the sensitivity level, it should be necessary to clarify (a) the
design of metal structures has produced a widening use of diminution of echo height due to the obliquity of the
high-tensile steels, and this has added further weight to incident beam with reference to defect orientation, and (b)
the part played by non-destructive testing. Ultrasonic the quantitative relationship between size of defect and
inspection in particular has seen extensive adoption for its echo height produced by a beam incident perpendicularly
effectiveness in detecting cracks, and is contributing on the defect surface.
appreciably to the reliability of metal structures.
Further enhancement of structural reliability, however, Directivity of ultrasonic waves reflected by
calls for a technique that provides more precise quan-
titative estimation of weld cracks from the indications a crack
obtained with ultrasonic testing. Another aspect requiring Experimental method
study is to have the most suitable level established for
ensuring discernment of harmful defects at the time of To determine the diminution of echo height due to
rough preliminary scanning. obliquity of beam incidence on a defect, a series of runs
were conducted with beams applied from different
In view of these considerations, a collaborative project is directions on the defect to examine the echo height
under way between 15 countries in Europe, America and distribution and then derive the directivity pattern of these
Japan: the PISC II Round Robin Testtfl. In Japan, a Study beams.
Committee on Nondestructive Testing was established in
1977 under the Japan Power Plant Inspection Institute, Scans with probes providing different beam angles were
which has been carrying out basic studies in the quan- run from both sides of the specimen, as shown in Figure 1,
titative evaluation of natural defects found in weldments along the lines AB and A'B' perpendicular to the
joining plates 13 to 103 m m thickl21. The present report longitudinal axis of the defect, to examine the resulting
covers defect detectability, with particular reference to spectrum of echo heights obtained against direction of
experiments and tests conducted by the authors as part of beam incidence. Half skip echoes were measured in all
the activities of this Study Committee. runs (Figure la) except for the direction parallel to the
surface, corresponding to a 90 ° angle beam, which was
The pulse amplitude, or echo height, from a welding substituted by results obtained with full skip echoes using
defect is markedly influenced by the direction of the two probes in tandem (Figure lb).
incident ultrasonic beam with reference to the orientation
of the defect. For a beam incident perpendicularly on the Waves at 5 M H z were used throughout, emitted and
defect, the echo height correlates with the area presented detected by the transducers specified in Table 1 for the
by the defect to the incident beam. Hence, to investigate different beam angles indicated, and incorporated into
the lower limit of defect size detectable with a given Sperry-type search units (Tokyo Keiki UM-730).

0308-9126/85/010009-08 $3.00 © 1985 Butterworth Et Co (Publishers) ktd

be generated inside the weld metal, the electrodes
used had a carbon content higher than the base metal
(eg M n - N i - M o or 21/4Cr-lMo steels), and welded with
coated electrodes with a lower carbon content than the
J base metal.
A Line of scon __.~ . . . . ~f-----I B

(A') i ii , (B') Multiple hair-line cracks were generated by multiple-pass

submerged arc welding (33 kJ input), with preheating and
Depth scon
interpass temperatures held below 50°C. Among the
cracks thus generated, two of them having typical
characteristic features were selected for examination. For
generating a single transverse crack in the weld metal, one
pass among several welded with a coated electrode was
applied using an electrode for overlay hard facing, to
create the effect of a layer of high carbon content inserted
in the weld metal deposit
The numbers of defects provided in the different kinds of
(""1, r~ B specimen are listed in Table 2, which also gives the
thicknesses and hole sizes of the reference blocks used for

a A* -__.aI 1$ . - ~ j B'
scaling the echo height
Results and discussion
The maximum echo heights obtained from scans with
probes with different beam angles are plotted in Figure 2
A c-i .--! against beam angle. Echo heights indicated are the ratio

between the flaw signal and the signal obtained from the
horizontal drilled hole located at an equivalent depth to
the flaw location. This reduces the effect of the probe scan
modes used, direct and tandem (see Equations( 1) and (2)).
The photographs shown beside the respective spectra
Fig. 1 Mode of scanning used in study
represent cross-sections of the specimen cut, after
The defects provided on the specimens - - steel plates 13 to ultrasonic testing, along the plane followed by the beam
axis. The plots for 90 ° beam angles are the data obtained
103 mm thick - - were not only cracks, but also lack of
with the tandem full skip technique. The left- and right-
penetration, lack of fusion, slag inclusion and blowholes,
the latter four types of defect being examined for purposes hand halves of each spectrum correspond to beam angles
of comparison with the cracks, which were the principal approaching from opposite directions the 0° position
directly above the defect; the central segment of the
subject of study. These defects were all embedded in the
spectrum situated between the 90° angles represents data
specimen interior: defects on or close to the specimen
surface were not considered in the present study. from scans along the top surface, while those from scans
along the reverse surface are plotted in the two wings of the
The cracks ,.provided in the specimen were hydrogen- spectrum beyond the 90° points. Thus, the spectra
induced to present the form of crack produced from time represent plots of maximum echo height obtained from
to time in weidments that have been insufficiently each scan with the beam impinging at an angle spaced at
preheated. The cracks were oriented in longitudinal and the finest intervals obtainable with all the probes listed in
transverse directions in the weld metal, and in a Table 1, starting from 0 ° directly above the defect and
longitudinal direction in the heat-affected zone, in covering a full 360°.
representation of the multiple forms which such cracks
The spectra illustrate well how defects of flattened shape
occur in practice.
will produce echoes varying widely in height depending
The process used to generate the various forms of crack on the orientation of incident beam, and even lowering
was in all cases to apply beforehand a strong constraining down to almost zero for a beam incident parallel to its
weld, and to weld with little or no preheating. For cracks to planelq.

Table 1. Ultrasonic probes used in study; modes of use

Probe Refraction(beam)angle( ° ) Wave mode Mode of probe


5 Z 15 D N 0 Longitudinal Direct
5 Z 15 D N* 10, (15), 20, 30 Longitudinal Direct
5 Z 10 x 10 V A** 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75 Shear Direct
5 Z 10 x 1 0 A 4 5 45
(5 Z 10 x 10 A 60) (60) Shear Tandem
(5 Z 10 x 10 A 70) (70)

* With shoe
** Variable refraction angle


Table 2. Types and number of defects provided on specimens used in study

Number of defects provided in specimen Reference block

Base metal Plate Lack of Plate Hole

thicknessWelding penetra- Lack of Slag in- Blow- thickness diameter
(mm) process Cracks tion fusion clusions holes (mm) (mm)

Mild steel 13 S M AW 1* 1 1 1 1 9 2.4

Mild steel 28 S M A W 1" 1 2 1 1 25 2.4
Mild steel 53 S M A W 18*+2**+4*** 8 3 12 8 50 3.2
Mild steel 103 S M AW 3* 1 2 1 1 100 4.8
Mild steel 25 S M A W 2* 4 1 4 0 25 2.4
SA533 50 S M A W 6** 0 0 0 0 50 3.2
Gr.B c1-1
Mild steel 25 S M A W 1 ** 0 0 0 0 25 2.4
+SA387 D
SA537cl-2 35 S AW 2*** 0 0 0 0 35 3.2

Total 40 14 9 19 11

* Longitudinal crack in weld metal

** Longitudinal crack in heat affected zone
*** Transverse crack in weld metal

The plots in Figure 3 correlate the maximum echo heights The plots are seen to scatter widely. If the extent of
between scans with beam angles spaced at the finest scattering is represented by the width of the band bounded
intervals obtainable with all the probes listed in Table l by lines drawn with a 45 ° slope, it is found that the plots
(Figure 3a), and scans made only with 45 ° angle probes representing cracks alone fall in the band bounded by the
and solely along one surface of the specimen (Figure 3b), lines AB and CD, while those also representing other
each plot representing the same defect searched by scans kinds of defect scatter further in the band AB-EF.
in different meshes of beam angle intervals.
A 8
Refraction (beam) angles ~ n d e m
Crock in w e l d metol of fine mesh scans a ~ -

A" B"
-I0 Refraction (beam) angles
of coarse mesh scans
,,o -2o ' ,-. ~A, ,.
( 4 5 ° from one surface)
0 50 6 0 9 0 6 0 5 0 0 30 6 0 9 0 6 0 : 3 0 0 b
a Refraction (beam) angle (o) A/

30 - F


g 20

-20 ' , AA
0 3 0 6 0 9 0 6 0 30 0 30 6 0 9 0 6 0 3 0 0
Refraction (beam) angle ( ° )
b c /o OU~A O o OO •I
0 • I C ~, I O u ~

Crackheo,,o-o,ec,edzone . . . .
:°8°,°° V
~ -I0
:uJ • o Cracks
E n Lack of penetration

2 G v Lack of fusion
,,o, -2o= A :~ -20 f • Slag inclusions
0 30 60 90 6030 0 30 6 0 9 0 6 0 3 0 0
Refraction (beam)angle (o) I I [
C -20 -14 - I 0 0 I0 20
Fig. 2 Examples of echo spectra obtained with probes providing Maximum echo heights from coarse mesh scan(dE})
different beam angles. Central part of spectrum between 90 ° angles from
scans along top surface; spectrum wings beyond 9 0 ° are echoes from Fig. 3 Correlation between maximum echo heights obtained with beam
scans along reverse surface; 90 ° angle represented by echo obtained with angle of 45 ° only from one surface and with beam angles spaced at close
tandem full skip technique intervals



Refraction (beam) angles ~ n

Refraction (beam) angles
of fine mesh scans
of fine mesh scans a ~ -d ~. . . . . em

A' B' A' B"

Refraction (beam) ongtes Refraction (beam) angles ~'~.\~t.f/"
of coarse mesh scans of coarse mesh scans . . ~ . . Tandem (90 °)
( 0 ~ - 4 5 ~ - 6 0 ° from one
b (0 °, -30,° - 6 0 °, -(900) ) b
A' 13'
A' B'

30 30

"o "1o
2O 20

E ;/ .c

d A•V [
~ 2
~ 0 tn o
~ o

-,g o

• • al~'- o Crocks
o o~
tion E.ql(- ', Lock of penetration
E -14 E ..~ v Lock of fusion
E E R~' • Slog inclusions
~ -20 o -20-/ ? Blowholes
i / /, I 1 , ,
A -20 -14 -I0 0 I0 20 -20 -I0 0 IO 20

Maximum echo heights from coarse mesh scan(dB) Maximum echo heights from coarse mesh scon(dB)
Fig. 4 Correlation between maximum echo heights obtained with beam Fig. 6 Correlation between maximum echo heights obtained with beam
angles of 0 ° (straight beam), 45 ° and 60 ° from one surface and with angles spaced at 30 ° intervals from both surfaces and with beam angles
beam angles spaced at close intervals spaced at close intervals

A B If the level of detection sensitivity is set, for instance, at

--14 dB, searching with probes covering beams in a fine
Refraction (beam) angles a
of fine mesh scans
~ d e m mesh will only miss the defects represented by the plots in
the triangle bounded by AGH, whereas searching with
A' B'
only a 45 ° beam will overlook all the defects in the region
A B bounded by AEJH.
Refraction (beam) angles
of coarse mesh scans If instead of scanning with only a 45 ° angle beam, the
( 0 ~ - 4 5 ~ - 6 0 ° from both b coarse mesh is refined to include 0° (straight beam) and
surfaces) A' B' 60° angles, the corresponding relation becomes that
shown in Figure 4, and further, if the same mesh of beam
30 angles is applied to both specimen surfaces, the scattering
of the plots narrows down to the range in Figure 5:
v Figure 6 represents the case of a 30° interval mesh,
2O including 90 ° by tandem full skip scan; further refinement
down to 15° intervals results in Figure 7. The 30° mesh in
o~ Figure 6 still reveals a scatter corresponding to about
E 10 dB. At 15°, the scattering represented in Figure 7 can be
I0- o v
Zx A V considered to have more or less settled down, indicating
z~ o that a beam angle mesh of 15° intervals should provide
~ o OA ~
V~V_O •c spectra with m a x i m u m height roughly representing the
v~ 6=
.c o o,8 'I o o k ' echo obtained with a beam incident perpendicularly on a
flat-shaped defect. This is indicative of the very poor
directivity shown by the beam for reflection from natural
-IO defects in comparison with the case of a smooth
o Once a relation can be established between the coarseness
o of beam angle mesh and the extent of scattering to be
/ J I I I
expected in the m a x i m u m echo height obtained on the
-20 -I0 0 I0 20 resulting spectrum, it should only remain to determine the
Maximum echo heights from coarse mesh scan (dB)
relation between defect size and echo height from a beam
impinging perpendicularly on the defect to derive a
Fig. 5 Correlation between maximum echo heights obtained with beam
angles of O* (straight beam), 45* and 60* from both surfaces and with criterion of echo height above which a detected defect
beam angles spaced at close intervals should be judged to be of harmful size.


Refraction (beam)angles ~ n d e m
of fine mesh scans a
A' B" I -
A B E. oo-., %X\
Refraction (beam)angles ~'~--..."~X~///~'~/~ ~ 1 " -
of coarse mesh s c a n s ~ n d e m (90°) 0 6'0o
(o, ~5, 3o,-4~o,-6o,o
o. o_ o b r-

-75° -(90°)) A' B' ,o • %



4oI- \
v v
20- ",9 0,9>0
",,7. e 8Ot.~fOOO
o o

J: •
g C i I
-20 -15 -I0 -5
C~ il

-I0 Defection s e n s i t i v i t y l e v e l ( d B )
Fig. 8 Detectabilityof weld cracks correlated to coarsenessof beam
angle mesh providedby probes used in search,as functions of detection
0 / i !~locePfissilon 0n sensitivitylevel(100%, probesin Table 1)
.-- S
o -20
-20 -IO 0 I0 20 boundary is sufficiently longer than the spread of the
ultrasonic beam, the ratio of echo heights between
Maximum echo heights from coarse mesh scan(riB) reflections from this defect and from a standard defect
Fig. 7 Correlationbetween maximumecho heights obtained with beam represented by a transverse hole of diameter 2a o is related
angles spacedat 15° intervalsfrom both surfacesand with beam angles to the boundary band of height H, represented by the
spacedat closeintervals
projection of this measure on a plane perpendicular to the
The coarseness of beam angle mesh is represented as a specimen surface, and the standard defect size 2ao, by the
parameter in Figure 8, which relates the crack detection formulaPl
percentage to the detection sensitivity level. The crack
detection percentage is here represented by the n u m b e r of h/h2a ° = (2H)/( 2~'~ao v/X-sin 8) (1)
weld cracks detected with coarse mesh scans with
reference to the corresponding n u m b e r with the finest where X is wavelength and O is the refraction angle of the
mesh obtainable with all the probes listed in Table 1. For probe used, with the beam impinging perpendicularly on
instance, taking the case of '45 ° on one surface', the plot the defect surface.
corresponding to - 1 4 dB is the percentage represented by For a smooth, flat boundary oriented perpendicularly
the n u m b e r of plots indicating cracks in the region to the test surface, the echo obtained with the tandem full
bounded by D I H B in Figure 3 with reference to those skip technique is governed by
bounded by D C G H B in the same figure.
The plots in Figure 8 illustrate well the decline of crack h/h2a ° = (2H ~ / ( 2C~ao v/"X) (2)
detecting capability that accompanies the coarsening of
beam angle mesh. Another aspect brought out by the plots where 0 is the refraction angle of the probes used.
in this figure is how enhancing the detection sensitivity Equations (1) and (2) are applicable to smooth boundaries.
narrows the difference in detection performance between Actual defects do not present a smooth boundary to the
coarse and fine meshes of beam angle intervals. This impinging beam, so the above formulae have to be
results from defects oriented obliquely to the incident modified before they can be validly applied to practical
beam becoming liable to detection by waves scattered at defect detection.
defect edges when searched with high sensitivity. Another
point worth noting is that scans at 0 °, 45 ° and 60 ° mesh In conducting the experiments to determine the
give a detection performance differing little between runs modification to be applied to the above formulae, note
on one surface only and on both surfaces. was taken of the fact that the m a x i m u m echo heights
obtained with a beam angle mesh of 15° intervals
Relation between defect size and echo practically attained the levels obtainable with the beam
height impinging perpendicularly on the defect surface, and the
runs were therefore conducted with probes providing
Experimental method beam angles of 15° and 30° by longitudinal, and 45 ° , 60 °
The relation between echo height and defect shape is well and 75 ° by shear waves, supplemented with a 0° straight
established for the case where the beam impinges beam and 90 ° tandem full skip scan. Except for the last-
perpendicularly on a flat and smooth boundary presented cited scan, all scans were run on both surfaces of the
by a defect. If the length of a band-shaped smooth specimen.


During a scan, the probe was on occasion swivelled to
ascertain the m a x i m u m echo height The beam used was 151 o Crack
5 MHz; the transducers were 10 m m diameter for the 14 z~ Lack of penetration/fusion
straight beam, and 10 x 10 mm for the other scans. 15 [] Slag inclusion

The highest echoes found in the spectra thus obtained 12 0 Blowhole

were then compared with the actual heights of the defects,
represented by H, defined in connection with Equation (1). ,';E
The value of H was determined by slicing the specimen,
after ultrasonic testing, at 2 m m intervals along planes
perpendicular to the specimen surface, to measure the 8
height of defect sections appearing on the surfaces thus
exposed, and to adopt the highest value as the defect
height H. 6 A

While measuring the defect height, its length was also
checked to ascertain its being amply longer than the 4 J
spread of the ultrasonic beam. W

The defects examined were nine cracks, six lack of

fusion, one lack of penetration, and four slag inclusions.
All nine cracks were hydrogen-induced, of which four
were located in the heat-affected zone, and five in the weld O t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 IO II 12 13 14 t5
metal, all oriented longitudinally along the welded
Measured defect height(ram)
Fig. 10 Correlation with directly measured defect height shown by
A typical defect is illustrated in Figure 9. corresponding values estimated from ultrasonic test assuming beam
impinging perpendicularly on detect presenting a smooth flat reflecting
Results and discussion
Equations (1) and (2), derived for a smooth boundary,
were applied to the m a x i m u m echo heights obtained from
the runs. The orientation of the defect was estimated by The "mat character of the reflective boundary pre-
assuming that the beam impinged perpendicularly on a sented by natural defects is what, on the other hand, lets
defect when the m a x i m u m echo height was registered, and the echo from a truly perpendicular beam at the defect
the height of the defect projected on a plane perpendicular surface be practically equalled by the m a x i m u m echo
to the specimen surface was established assuming the height of the spectrum obtained with a beam angle mesh
defect to be a plane reflecting boundary. of 15° intervals.

The resulting data are plotted in Figure 10 against Adopting 1/3 as the fraction of attenuated echo
directly measured defect height. presented by a natural defect in reference to a smooth flat
boundary, Equations (1) and (2) are modified respectively
The plots represented by triangles that fall along the 45 ° to
line, representing agreement between estimated and
actual defetzt heights, are lack of penetration and fusion H = 3(h/hz%)sin O( V ~ o v"'~)/2 (3)
along smoothly machined groove walls, and which
happened to be oriented perpendicularly to the beam at and
one of the beam angles. All other plots representing
natural defects of other kinds or orientations are seen to (4)
fall below the 45 ° line, and appear to be distributed
roughly around a line representing 1/3 of the value of the where H is the estimated height of the defect
actual defect height This lowering of echo height in the
case of natural defects can be attributed to their presenting Plots corresponding to Figure 10 obtained with the
an uneven surface consisting o f a mozaic of minute planes modified formulae are presented in Figure 11, which
oriented in different directions, scattering and dispersing reproduces the data from Figure 9 on seven of the defects
the boundary reflection. contained in Table 2 found upon analysis of their height
and length to have a flattened band shape. All seven
defects had been introduced in the weld metal as
longitudinal cracks; four were in 53 m m thick and three in
103 m m thick plate specimens, all located at a depth of
roughly 3/4 plate thickness.
It will be recalled that the plots in Figures 3 to 7
represented the m a x i m u m echo heights obtained from
scans at various beam angles, so that these values could,
using Equations (3) and (4), be translated into the heights
of the defects represented by each plot, assuming the
defects to be band-shaped. Hence. conversely, the height of
the smallest defect detectable by searching with a beam
a c angle mesh of given coarseness could be determined for a
Fig. 9 Typical examples of cracks artificially introduced into the
given detection sensitivity level - - represented by a
specimen: a - - longitudinal crack in weld metal; b, c I longitudinal cracks vertical line passing through the designated detection
in heat-affected zone sensitivity level on the abscissa.

14 NDT I N T E R N A T I O N A L . FEBRUARY 1 9 8 5
15 It is worth recalling in this connection that the results
o Estimates from search including scans with obtained from the present study indicate a mesh of 15°
14 swivelling head
beam angle intervals to be sufficient to obtain a spectrum
13 • Estimates from search along single line of scan that can be expected to give a maximum echo height equal
12 to that obtainable with the beam incident perpendicularly
on a defect.
E 10 Conclusion
An examination has been presented of the detectability of
cracks which were represented as the hydrogen-induced
cracks embedded in butt-welded joints of low alloy steels.
o~ 7 The echoes obtained from such defects are influenced not
e only by the size of the defect but also by the angle of
incidence of the beam with reference to the orientation of
the crack.
LU Trial detection of various forms of defect using a series
5 of probes providing different beam angles indicated that
2 1_ ° o >/o•• 0
scanning a defect with beam angles differing by intervals
of 15° will produce a spectrum of echoes that can be
expected to include one of height equal to that obtained
, 2 3 6 7 8 9,o ,', with a beam incident perpendicularly on the crack
Measured defect h e i g h t ( m m )

Fig. 1 1 Correlation with directly measured defect height shown by Conversely, scanning solely with probes providing 0°,
corresponding values estimated from ultrasonic test assuming 1/3 45° and 60° resulted in a spectrum presenting a maximum
reflectivity of defect surface echo height differing by up to 16 dB from the cor-
responding height obtained with fine mesh beam
In Figure 4 for the case of a 0°, 45 °, 60° mesh, if - 1 4 dB angles.
is adopted as the detection sensitivity level, represented by
the vertical line passing through - 1 4 dB on the abscissa, Even with the beam incident exactly perpendicular to
the point H on this line would represent a defect the crack, however, the echo height will still be signi-
ficantly lower than that from a smooth flat boundary.
producing equally an echo o f - 1 4 dB with either the
coarse or fine mesh - - which would be a defect that Adoption of 1/3 as the fraction to represent the attenuated
happens to be oriented perpendicularly to either the 0°, echo from a natural defect, as compared with a smooth
boundary, was found to provide a valid modification to
45° or60 ° beam, ie parallel at 30° or at45 ° to the specimen
surface. Point I, at the limit of detectability for cracks, the established formulae relating echo height to dimen-
would on the other hand represent a defect oriented in the sion of standard defects.
direction least favourable for detection by the beams The detectability of cracks thus proved to be largely
incident in the five directions adopted for the coarse mesh dependent on the combination of probes providing
- - a defect most probably perpendicular to the specimen different beam angles applied in scanning, but enhancing
surface. This defect represented by point I would be the sensitivity level serves to narrow down the difference
detected with an echo of +2 dB with fine mesh in detectability between coarse and fine meshes of beam
scanning. angle intervals.
Adopting 3.2 mm as the diameter of the standard defect The data obtained from the trial scans indicated that to
hole in Equations (3) and (4), derived from the hydrogen- ensure detection of a crack equivalent to the 3.2 mm
induced cracks provided in butt-welded joints of low diameter transverse hole, adopted as a standard defect,
alloyed steels, substitution into these equations of the with scans providing 0°, 45 ° and 60° angle beams, the
echo heights represented by the points H and I in Figure 4 detection sensitivity level would require to be set at
give values of 0.4 mm and 3.2 mm as the defect height - 1 4 dB. Detection of smaller cracks down to 0.4 mm in
equivalent to the standard defect (the former value height would depend on the direction of the beam
derived assuming defect orientation perpendicular to a incident on the crack.
beam impinging at 60°). Thus, at this detection sensitivity
level the cracks that would be detected by a fine mesh Evaluation of detected flaws will be aided effectively by
beam angle, but which could be missed when scanned by supplementing the search with scans at 75° and 90 °, the
0°, 45 ° and 60° scanning, would be those of heights in the latter scan being carried out by the tandem full skip
range between 0.4 and 3.2 mm. technique.

Practical criteria applied to welding defects would call Authors

for cracks of 3.2 mm size to be clearly distinguished from
Enquiries regarding this paper should be sent to
those of 0.4 mm. The distinction is further complicated by
Mr Arakawa at Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries
the possibility of echoes from non-harmful blowholes and
Co. Ltd, Research Institute, Shinakahara-cho 1, Isogo-ku,
slag inclusions exceeding the - 1 4 dB level on the
Yokohama, Japan. Mr Hirose and Professor Senda are in
distance-amplitude characteristic curve.
the Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Japan.
For this reason, when flaws are detected on scanning
with 0°, 45 ° and 60° beams, further evaluation of these References
flaws is necessary, using beams of other angles, eg 75° and 1 Crutzen, S. et al. "The PISC 11 programme', lOth World Confon
90° by the tandem full skip technique, to determine NI)T. Moscow (1982)
whether the flaws constitute harmful defects. 2 Hatsudenyo Netsukikan Kyokai(Japan Power Plant Inspection


Institute): "Cho-Ompa Tansho Shiken ni yoru Yosetsu-bu 4 Serabien, S. 'Ultrasonic probability of detection of subsurface
Kekkan Takasa no Teiryo-teki Sokutei-ho no Chosa Kenkyu flaws', Mater Eval 40 No 3 (March 1982) p 294
Hokoku-sho' (Study report on quantitative evaluation of weld 5 Werneyer, R., Walte, F. and Klein, M. 'Mathematisches Modell
defect height by ultrasonic testing) (June 1983) zur Fehlerrekonstruktion bei der Ultraschall-lmpulsecho- und
Hirose, S. and Uragaki, H. 'Naibu Kekkan to Cho-Ompa Tandem-prtifung und Ergebnisse aus Modellversuchen',
Tansho Shiken' (Application of nondestructive testing methods Materialpru'f 20, No 2 (Feb. 1978)
|or welding inspection - - internal defects, ultrasonic test)', 6 Arakawa, T. "Identification of defect configuration by ultrasonic
Yosetsu Gakkai-Shi (J Jap Welding Soc), 50, No 11 (1981) tomography scanning', ]Oth World Conf on NDT, Moscow
pp 25-32 (1982)

Paper received 11 May 1984. Revised 30 November 1984