Kigali Sub Area Plans

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I N T R O D U C T I O N

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EXECUTIVE SUM MA RY
T H E P L AN N IN G PROCESS
PRO JECT INIT IAT ION
This report culminates over one and one-half years of work on four Kigali Sub Areas by the OZ Architecture Team and the City of Kigali Planning Office. Building on previous OZ work, (which produced the Kigali Conceptual Master Plan and its ratification by Parliament in summer 2008), the City decided to undertake site specific planning for four Sub Area sites in Kigali. In August 2008, the Mayor of Kigali, Dr. Aisa Kirabo Kacyira, invited the OZ Architecture Team to Kigali to initiate the study. The sites are located in:

S UB AR E A P L A N N IN G P RO C E SS
The Planning Process for the four Sub Areas included three major Tasks:
TASK I: RECONNAISSANCE

TA SK IIC SC HE MATIC P LANS
This report, plus additional hard and soft copy support material encompass the remaining deliverables for the Sub Area Planning project. They include:

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Rebero Sector, Kicukiro District. 76 Ha Kimihurura Sector, Gasabo District. 89 Ha Kinyinya Sector, Gasabo District. 205 Ha Sub Area Masaka Sector, Kicukiro District. 4500 Ha

September 2008: Team Trip with Planning/ Urban Design, Engineering, Landscape Architecture and Economic Consultants Reconnaissance and collaboration with Surbana Corporation, Peter Rich and Associates Architects, and City of Kigali Planning, Infrastructure, and Economic staffs November 2008: Submission of Task I Report: Reconnaissance

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TASK IIA: EXISTING CONDITIONS/ OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS

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February 2009: Team Trip with Planning/ Urban Design, Engineering and Economic Consultants April 2009: Submission of Task IIA Report: Existing Conditions/Opportunities and Constraints


Kigali Sub-Area Planning

Task II C Report: Kigali Sub Areas Schematic Plans (this report) Official Infrastructure Engineering documents (shown illustratively in this report) submitted in both hard and soft copy. Cost Spreadsheets. In addition to PDF versions of Infrastructure Cost spreadsheets in Appendix 3, cost estimates in working Excel spreadsheets will provide an ongoing tool for decision-making. The assumptions in these spreadsheets are transparent and easily changed based on updated cost information, changing exchange rates and economic assumptions and to run sensitivity analyses for alternative policies. The 3D Animation tool is included in the deliverables for use by Kigali staff for presentations and public education.

TASK IIB: CONCEPTUAL PLANNING

HO W T O U S E THIS D O C UMENT
This document includes seven chapters and four appendices. • The first three chapters, Introduction, Sustainable Urbanism, and Municipal Financing, address issues of concern to all four Sub Areas. • The second four chapters address each Sub Area individually, (Rebero, Kimihurura, Kinyinya and Masaka) including sections on Vision/Programming, Site Plan, Infrastructure, Design/Development Guidelines and Site Specific Municipal Financing. • The Appendices address issues of concern to all four sites, including: Affordable Housing, Environmental Treatment Zones, Infrastructure Costs, Rwanda Innovation Center. The report is designed to be used in two ways.

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February-May 2009: Draft Report on Conceptual Planning May 2009: Electronic Submission of Plans September 2009: Team Trip, Conceptual Plan Presentations and Workshops with City of Kigali Staff, MININFRA and Stakeholders

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Task 2A: Existing Conditions/Opportunities & Constraints
Kinyinya, Kimihurura, Masaka, Rebero

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April 2009

TASK IIC: SCHEMATIC PLANNING

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FIGURE 1: MAYOR KIRABO-KACYIRA Sector. gives direction on planning for Masaka

September 2009: Team Trip with Planning/Urban Design, Engineering, Landscape Architecture, 3D Animation, and Economic Consultants Guidance from client and stakeholders September 2009-Jannury 2010: Schematic Planning and Task II C Report January 2010: Submission of electronic copies of Task II C Report Spring 2010: Submission of Final Schematic Plans

1. For users who are concerned with all four sites, it can be printed (or made available
electronically) in total. 2. For users who are interested in one site, a site-specific booklet (or electronic copy) can be made from Chapters 1-3 plus the site-specific chapter and all Appendices. While each site-specific chapter can also be printed independently, it is advised that supporting chapters are included as they provide important background for each site.

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KIGALI S UB AREA PLANN IN G

I N T R O D U C T I O N
KIG A L I S U B A RE A P L A N N I N G

S U B AR E A PLAN S SUMMAR I ES
R EB E R O
The Rebero Sub Area is a 76 Ha site located at the top of Rebero hill approximately 1.5 km south of the Kigali City Center. The program for this site is focused on Resort and Conference Center uses surrounding the existing Juru Park with an adjoining Neighborhood Center. The Development Program includes a range of hotel sites from high to low density providing over 1400 hotel rooms, over 500 residential units and 10,000-15,000 square meters of commercial space. The design of this Sub Area emphasizes preservation and enhancement of the beautiful natural setting by densification of development; and integration with the existing Juru Park resort activities there.

K IN YIN YA
This 205 Ha Sub Area, located approximately four km northeast of the Kigali City Center and due north of Kimihurura and the rapidly growing Nyarutarama, is envisioned to become the Town Center for surrounding neighborhoods, including Nyarutarama, Gisozi, Batsinda and the new Surbana Kinyinya project. It is envisioned to become a prototypical Sustainable Urbanist town, with a strong youth and family-oriented focus. It is designed provide commercial and civic services to all surrounding residents as well as a retail market of close to 400,000. Kinyinya Sub Area includes a major Mixed-Use and Civic Center, an Education Complex, and eleven Neighborhoods, with a projected population of 30,000. The Sustainable Infrastructure component includes two multi-modal Transit Centers, a Transit Corridor, Green Streets and Environmental Treatment Zones. The Development Program includes over 200,000 square meters of commercial space, over 8000 dwelling units, and eleven Neighborhood Centers with primary schools, health and other social services. It has two secondary schools and one post-secondary school, as well as shared Sports/Recreation Center and Performing Arts Center, and several other civic buildings situated amidst several interlocking parks and greenways.

KIM I H UR UR A
This 89 Ha Sub Area, centrally located in Kigali at the Kimihurura Roundabout, is envisioned to become the Gateway to Kigali from the Kigali International Airport. The focal point of this Sub Area is a High-Density Mixed-Use Commercial Center that links to the new Kigali Convention Center, frames and celebrates the Roundabout, and provides an animated pedestrian promenade. The Development Program includes over 220,000 square meters of commercial space, 1500 hotel rooms in a hotel park, a Residential Neighborhood with over 800 dwelling units, as well as several interlocking parks and greenways. It also includes a park at the southern end of the site that could become a key sports or recreation facility for the City of Kigali.

MA S A K A
The Masaka Sub Area Plan scope is unique in that it is much larger than the other sites with two levels of planning: one at the 4500 Ha Sector-wide scale and one at the local district scale of about 75 Ha. The Sector Plan, accommodating 290,000 population includes the New Masaka City Center, existing Masaka Town, and four new Towns), as well as more detailed urban design for a Prototype District of the New City Center (shown here). The projected populations for these different areas are: 170,000 for the New City Center, 40,000 for Masaka Town, and 20,000 for each of the new Towns. The Prototype district accommodates approximately 30,000 population. Like Kinyinya, it exemplifies many aspects of Sustainable Urbanism, with a MixedUse Core, eight Neighborhoods with Neighborhood Centers, extensive Open Space/ Greenways, and maximum use of Sustainable Infrastructure. The existing Masaka Town plan highlights a Medium-Density Mixed-Use Core surrounded by residential Neighorhoods, a Medical/Research Center and a light industrial Innovation Center. This element will be located adjacent to the new international rail line and promote strong agro-industrial economic development for the entire Sector.

I NTRODU C TI ON

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SUSTAINABLE URB A NISM & TH E S MA RT C OD E
SU STA IN A BLE U R BA NIS M
An overarching theme for design and planning of the Sub Areas in this project has been the principle of Sustainable Urbanism. Drawing on the national policy statements such as Vision 2020 that emphasize sustainable development in general, this approach is recommended as it best interprets national policy goals such as leadership in environmental protection, concern for social equity, and multi-scalar economic development in the urban setting. This approach undergirds the physical landuse, socioeconomic, infrastructure and municipal financing aspects of the Sub Area Plans. A seminar on Sustainable Urbanism was presented during the team trip in September 2009, introducing basic concepts, showing how these were applied in the Sub Area Plans, and demonstrating strategies for how staff can continue to ensure their application in the future. In this report, the seminar has been consolidated in written form in Chapter Two: Sustainable Urbanism. It (and the PowerPoint Presentation from the Seminar) should be used to help stakeholders, developers and municipal staff better understand the fundamental principles of Sustainable Urbanism as implementation proceeds, and to help promote creative and Rwanda-appropriate interpretations of the basic principles of Sustainable Urbanism. It is highly recommended that the concept of Sustainable Urbanism be interpreted to include both “process” and “design.” As noted below in “Next Steps,” institutional frameworks, (such as Boards, Commissions, and local committees), and legal mechanisms (for example, affordable housing/ownership strategies) are important complements to physical plans and engineering drawings. By emphasizing broad participation in the implementation of the Sustainable Urbanist designs included herein, the best outcomes will be achieved. Sub Areas will not only be appropriate and physically attractive for their residents, but they should support equitable and diverse communities as well as promote economic development at all levels that responds to users’ identified needs.

THE SMA RTC O D E
In addition to the Plans and Development Guidelines contained in this report, additional tools will be required to guide long term development. After the Plans contained herein are approved and adopted, it will be useful to instate a legal Zoning and Development Regulation ordinance that codifies the planning/urban design, infrastructure and public/open space rights-of-way and Development Guidelines contained herein, as well as any other elements deemed important by the City. Given the Sustainable Urbanist approach to urban design, it is recommended that the SmartCode be used as a basis for the Kigali Sub Area planning implementation, with calibration of the basic regulatory format keyed to Rwanda-specific conditions. The SmartCode is a generic tool produced by US urban designers Duany Plater-Zyberk and Company (originally released in 2003) and others associated with the Congress on New Urbanism. It incorporates all of the Sustainable Urbanist principles contained in the Sub Area Planning. As the writers of the model code point out (www.smartcodecentral.org): The SmartCode is an integrated land development ordinance. It folds zoning, subdivision regulations, urban design, public works standards and basic architectural controls into one compact document. It is also a unified ordinance, spanning scales from the region to the community to the building. The model code and many other supplementary modules are readily available as open source “free-ware” on its website (www.smartcodecentral.org) and can be calibrated efficiently using appropriate legal and policy consulting to apply it to Rwanda. (NB: it is imperative that the SmartCode be adapted to Rwanda specific needs and conditions through a broad based participatory process. ) The SmartCode starts with the basic premise of the transect, which was originally developed as a tool to analyze ecological landscapes and watersheds (see Figure 2). The application of the transect in urban planning highlights the continuous range of densities and landscape appropriate design conditions

that operate across the transect. This approach was used in the Kigali Conceptual Master Plan., as shown in Figure 4: Kigali Transect. As noted on the SmartCode introduction, The SmartCode is a model transect-based development code available for all scales of planning, from the region to the community to the block and building. The code is intended for local calibration to your town or neighborhood. As a form-based code, the SmartCode keeps towns compact and rural lands open, while reforming the destructive sprawlproducing patterns of separated use zoning. Figures 5 and 6 summarize the various transect zones used in this report (although Sub Area projects were predominately located in zones 2, 4 and 5).

FIGURE 2: A TYPICAL ECOLOGICAL TRANSECT, used by scientists to describe ecosystem integrity , was the basis for new thinking that applied it to urban planning.

BACK DUNE SECONDARY DUNE TROUGH PRIMARY DUNE BEACH OCEAN

FIGURE 3: SMARTCODE

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KIGALI S UB AREA PLANN IN G

I N T R O D U C T I O N
KIG A L I S U B A RE A P L A N N I N G

DRY AGRICULTURE
Traditional and commercial agriculture, either in the form of cultivation of crops or the raising and grazing of livestock should be the primary use in this zone. No future population growth should occur in these areas. Residential uses should be limited to the families engaged in agricultural production.

T-1 NATURAL T-1 Natural Zone consists of lands approximating or reverting to a wilderness condition, including lands unsuitable for settlement due to topography, hydrology or vegetation.
URBAN CENTER
The Urban Center is a mixed-use zone similar to the High Density Zone, in building use and size, but with a concentration of regional public and cultural facilities. In addition to neighborhood facilities for residents, these facilities might include hospitals, primary and secondary schools and universities, government buildings, police departments, and recreational facilities such as stadiums. Multi-story office and retail buildings and in-line retail shops will also occur in this zone. This zone should occur on tops of hills on slopes less than 5%.

General Character: Building Placement: Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Type of Civic Space:

Natural landscape with some agricultural use Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Parks, Greenways

WETLANDS
Areas delineated as wetlands or wetland buffers should be protected. Wetlands serve an important ecological, infrastructure, and economic role in Kigali. Ecological, wetlands reduce erosion and flooding and provide habitat for birds and other plant and animal species. Wetlands are the main-component of Environmental Treatment Zones (ETZ’s) and help to improve water quality and treat wastewater in Kigali Province. Economically, wetlands provide a source of revenue by supporting various forms of wet agriculture from sugarcane production to rice production. Residential uses should not be located within 20 meters of wetlands.

RE-FORESTATION
Large areas are set aside to be reforested in order to promote a return to ecological balance in Kigali Province. Reforested areas will improve water quality, prevent erosion, and maintain the scenic character of Kigali Province. Renewable forest production activities in these areas such as agro-forestry, sustainable forestry and wood production are important sustainable economic activities that can occur in this zone. New residential uses are not allowed.

HIGH DENSITY
Densities in this zone are two-hundred and fifty people per hectare. Multi-story flats above four stories, condo developments and low-standing plots are included in the residential component of the zone. Parcel sizes for this zone range between 150 and 350 square meters. Residential uses should be balanced with a high amount of commercial and social services that would serve the entire sector. Primary schools, sector health centers, and neighborhood sports facilities should be located in this zone. This zone commonly occurs on slopes less than 5%.

EXISTING FOREST
Existing forests are protected from being denuded in order to protect wildlife and plant communities in this zone. Uses are extremely limited, but have the potential to include the collection of firewood for energy needs, plants for traditional medicinal uses, and other types of hunting or gathering. Existing Forests serve an important ecological role in Kigali, helping to prevent erosion on steep slopes, and maintaining the water quality in Kigali watersheds. New residential uses are not allowed.

T-2 RURAL T-2 Rural Zone consists of sparsely settled lands in open or cultivated states. These include woodland, agricultural land, grassland, and irrigable desert. Typical buildings are farmhouses, agricultural buildings, cabins, and villas. This zone is also designated for Hotels in Rebero and Kimihurura.

General Character: Building Placement: Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Type of Civic Space:

Primarily agricultural with woodland & wetland and scattered buildings Variable Setbacks Not applicable 1- to 2-Story residential: hotels (High, Medium, Low Density) Parks, Greenways

MEDIUM DENSITY
Densities in this mixed-use zone average around eighty-five people per hectare or 17 dwelling units per hectare. Residential uses could include multistory flats less than four stories tall, high, medium and low standing plots on steep slopes are the primary uses in this zone. Parcel sizes for this zone range between 350 and 600 sq. meters. Commercial and community centers with neighborhood social and commercial services such as pharmacies and pre-schools should be located at major intersections and in the center of neighborhoods. This zone commonly occurs on slopes that are greater than 5%.

RURAL RESIDENTIAL
Densities in these zones range around 10 people per hectare or two dwelling units per hectare. This zone primarily consists of low density residential and small-scale agriculture and is not well suited for more intense urban development because of lack of road access, steep topography and infrastructure. The residential component of this use is limited and these areas should remain sparsely populated. Small-scall agricultural uses are encourage within this zone, and more large-scale agricultural uses such as agro-forestery and wet agriculture are encouraged adjacent to this zone.

LOW DENSITY
Densities in this mixed-use zone range average around forty people per hectare or ten dwelling units per hectare. This zone primarily consists of residential with little commercial or industrial uses. Parcel sizes for this zone average between 600 and 1,000 square meters. Housing types common in this zone range from high, medium and low standing plots on steep slopes, to rural commercial and community centers located at major intersections and in neighborhood centers. This zone commonly occurs on slopes that are greater than 10%.

T-3 SUB-URBAN T-3 Sub-Urban Zone consists of low density residential areas, adjacent to higher zones that have some mixed use. Home occupations and outbuildings are allowed. Planting is naturalistic and setbacks are relatively deep. Blocks may be large and the roads irregular to accommodate natural conditions.

General Character: Building Placement: Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Type of Civic Space:

Lawns and landscaped yards surrounding detached single-family houses; pedestrians occasionally Large and variable front and side yard Setbacks Porches, fences, naturalistic tree planting 1- to 2-Story with some 3-Story Parks, Greenways

FIGURE 4: KIGALI TRANSECT. The Kigali Conceptual Master Plan was based on the Transect Model as it outlined the different development densities from top to bottom of a Kigali Hill.

T-4 GENERAL URBAN T-4 General Urban Zone consists of a mixed use but primarily residential urban fabric. It may have a wide range of building types: but all are mixed-use multi-family. (Existing homes are grandfathered into this Zone.) Setbacks and landscaping are variable. Streets with curbs and side-walks define medium-sized Blocks.

General Character:

Mix of Houses, Townhouses and small Apartment buildings with scattered Commercial activity; balance between landscape and buildings; presence of pedestrians Shallow to medium front and side yard Setbacks: Interior courtyards with Community Centers and Gardens Porches, fences, Dooryards Generally 2-6-Stories with a few taller Mixed Use buildings Squares, Greens, Linear Parks, Neighborhood Centers, Primary

Building Placement: Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Type of Civic Space:

T-5 URBAN CENTER T-5 Urban Center Zone consists of higher density mixed use building that accommodate Retail, Offices, Mixed-Use Residential and Apartments. It has a tight network of streets, with wide sidewalks, steady street tree planting and buildings set close to the sidewalks.

General Character:

Shops mixed with Townhouses, larger Apartment houses, Offices, work place and Civic buildings; predominantly attached buildings; trees within the public right-of-way; substantial pedestrian activity Shallow Setbacks or none; buildings oriented to street defining a street wall Stoops, Shopfronts, Galleries Generally 4-8-Story with some variation Parks, Plazas, and Squares, median landscaping

Building Placement: Frontage Types: Typical Building Height: Type of Civic Space:

T1

NATURAL ZONE

T2

RURAL ZONE

T3

SUB-URBAN ZONE

T4

GENERALURBAN
ZONE

T5

URBAN CENTER ZONE

T6

URBAN CORE ZONE

SD

SPECIAL DISTRICT

FIGURE 5: SMARTCODE TYPICAL URBAN TRANSECT. The application of the transect concept to the Smart Code results in a continuous range of development categories from least to most dense. This concept outline is then used to detail development guidelines appropriate for each zone. The beauty of this approach is that it sees the City and Sub Areas across a range of development zones that facilitate easy and integrated planning (as shown in Figure 6).

T-6 URBAN CORE T-6 Urban Core Zone consists of the highest density and height, with the greatest variety of uses, and civic buildings of regional importance. It may have larger Blocks; streets have steady street tree planting and buildings are set close to wide sidewalks. Typically only large towns and cities have an Urban Core

General Character:

Medium to high-Density Mixed Use buildings, entertainment, Civic and cultural uses. Attached buildings forming a continuous street wall; trees within the public right-of-way; highest pedestrian and transit activity Shallow Setbacks or none; buildings oriented toward the street, defining a street wall

Building Placement:

FIGURE 6: SMARTCODE TRANSECT ZONE DESCRIPTIONS. CALIBRATED FOR SUB AREAS. As discussed on the next page, the prototype Smartcode zones were used as a basis for Sub Area Plan development zones, especially zones T-4 and T-5.

I NTRODU C TI ON

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TH E SMART COD E
HO W TH E SMA RT C OD E WAS US E D I N T H E S UB AR E A P L AN S .
Several elements of the Sub Area Plans were drawn from SmartCode Modules, setting the stage for integration into future SmartCode development. Schematic Planning for each Sub Area includes Design and Development Guidelines tables that were drawn (and calibrated) from the SmartCode, with the intention that this phase of the work would merge with future phases, including expanded codes and policies. In addition, road sections and affordable housing material were also developed using SmartCode modules. In order to better understand the Development Guideline tables in each site-specific chapter, definitions of terms used in each site-specific chapter are shown here. Figure 7 shows Building Configuration/Stories and Setbacks, corresponding to Table A in the Development Guidelines. Figure 8 provides definitions of site Building Dispositions; and Figure 9 defines different Building/Frontage categories. Please refer to Chapters 4, 5, 6, and 7 Development Guidelines for their application. For more detailed information on the SmartCode, please see the SmartCode module at www.smartcodecentral.org.
d. Courtyard: Specific Types - patio House. A building that occupies the boundaries of its Lot while internally defining one or more private patios. This is the most urban of types, as it is able to shield the private realm from all sides while strongly defining the public Thoroughfare. Because of its ability to accomodate incompatible activities, masking them from all sides, it is recommended for workshops, Lodging and schools. The high security provided by the continuous enclosure is useful for crimeprone areas. a. Edgeyard: Specific Types - single-family House, Cottage, villa, Estate House, urban villa. A building that occupies the center of its Lot with Setbacks on all sides. This is the least urban of types as the front yard sets it back from the Frontage, while the side yards weaken the spatial definition of the public Thoroughfare space. The front yard is intended to be visually continuous with the yards of adjacent buildings. The rear yard can be secured for privacy by fences and a well placed Backbuilding and/or Outbuilding.

T2 T3 T4

SECTION LOT ► ◄ R.O.W. PRIVATE ► ◄ PUBLIC FRONTAGE FRONTAGE

PLAN LOT ► ◄ R.O.W. PRIVATE ► ◄ PUBLIC FRONTAGE FRONTAGE

a. Common Yard: a planted Frontage wherein the Facade is set back substantially from the Frontage Line. The front yard created remains unfenced and is visually continuous with adjacent yards, supporting a common landscape. The deep Setback provides a buffer from the higher speed Thoroughfares.

T2 T3 T3 T4 T4 T5 T4 T5 T6 T4 T5 T6 T4 T5 T6 T4 T5 T6 T5 T6

b. Sideyard: Specific Types - Charleston single-House, double house, zero-lot-line house, twin. A building that occupies one side of the Lot with the Setback to the other side. A shallow Frontage Setback defines a more urban condition. If the adjacent building is similar with a blank side wall, the yard can be quite private. This type permits systematic climatic orientation in response to the sun or the breeze. If a Sideyard House abuts a neighboring Sideyard House, the type is known as a Twin or double house. Energy costs, and sometimes noise, are reduced by sharing a party wall in this disposition.

T4 T5

b. Porch & Fence: a planted Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from the Frontage Line with an attached porch permitted to Encroach. A fence at the Frontage Line maintains street spatial definition. Porches shall be no less than 8 feet deep.

c. Terrace or Lightwell: a Frontage wherein the Facade is set back from the Frontage line by an elevated terrace or a sunken Lightwell. This type buffers Residential use from urban Sidewalks and removes the private yard from public Encroachment. Terraces are suitable for conversion to outdoor cafes. Syn: Dooryard.

c. Rearyard: Specific Types - Townhouse, Rowhouse, Live-work unit, loft g, p , , g, p building, Apartment House, Mixed use Block, Flex Building, perimeter Block. A building that occupies the full Frontage, leaving the rear of the Lot as the sole yard. This is a very urban type as the continuous Facade steadily defines the public Thoroughfare. The rear Elevations may be articulated for functional purposes. In its Residential form, this type is the Rowhouse. For its Commercial form, the rear yard can accommodate substantial parking.

T4 T5 T6

d. Forecourt: a Frontage wherein a portion of the Facade is close to the Frontage Line and the central portion is set back. The Forecourt created is suitable for vehicular drop-offs. This type should be allocated in conjunction with other Frontage types. Large trees within the Forecourts may overhang the Sidewalks.

e. Stoop: a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line with the first Story elevated from the Sidewalk sufficiently to secure privacy for the windows. The entrance is usually an exterior stair and landing. This type is recommended for ground-floor Residential use.

T5 T6

f. Shopfront: a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage Line with the building entrance at Sidewalk grade. This type is conventional for Retail use. It has a substantial glazing on the Sidewalk level and an awning that may overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of the Curb. Syn: Retail Frontage.

T2 T3

T4

T5
Lot R.O.W. Max. height Lot R.O.W. Max. height
N 4 3 2 1

g. Gallery: a Frontage wherein the Facade is aligned close to the Frontage line with an attached cantilevered shed or a lightweight colonnade overlapping the Sidewalk. This type is conventional for Retail use. The Gallery shall be no less than 10 feet wide and should overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of the Curb.

Lot

R.O.W.

e. Specialized: A building that is not subject to categorization. Buildings dedicated to manufacturing and transportation are often distorted by the trajectories of machinery. Civic buildings, which may express the aspirations of institutions, may be included.

SD

Max. height
2 1

N 2 1

h. Arcade: a colonnade supporting habitable space that overlaps the Sidewalk, while the Facade at Sidewalk level remains at or behind the Frontage Line. This type is conventional for Retail use. The Arcade shall be no less than 12 feet wide and should overlap the Sidewalk to within 2 feet of the Curb. See Table 8.

Expression Line

FIGURE 7: SMARTCODE BUILDING CONFIGURATION, STORIES AND SETBACKS.

FIGURE 8: SMARTCODE BUILDING DISPOSITION

FIGURE 9: SMARTCODE PRIVATE FRONTAGES

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KIGALI S UB AREA PLANN IN G

N EXT STE P S
The Plans contained in this report and supporting engineering documentation are complex and multi-faceted visions: an essential first step towards developing the Sub Areas. However, physical plans require a variety of additional steps that will ensure their implementation through the many years of the development process. Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks. The plans will likely succeed only if the correct institutional and policy frameworks are also adopted, such as Planning Boards and/ or Commissions and Development Codes with the power to guide the implementation process. If City leaders insist on adherence to the Plans in the very beginning, the development community will expect this in the future. If the first few steps of the Plans are ignored in the short run, however, it is likely that potential partners will ignore the plans and they will become *very expensive door stoppers” (in the words of a respected member of the OZ Team.) Contextual Planning. In addition to the important regulatory structures noted above, additional city-wide planning must be undertaken to provide a context for the backbone structures of the Sub Area Plans, such as infrastructure and open space rights of way, municipal financing tools and important general development and infrastructure policies. Below, a preliminary list of “next steps” is outlined. The order of the list establishes some prioritization of steps, although their sequencing should also reflect ordered use of the municipal Capital Improvements Plan decision-making process.

I N T R O D U C T I O N
KIG A L I S U B A RE A P L A N N I N G

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Schematic design with grading, rain gardens, plant palettes: develop a series of typical ‘details’ for sustainable storm water management concepts for each of the greenways and parks Land is appropriately identified and reserved for future growth Schematic design would integrate grading, areas for sport fields and plazas on slopes

P O L IC Y P L A N N IN G
Energy: Establish Sustainable Energy Policy • Establish Energy Board to develop policy • Link land planning to energy supply planning across sectors/ministries • Link power supply policies to land development/building code policies to reduce demand. Explore smart-grid options to increase supply • Promote sustainable means for local power generation, hydro electric power generation, wind etc. Drainage: Establish drainage regulations and enforcement, construction of storm water design guidelines, erosion contols. Water: Establish water rates, policies on reuse and rainwater harvesting. Wastewater. Establish policies for direct discharge of sewage, reuse for treated effluent for subsistence farming, graywater/ blackwater use and separation. Municipal Financing. Public / Private Infrastructure responsibility policy and strategies. • Formulate City or national policy on how fair share is to be calculated. • Consult with development community and other stakeholders on how fair share should be assessed and infrastructure implemented. • Legal and Ownership Mechanisms. Work with parallel agencies (MININFRA, Housing Banks, National Land Center, etc.) to establish legal mechanisms for cooperative ownership of residential projects and participation by existing residents/landowners in development projects. • Public and Community Process. Develop public communication strategies to promote water and energy efficiency, public transportation, drainage and erosion best practices and other Sustainable Urbanist best practices. Target both developers and citizens in different educational materials

City Wide Water. City wide water supply, treatment and storage plan (including Muhazi dam source)

Update master plans to establish operational pressure zones that work and can provide some redundancy

City wide ETZ system design and land acquisition plan City Wide Sanitation: Overall Sewer Treatment Plant (System) Plan • Connectivity (ie. relationship between Kinyinya, Gisozi and Batsinda Treatment Systems

City Wide Signage Plan and Ordinance. General design guidelines for City with recommendations for detailed guidelines for Sub Areas. District Master Plans. For Gasabo, Nyarugenge, Kicukiro and Bugesera Districts. Sub Area Phase 1. Detailed Urban Design and Infrastructure Construction Documents for Sub Area projects to enable Platting and Surveying for land sales and for construction on Phase 1 neighborhood infrastructure projects. • Could be done in collaboration with Kigali A & E firms • Sub Area vertical infrastructure right-of-way design • Sub Area detailed Design Guidelines for sites as noted in site-specific chapters • Sub Area Signage and Way finding Plans • Establish legal and procedural policy for relocation and/ or participation of existing land owners/residents in land development. All existing residents who are expropriated should be provided with options in Phase I.

Institutional. Establish Planning and Site Plan Review Institutional Framework. • Develop and adopt Subdivision and Site Plan Review process • Establish Planning Review Board/Commission. • Consider establishment of local review and participation boards on a Sub Area or Neighborhood level as part of de-centralization program. Ongoing review to support municipal/district level Review Board/Commission. • Form department and designate staff for site plan review • Train staff (working side by side through first 5 projects) on how to use the plan to coordinate, budget and prioritize infrastructure decisions. How to amend the plan. Work in tandem or in advisory role. • Train staff to use infrastructure cost spreadsheets to review, prioritize, approve and amend Capital Improvements Plans per Sub Area Project. • Develop a single 3d model to use for visioning and in dayto-day project reviews. • Market Sub Area Projects: • Promote developer access and exposure to Sub Area Plans (work together with Rwanda Development Board and other stakeholders • Design build tenders or competitions for high priority public projects • Instigate land acquisition for infrastructure and Greenway rights of ways (working with National Land Center) Municipal Financing. Implement City or national legal structure that will allow for assessments or exactions to fund fair share of infrastructure. • Structure will likely need to apply to more than the Sub Area sites. Determine whether it should apply to Kigali, all urban areas, or nationwide • Vet and refine infrastructure and development plans to more closely model the relationship between infrastructure and development • Implement impact fee or other structure, either Citywide or nationally, as backstop for infrastructure financing. • If a general program is infeasible, consider a pilot program using the data developed in our study • Formulate alternatives to impact fees, such as financing mechanisms (government sponsored funding, financing districts, etc.). I NTRODU C TI ON 1-7

PHYSICAL PLA N NIN G
City Wide Transportation Corridor Plan

• • •

Including arterials and potential light rail corridors Including station locations, parking strategies, bicycles routes and parking Incorporation of railroad and new airport into overall analysis

Integrated Green Belts and Drainage/Storm Water System Plan • Integrate planning for two elements simultaneously

IMP L E ME N TAT IO N
Legal/Code. Write and approve land development ordinance for Sub Areas and similar sites (SmartCode).

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