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Homework #1

Problem 1. textbook problem 2.37

In how many ways can 10 students occupy 10 desks? 12 desks?

You win a lottery if you correctly predict the numbers of 6 balls drawn from an urn containing

balls numbered 1, 2,..., 49, without replacement and without regard to ordering. What is

the probability of winning if you buy one ticket?

In each lot of 100 items, 2 items are tested, and the lot is rejected if either of the tested items

is found defective. (a) Find the probability of accepting a lot with 5 defective items. Repeat

for 10 defective items. (b) Recompute the probabilities in part (a) if 3 items are tested, and

a lot is accepted when at most 1 of the 3 tested items is found defective.

A nonsymmetric binary communications channel is shown in Fig. P2.2. Assume the inputs

are equiprobable. (a) Find the probability that the output is 0. (b) Find the probability

that the input was 0 given that the output is 1. Find the probability that the input is 1

given that the output is a 1. Which input is more probable?

Input Output

1-ε1

0 0

ε1

ε2

1-ε2

1 1

Fig. P2.2

In the binary communication system in Example 2.26, find the value of for which the input

of the channel is independent of the output of the channel. Can such a channel be used to

1

transmit information? (note a typo in the book says “Example 2.23” but Example 2.26 is

the correct one.)

Example 2.26 describes a binary communications system represented below. The input

is equally likely to be 0 or 1. The receiver makes random decision errors (about the input)

with probability . Let Ai be the event “input was i”, while Bi is the event “receiver decision

was i.” In example 2.26, the a posteriori probabilities were found to be

P (A0 |B1 ) =

P (A1 |B1 ) = 1 −

Input Output

1-!

P(0) = 0.5 0

!

!

1-!

P(1) = 0.5 1

A block of 100 bits is transmitted over a binary communciation channel with probability of

bit error p = 10−3 . Find the probability that the block contains 3 or more errors.

A student needs 10 chips of a certain type to build a circuit. It is known that 5% of these

chips are defective. How many chips should he buy for there to be a greater than 90%

probability of having enough chips for the circuit?

A runlength coder segments a binary information sequence into strings that consist of either

a “run” of k “zeros” punctuated by a “one”, for k = 0, . . . , m − 1, or a string of m “zeros.”

The m = 3 case is

string runlength k

1 0

01 1

001 2

000 3

trials with P (one) = P (success) = p. (a) Find the probability of runlength k in the m = 3

case. (b) Find the probability of runlength k for general m.

2

Problem 9. textbook problem 2.92

Suppose that in Example 2.40, computer A sends each message to computer B simultaneously

over two unreliable telephone lines. Computer B can detect when errors have occured in

either line. Let the probability of message transmission error in line 1 and line 2 be q1 and q2

respectively. Computer B requests retransmissions until it receives an error-free message on

either line. (a) Find the probability that more than k transmissions are required. (b) Find

the probability that in the last transmission, the message on line 2 is received free of errors.

An information source produces symbols at random from a 5-letter alphabet: S = {a, b, c, d, e}.

The probabilities of the symbols are

1 1 1 1

p(a) = , p(b) = , p(c) = , p(d) = p(e) =

2 4 8 16

A data compression system encodes the letters into binary strings as follows:

a→1

b → 01

c → 001

d → 0001

e → 0000

Let the random variable Y be equal to the length of the binary string output by the system.

Specify the sample space of Y , SY , and the probabilities of its values.

Let X be a binomial random variable that results from the performance of n Bernoulli trials

with probability of success p. (a) Suppose that X = 1. Find the probability that the single

event occurred in the kth Bernoulli trial. (b) Suppose that X = 2. Find the probability

that the two events occurred in the jth and kth Bernouli trials, where j < k. (c) In light

of your answers to parts (a) and (b), in what sense are successes distributed “completely at

random” over the n Bernoulli trials?

Let X be a binomial random variable. (a) Show that

pk (n − k + 1)p (n + 1)p − k

= =1+

pk−1 kq kq

(b) Show that part (a) implies that (1) P (X = k) is maximum at kmax = [(n + 1)p], where

[x] denotes the largest integer that is smaller than or equal to x; and (2) when (n + 1)p is

an integer, then the maximum is achieved at kmax and kmax − 1.

3

In a packet-switched network, large data messages are divided into packets that can travel

different routes to the same destination. If the packets arrive at the destination in a different

order, they are resequenced in the correct order to reassemble the original data message.

Suppose that a data message is divided into N packets, which can arrive in any random

order with equal likelihood. What is the probability that they will arrive in the correct

order?

In a hypothetical military scenario, suppose there are 6 incoming ballistic missiles (BMs)

and 12 antimissile missiles (AMMs) are fired against them. 2 AMMs are targeted at each

BM. Assume there is no interference between AMMs and an AMM can only destroy the

BM that it is fired at. The probability that an AMM destroys a BM is 0.8. (a) Find the

probability that all BMs are destroyed. (b) Find the probability that at least one BM gets

through. (c) Find the probability that exactly one BM gets through.

Problem 15. use MATLAB for this problem

Generate 1000 pairs of random numbers (x, y) where each 0 < x < 1 and 0 < y < 1 and

they are uniformly distributed in the area of interest. Plot these to see if they are uniform.

Now generate random pairs (x, y) that are uniformly distributed in 0 < x < y < 1 region.

Again, plot these to see if they are uniformly distributed.

Submit your matlab codes and the 2 plots.

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