This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Hydrogen as a Fuel?
BY SARIN TULADHAR (080038892)
M.SC AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
PROJECT SUPERVISED BY: DR. ROBERT C. EDNEY
SUBMITTED TO SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
The issue of global warming and depletion of the fossil fuel resources has always demanded an invention of a clean and renewable fuel. At current time, due to global recession, the petroleum prices have soared in the air. The prices of the petroleum products have stabilized a bit but its uncertain when it will rise again. Hydrogen has always presented itself as a clean and renewable fuel. In the current time with the ability of hydrogen to power a fuel cell as well as burn in an internal combustion engine, it has certainly outnumbered its competitors. However there are many challenges that hydrogen as a fuel faces. This report has been written in an attempt to address those problems and give a scenario about the present situation of Hydrogen.
I would like to thank Dr. Sandra Godoy, Course Director, Automotive Engineering, City University and Dr. Robert Edney, Senior Professor, Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering for giving me an opportunity to write this report.
Abstract .................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgement ................................................................................................... 3 List of Symbols and Abbreviations ........................................................................... 5 1. Introduction ...................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Background ...................................................................................... 6 1.2 Scope of work .................................................................................. 7 1.3 Objectives ........................................................................................ 7 1.4 Methodology ................................................................................... 7 1.5 Limitations ....................................................................................... 8 2. Hydrogen ........................................................................................................... 9 2.1 Physical properties of Hydrogen...................................................... 9 2.2 Method of use of Hydrogen ............................................................ 9 2.2.1 Fuel cell .......................................................................... 10 2.2.2 Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine.......................... 11 2.3 Advantageous properties of Hydrogen ......................................... 11 2.4 Incentives and drawbacks.............................................................. 12 2.5 Superiority of Hydrogen over other alternatives .......................... 12 2.6 Hydrogen production..................................................................... 13 3. Literature review ............................................................................................. 15 3.1 History............................................................................................ 15 3.2 Converted vehicles ........................................................................ 20 3.3 Initiatives in the EU ........................................................................ 21 4. Recent challenges ........................................................................................... 24 4.1 Recent challenges for hydrogen storage technologies ................. 24 4.2 The issue of production of clean hydrogen ................................... 27 4.3 Issues related with FCVs ................................................................ 27 4.4 Issues related with HICEV .............................................................. 31 4.5 Hydrogen Infrastructure Requirement .......................................... 33 4.6 Issues affecting the acceptance of hydrogen fuel ......................... 34 4.7 Economic feasibility of Hydrogen as a fuel .................................... 35 5. 6. 7. 8. Discussion ........................................................................................................ 39 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 42 References....................................................................................................... 43 Glossary ........................................................................................................... 46
LIST OF SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS
ICE: FCV: H2ICE: H2FC: HICEV: CO : CO2: NOX: SOX: HC: Hf: Hv: HHV: LHV: PEM: LPG: RON: ETEC: EU : CUTE: LH2: CGH2: REE: GHG: F: λ: Internal Combustion Engine Fuel Cell Vehicle Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of Sulphur Hydrocarbon Heat of Fusion Heat of Vapourisation Higher Heating Value Lower Heating Value Proton Exchange Membrane Liquefied Petroleum Gas Research Octane Number Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation European Union Clean Urban Transport for Europe Liquid Hydrogen Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen Rare-earth-elements Green House Gas Equivalence fuel air ratio Equivalence air fuel ratio
Ever since the development of the Internal Combustion Engine more than a hundred years ago, IC engine vehicles, both 2 wheelers and 4 wheelers, have been part of our lives. These vehicles have made locomotion very easy and luxurious. Fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas are used to power these vehicles. The ever advancing technological society has always been researching new technologies to make the IC engines more and more efficient. However at present situation there are some issues related to these IC engines, particularly about the use of fossil fuels. One of the issues is the fact that combustion products of these fossil fuels, such as Carbon Monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of sulphur (SOx), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbon (HC), and toxic metals have been causing many environmental problems and posing great danger for the world. A very likely solution to this problem seems to be obvious: replace the fossil fuel by some an alternative clean energy whose combustion would not produce these harmful compounds, even though these could impose some design modifications [1,2]. Another major issue is the availability of fossil fuels itself. It is predicted that, since fossil fuels are not a renewable source of energy, it will extinct in the near future, within the next 40 years, and with the number of vehicles increasing day by day the extinction may be even closer. These issues have put forward a need of a renewable source of energy and one that is cleaner as well. Many researches have been ongoing from the time scientists realised this fact, about the invention or discovery of such a fuel that would be clean, renewable and yet would not be much of a compromise in terms of energy density as compared to petroleum product. Hence, alternative fuel research becomes the main purpose nowadays.
There are many possible alternatives to the fossil fuels, but as researches have progressed hydrogen has seemed to be the best alternative for the distant future.
1.2 Scope of work
Owing to the fact that scientists and researchers have always been discovering clean and renewable alternatives for petroleum products, this paper tends to present the recent developments happening throughout the world regarding hydrogen as an automotive fuel.
The objectives of this project are to: Explore the possibilities of Hydrogen as an alternative source of energy for vehicles. Analyse if the use of hydrogen as a fuel, if applicable, is more suitable in fuel cells or Hydrogen Combustion Engine.
While carrying out the project, the following methodology was followed. Study of the History and development of Hydrogen powered vehicles. Study of the characteristics of Hydrogen and which of them makes it advantageous or disadvantageous as compared to gasoline vehicles. Study of the different problems occurred in implementing hydrogen technology Study of the latest technologies that had been implemented in making hydrogen fuelled vehicles. Study of both hydrogen internal combustion engine and Hydrogen Fuel Cell
The research will not include The study of hydrogen as fuel for other than automobiles, ie Fuel cell Power Plant. This project does not involve the study of Stationary Fuel cells. The study does not include the use of Application of Hydrogen Combustion Engine in Automobiles.
Hydrogen is the lightest element known to exist in the Universe. It is also the most abundant material. It comprises of more than 75% of the earth’s atmosphere. It can serve as a practically carbon-free, renewable energy based lightweight alternative fuel. The use of hydrogen as a fuel could be an answer to some of the issues such as availability, high specific energy content and minimum pollution.
2.1 Physical properties of Hydrogen
Melting Point: Boiling Point: Density : Liquid: Gas: Diffusion Coefficient in Air: Flammability Concentration in air: Ignition Energy in Air: Auto-ignition Temperature: Flame Temperature in Air: -259.340C -252.870C 70.99 kg/m3 0.08987 kg/m3 0.610 cm2/s 4.1 – 72.5 % vol 0.02 mJ 5300C 20450C 14.89 J/kg Hf = 58.61 kJ/kg Hv = 447.99 kJ/kg Higher and Lower Heating Values; HHV=141.79 MJ/kg=39.39 Wh/kg
Specific Heat at constant Temperature: Heat of Fusion and Vaporization :
LHV = 119.96 MJ/kg = 33.39 kWh/kg
2.2 Method of use of Hydrogen
Hydrogen has been used as a fuel to power the vehicle in 2 different ways: (1) Hydrogen Fuel Cell (2) Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
2.2.1 Fuel cell
A fuel cell is an electrochemical conversion device. It produces electricity from Hydrogen (Fuel, on the anode side) and an oxygen (oxidant, on the cathode side), which react in the presence of an electrolyte. The reactants flow into the cell, and the reaction products flow out of it, while the electrolyte remains within it. Fuel cells can operate virtually continuously as long as the necessary flows are maintained. There are many types of fuel cell but for locomotive purposes, for use in vehicles, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are suitable. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell consists of two electrodes, the anode and the cathode, separated by a polymer exchange membrane. Each of the electrodes is coated on one side with a thin platinum catalyst layer. Hydrogen atom dissociates into free electrons and protons (positive hydrogen ions) in the presence of the platinum catalyst at the anode. The free electrons are conducted in the form of usable electric current through the external circuit. The protons migrate through the membrane electrolyte to the cathode. At the cathode, oxygen from air, electrons from the external circuit and protons combine to form pure water and heat. Individual fuel cells produce only about 0.6 Volt and are combined into a fuel cell stack to provide the amount of electrical power required.
Figure 1: Schematic of a Fuel Cell
Error! Reference source not found.shows the schematic diagram of a fuel cell
vehicle which uses a fuel cell system in place of a rechargeable storage battery.
2.2.2 Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
A hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle (HICEV) is a hydrogen or oxy-hydrogen fuelled, internal combustion engine powered vehicle. Hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles are different from hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The HICEV is a slightly modified version of the traditional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle. These engines burn fuel in the same manner as gasoline engines do. The advantage of HICEV over conventional ICE lies in the burning of hydrogen. Since hydrogen is totally carbon-free, its combustion eliminates the formation of all the pollutants produced by petroleum fuel combustion. The only pollutant that comes out is NOx which is formed by the thermal dissociation and oxidation of N2 in the atmosphere. Also the fact that hydrogen burns over a wide range of concentrations  gives a plus point to HICEVs. Due to this property of hydrogen, engines could run on ultra-lean fuel-air mixtures.
2.3 Advantageous properties of Hydrogen
It is a renewable source of energy. It is the most abundant element on the earth. It comprises more that 75 % of the earth’s atmosphere. However it does not occur in Free State. One common source of hydrogen, water, contains 11.2% Hydrogen by weight When Hydrogen is burnt, the only emission theoretically obtained is pure Water. 𝐻2 𝑔 +
1 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝑂
𝑔 2 2 𝐻
2 𝑂 𝑙 + 286 𝑘𝐽
Hydrogen will burn in air with a wide range of concentrations between 4.1% and 72.5% by volume.
During Explosions, Hydrogen is safer than Hydrocarbon Fuels. Hydrogen disperses much quicker into the atmosphere, whereas liquid fuels spread on level surfaces and burn much longer. Although Hydrogen is very flammable, quick dispersion makes it rare for hydrogen to reach combustion concentrations outdoors or in wellventilated indoor spaces.
Energy content per unit mass of Hydrogen (141.79 MJ/kg) is 3 times more than that of Gasoline (46.4 MJ/kg). However the Energy content per unit volume is low (Hydrogen-10.1 MJ/L; Gasoline- 34.2 MJ/L)
Lower ignition energy: 0.02MJ/kg
2.4 Incentives and drawbacks
The major incentive for the promotion of hydrogen as a fuel is the issue of the extinction of fossil fuels in the near future. Since hydrogen is renewable and can be produced by different methods (fossil fuels, renewable energy: biomass, wind, solar , nuclear power); variety of methods to produce energy from hydrogen (gas turbine, Internal Combustion Engine, Fuel Cell) and the fact that it emits virtually zero harmful emissions and has a potentially high efficiency at the time of use. Also acting as incentives to Hydrogen are the increasing fuel prices of the fossil fuel mainly due to global recession and the issues of global warming and local pollution with the fossil fuel. Although the density is better than batteries, its very low compared to gasoline fuels, even when compressed to 700 bar or liquefied, both of which consumes a lot of energy. The distribution, bulk storage and onboard vehicle storage is heavily compromised because of the difficulty in storing hydrogen without leakage.
2.5 Superiority of Hydrogen over other alternatives
Compared to bio-fuel, a recent study  shows that the yield of final fuel per hectare of land for different biomass derived fuels is much lesser
than the yield if the land was used to produce hydrogen from photovoltaic or wind power. Compared to electricity, hydrogen is advantageous in terms of volumetric and gravimetric energy storage density. The main superiority of hydrogen over other alternatives lies in the fact that hydrogen can be used to power a fuel cell and can as well be a fuel for Internal Combustion Engine.
2.6 Hydrogen production
Hydrogen can be produced in a number of ways from a number of products. This has been one of the major positive points of hydrogen. However hydrogen is rarely found in a free state in the nature so it has to be synthesized from other products. Hydrogen can be produced via the steam reforming of either natural gas (2), LPG (3) or Naphtha (4) . 𝐶𝐻4 + 2𝐻2 𝑂 𝐶3 𝐻8 + 6𝐻2 𝑂 𝐶𝑛 𝐻2𝑛 + 2𝑛𝐻2 𝑂 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝐶𝑂
2 + 4𝐻2 -------------- (2) 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠
3𝐶𝑂2 + 10𝐻2 -------------- (3) 𝑛𝐶𝑂2 + 3𝑛𝐻2 ----------------- (4)
>700 𝑜 𝐶
Hydrogen can also be produced via the steam reforming of both ethanol (5) and methanol (6). 𝐶2 𝐻5 𝑂𝐻 + 2𝐻2 𝑂 𝐶𝐻3 𝑂𝐻 + 𝐻2 𝑂
2𝐶𝑂2 + 6𝐻2 ----------------- (5) 𝐶𝑂2 + 3𝐻2 ----------------- (6)
Hydrogen can also be produced by the steam reforming of methane (7) in presence of Nickel catalyst at around 1100oC. 𝐶𝐻4 + 𝐻2 𝑂 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝐶𝑂
2 + 3𝐻2 --------------------- (7)
Steam reduction is hence the most commercial method to produce hydrogen from various forms of hydrocarbon. It is a well-developed and fully commercialized process. In this process, high temperature steam (>700oC) is used to crack the C-H bond of the hydrocarbon in the presence of a suitable catalyst. However in case of methanol, the temperature is in the range of 500-600 K. Hydrogen can also be produced without the use of hydrocarbon as a primary source, i.e. via the electrolysis of water (8) 𝐶𝑎𝑡ℎ𝑜𝑑𝑒 2𝑂𝐻 − 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝐻
2 𝑂 +
1 2 𝑂
2 + 2𝑒 − ---------------------------- (8) 𝐴𝑛𝑜𝑑𝑒
2𝐻2 𝑂 + 2𝑒 − 𝑦𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝐻
2 + 2𝑂𝐻 −
Apart from these, hydrogen can also be produced by the gasification of coal and biomass. The method of gasification of coal is extensively used in the chemical industry. The process of production of hydrogen from renewable resources goes through the electrolysis of water. Renewable sources as wind, solar and even nuclear power are used to produce electricity which in terms is used to electrolyse water, hence producing hydrogen.
3. LITERATURE REVIEW
The history of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine is as old as the internal combustion engine itself. It dates back to 1807 when Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland invented an internal combustion engine which ran on a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. The significant events during the evolution of Hydrogen Vehicles are discussed in detail below . Issac de Rivaz In 1807 Francois Isaac de Rivaz of Switzerland designed the first internal combustion engine that ran inside the first automobile. This first experimental prototype was powered by hydrogen gas and oxygen. The Rivaz car stored compressed hydrogen gas in a balloon and it had an electrical Volta cell ignition. The prototype was made in 1813 which was 6 m long and weighed almost a ton. During its test drive, it drove about 100 meters, with 25 ignitions in series, all hand triggered. Lenoir’s Hippomobile: Invented by Etienne Lenoir (France) in 1860, the vehicle was gas driven 2 stroke
Figure 3: Lenoir's Hippomobile (1860); source  Figure 2: First Hydrogen Powered vehicle in 1807; source 
Internal Combustion Engine with 1 cylinder. It was powered by Hydrogen, generated from water via electrolysis, and running the hydrogen through a
small horizontal engine. The Hippomobile engine ran on “natural cycles” with an uptake of fuel mixture and a down stroke combusting the exhaust stroke. It had its test drive in 1863 from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont in which its top speed was about 3 km/hr.
Norsk Hydro (1933) In 1933, the Norsk Hydro power company converted one of their small trucks to run on hydrogen gas. The Norsk
Figure 4: The Norsk Hydro Truck; source: 
Hydro truck contained an onboard ammonia reformer to extract hydrogen and run it through its internal combustion engine.
GAZ-AA During World war-II, Russian military technician Boris Shelishch converted 200 GAZAA Internal Combustion Engine Trucks to run on Hydrogen gas. They burnt cleaner and longer than those that had run on petrol. These trucks weighed 1.5 tons and had a seating capacity of 3. Allis-Chalmers farm tractor The 1959 Allis-Chalmers farm tractor, developed by Harry Karl Ihrig was demonstrated in Milwaukee as the first fuel cell vehicle in history. The tractor contained 1,008 small alkaline
Figure 6: Allis-Chalmers farm tractor, 1959; Source  Figure 5: Converted GAZ-AA Trucks; Source 
fuel cells that provided 15 kw of energy, enough to help the tractor pull 3,000 lbs. in demonstrations. General Motors Electrovan The 1967 General Motors Electrovan was based on the 1966 GMC Handivan and carried all of the fuel cell parts and hydrogen storage tanks in the back of the van. It was a 2 passenger van and used liquid hydrogen stored in LH2 tank. The 1966 GM Electrovan was powered by a 5 KW Union Carbide fuel cell and the vehicle had a range of 200 km, though it was only driven on company property. It had top speed of 105 km/hr. The fuel cell life was only 1000 hrs. Air Products concept: In 1967, Air Products converted a ‘Chevrolet El Camino’ to a hydrogen powered Internal Combustion Engine. The vehicle had 7 pressure tanks for hydrogen and 1 propane tank as a backup. The range of this vehicle was 50 miles. K. Kordesch: In 1970 Karl Kordesch converted an Austin A 40, a passenger city car with a seating capacity of 4, to a fuel cell hybrid using 7 lead acid batteries and a 6KW Union Carbide alkaline Fuel cell powered by compressed hydrogen gas. It had a DC-series motor with 7.5kW continuous and 20 kW peak power. The efficiency was 58%. It used compressed hydrogen stored in 6 pressurized tanks (130-150 bar) containing 20 – 25 m3 of fuel, on the roof of the car. Its range was 300 km, average speed of 45 km/h, top speed 80 km/h. Brigham Young Superbeetle In 1972, the Brigham Young Superbeetle, developed by Roger Billings team, won the first prize in the Urban Vehicle design competition in Ann Arbor, Michigan. it was powered by Hydrogen and used water induction method to reduce nitric oxide formation. This car actually cleaned the
ambient air and was given a negative number for unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide. The MASHASHI’S In 1974, The Mashashi Institute of Technology, Tokyo created the first Japanese Hydrogen Fuelled vehicle. It used a 4 stroke homogenous charge spark ignition engine with high pressure hydrogen to power the vehicle. Hydrogen was stored in a high pressure tank. A year later they revealed Mashashi-2, a passenger car, with a four stroke engine with manifold injection and ran on liquid hydrogen. It completed the 2800 km SEED rally in the USA. In 1977, Mashashi-3 was made which was a 2 door passenger car. It used a light weight 2 stroke spark ignition engine with in-cylinder low pressure injection which ran on liquid hydrogen. In 1980, Mashashi-4 was exhibited at the WHEC-3 (World Hydrogen Energy Conference), Tokyo. The mashashi-4 was a 2-stroke passenger car which ran on liquid hydrogen. In 1982, at WHEC-4, Pasadena, USA, Mashashi-5 was exhibited. It was a 2 –stroke engine with in-cylinder high pressure injection and used liquid hydrogen. In 1984, at WHEC-5, Toronto, Mashashi-6 was exhibited. It was also a passenger car but a 4-stroke turbocharged spark ignition engine with in-cylinder high pressure injection and hot surface ignition. It was also run on liquid hydrogen. In 1986, Mashashi-7 was exhibited at the Vancouver Transportation Exposition. It was a 4-cylinder turbo charged Pickup Truck with in-cylinder high pressure infection and hot surface ignition running on liquid hydrogen. In 1990, Mashashi-8 was exhibited at the WHEC-8, Honolulu. The vehicle was a passenger car similar to that of a Nissan Z 300. It was also a 4-stroke spark ignition in-cylinder injection engine running on liquid hydrogen. In 1994, Mashushi-9, truck, was launched. It was a 4-stroke spark ignition in-cylinder high pressure injection engine which ran on liquid hydrogen.
H2-4 Chevy In 1978, Jack Nicolson modified a Chevrolet into a Hydrogen Fuelled internal combustion engine powered by gaseous hydrogen gas. The hydrogen was stored as Metal Hydride in tank. RAF-H2 In 1979, Federal State Unitary Enterprise of Russia unveiled its Kvant-RAF (Riga Bus Plant) H2 van that contained a 12 kW alkaline fuel cell and ran on hydrogen BMW: The BMW stepped into the experimentation of Hydrogen vehicle in 1978 when it made a experimental prototype of its BMW 7 series. 4 prototypes were presented around 1978, 1984, 1990, and 1996. These passenger cars were internal combustion engine with direct injection, 3.5 l engine capacity, bivalent with gasoline. It was fuelled by liquid hydrogen stored in a special isolated tank (Al + glass fibre) with volume of 45 l (1987), 100l (1989), 120 l (1992). It tanks were double-walled, vacuum-super isolated vessel in cylindrical form, with aluminium and glass fibre layers, transient shield, and maximum evaporation rate of 2% per day. The range of these cars was 300 km. A year later, in 1979, BMW converted its BMW-5 series car into a hydrogen internal combustion engine. It was named BMW 520h. The engine and the storage tank were similar to the BMW 7 series. The BMW has unleashed its latest Hydrogen Vehicle named BMW Hydrogen 7. The vehicle is based on a previous model of BMW; i.e BMW 760Li with 6.0L V12 engine. The vehicle runs on liquid hydrogen which is stored in a vacuum insulated cryogenic tank placed behind the rear seats. The tank has a volume of 170 litres and can store approximately 8kg of liquid hydrogen which is equivalent to around 8 gallons of gasoline in terms of energy .
Honda: Honda Methanol FCX concept, 1999: A sedan with a seating capacity of 5.;A PEM fuel cell with methanol as a fuel along with reformer to synthesise hydrogen from it. Honda FCX V1 prototype, 1999: EV plus vehicle with a seating capacity of 2; Ballard 60kW PEM fuel cell, 49 kW AC synchronous motor; hydrogen is stored in a metal hydride. Honda FCX V2 prototype, 1999:EV plus vehicle with a seating capacity of 2; also 60kW PEM fuel cell; but uses methanol as a fuel which is then converted to hydrogen. Honda FCX V3,2000: EV plus vehicle with a seating capacity of 4; 70 kW PEM Fuel cell; 60 kW motor delivering 238 Nm torque; uses pressurized hydrogen as fuel at a pressure of 25 MPa; storage capacity 100 l, 2 kg Honda FCX V4 demonstration vehicle, 2001: Honda family car with a seating capacity of 4; curb weight-1740 kg; powered by PEM fuel cell ballard- 78kW and an ultra capacitor; fuel used compressed hydrogen gas at a pressure of 35 MPa,; storage tank of 130 litres; range 300 km; top speed 140kmph, torque 238 Nm Honda FCX, 2003: 5 seater passenger car: Honda fuel cell, ultra capacitor 80kW (107hp) Motor; Max. drive 272 Nm (201 lb-ft) Type Permanent Magnet AC synchronous Fuel cell stack Type PEMFC (2 units) (Proton exchange membrane fuel cell) Output 86kW : fuel compressed hydrogen at 35 MPa and a storage capacity of 157 l.
3.2 Converted vehicles
A conversion vehicle is a one which has been adapted for hydrogen operation by either a vehicle manufacturer or an aftermarket supplier. As cited above, the history of conversion vehicles began in 1933 with Norsk
Hydro. A recent example of a converted vehicle with compressed hydrogen storage is the ETEC H2ICE Truck Conversion based on a Chevrolet/ GMC Truck Silverado/ Sierra 1500HD Crew Cab 2WD LS converted to hydrogen operation by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. It is a 6 seated light-duty pickup truck powered by a 6.0 L V8engine with hydrogen port fuel injection. The power output of the engine is increased further by a belt-driven supercharger in combination with an intercooler. Hydrogen is stored in 3 150 L, Type 3 (aluminium lined, carbon-fiber reinforced) tanks at a storage pressure of up to 350 bar, resulting in usable fuel of approximately 10.5kg. the estimated curb weight of the vehicle is 3000 kg . A performance, emissions and fuel economy study of the vehicle at various air fuel ratios ( 2<λ<2.85) showed a fuel consumption between 4.1 and 4,5 kg of hydrogen per 100 km which is equivalent of using 15.5 - 17L of gasoline per 100 km (13.8 – 15.2 mpg). The NOx levels were also found to be in the range of Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) and Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) . Over 30 vehicles have been converted by Quantum Tecstar to be fuelled by hydrogen using the Toyota Prius hybrid as a platform. The interior of the vehicle is unchanged and the conventional gasoline tank is replaced by two compressed hydrogen tanks. These converted engines are turbocharged in order to increase the power output in hydrogen operation. The drivability of the vehicle is similar as in the gasoline mode. However the Quantum Hydrogen Prius, as it is known, has an estimated range limited to 100 -130 km per fill and it meets the SULEV standards  3.3 Initiatives in the EU Throughout the recent years where the world has been putting all its effort in bringing into reality the era when most of the automotives would be fuelled by hydrogen, the EU has not been too far in funding such projects for the same cause. During 2002-2006, numerous projects regarding fuel cell and hydrogen has been implemented and funded by the EU . A project among those was titled “Optimisation of hydrogen
powered Internal Combustion Engines” . The project was another effort by the European Researchers in improving the field of production and marketing of corresponding components and systems required for new advanced hydrogen technologies. It was a 3 year European Integrated Project aimed at contributing to the development of clean and economical hydrogen fuelled automotive engine. The goal of this project was to design an engine concept that has the potential to beat both gasoline and diesel engines with respect to power density and efficiency at reasonable costs. The project emphasizes on the development of a design which could use hydrogen as a fuel in Internal Combustion Engine and if possible rapid integration of these engine technologies into mass market vehicles. Another one of those projects was “Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle System Component Development” . The project addressed issues associated with the low cost automotive electrical turbochargers for air supply with high efficiency and high dynamics; low cost humidifiers with high packaging density; low cost hydrogen sensors for automotive use; effective low cost hydrogen supply line; High efficient, high power density drive train; Low cost high power Li-ion batteries; Enhanced FC-drive train efficiency. The duration of the project was 4 years and at the end of the project the scientists aim to develop FC-hybrid vehicles with primary focus on FC and electric propulsion system components which would act as a prototype and a leading way for future European Research on Fuel cell vehicles. There also have been a number of projects related to hydrogen production and distribution, storage, safety regulations . Even though these projects are not directly associated with automotive application of hydrogen, the implementation of such a project is as important for ‘Hydrogen Vehicle’ as other issues. Owning to the fact that hydrogen has to be produced somewhere else and hydrogen refuelling stations should be as convenient and easy as the petroleum stations today for the ‘Hydrogen Economy’ to mature, advances in cheap hydrogen production;
economic hydrogen storage; easy distribution system for hydrogen needs to mature as well. The CUTE project and the HyFleet: CUTE project In November 2001, a project was implemented aimed at providing pollution free public transport in the busiest cities of Europe. The project was given a name CUTE (Clean Urban Transport for Europe). The project was to prove the reliability of the fuel cell buses and their hydrogen supply . The CUTE Project ran 27 fuel cell buses in 9 different (busy) cities of Europe, three per site, to test the operating efficiency of fuel cell buses at different topography, climate and traffic. The nine cities were Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Barcelona (Spain), Hamburg (Germany), London (England), Luxembourg, Madrid (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Stuttgart (Germany), and Stockholm (Sweden). CUTE was the first project to aim at the establishment of Hydrogen Infrastructure. The project comprised of two phase: from November 2001 to end of 2003 design and construction of the vehicle was in progress and the required infrastructure for it was provided. From then the buses were plied on the streets of the cities till May 2006. After the end of the project CUTE, a new initiation was done with the same aim, this time in a bit larger scale. 47 buses running on Hydrogen Fuel Cell and on Hydrogen Combustion Engine were brought to streets of 10 different cities in 3 Continents: viz, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The 10 cities are Reykjavik (Iceland), Berlin, Hamburg (Germany), Luxembourg, London (England), Barcelona, Madrid (Spain), Amsterdam (The Netherlands), Beijing (China) and Perth (Southern Australia). Among these 14 hydrogen combustion engine buses run on the roads of Berlin and the rest 33 Fuel Cell buses run in other 9 cities.
4. RECENT CHALLENGES
4.1 Recent challenges for hydrogen storage technologies
One of the major problems with using hydrogen gas as fuel in vehicles is that the density of hydrogen is very low. Because of this the amount of hydrogen that can be stored in tank is limited. Also for the same volume, hydrogen gives only one tenth the energy of gasoline. In case the use of hydrogen vehicles has to be made greater, improvements need to be made in the hydrogen storing capabilities. The technologies available at present such as liquid hydrogen tanks and high pressure tanks might be used for road tests but they do not have all the necessary properties to make hydrogen vehicles a huge success. In a recent paper , the state of traditional hydrogen storage technologies like high pressure tank systems and cryogenic storage methods has been presented. Most of the commercial vehicles that are being tested have a composite high pressure storage tank. They are preferred because they have a simple structure and the charging and discharging function is carried out relatively easily. Another possible method would be using hydrogen absorbing alloy but has several problems before implementation such as low temperature discharge characteristics and quick charge capability because of heat of reaction. A new idea was also tested  which would help reduce some problems and also improve factors such as gravimetric density. The present Hydrogen tank systems: High-pressure tank system High pressure tanks can be categorized into 4 types. The first 2 typesV1 and V2 are used to store natural gas where the pressure is normally around 20-25 MPa. The next 2 types V3 and V4 where the pressure is higher at around 35 MPa is used to store compressed hydrogen. The use of these tanks gives simple shade and design. Recently there has been a trend in the market to move to 70 MPa tanks in need to extend the vehicle range. But double pressure has not been able to store twice as much hydrogen; it only stores 40-50% more.
Figure 7: Wall thickness of different types of tanks,Source 
Liquid hydrogen tank Hydrogen is liquefied when it is cooled down to 20 K (-253pC) at atmospheric pressure. At `liquid stage its density is much higher than in the gaseous form (mentioned above in the section Physical properties of Hydrogen). Hence liquid Hydrogen (LH2) becomes a more viable option as a fuel for automobile in terms of storing large amount of energy and hence improving the range of the vehicle. Also LH2 becomes much easier to transport with respect to CGH2. Although the liquefaction of hydrogen consumes a lot of energy, this expense of energy can be compensated by the easiness of delivery and storage with respect to CGH2. The liquid hydrogen tank has a double wall construction to maintain the ultra low temperature with thermal insulation provided. The thermal insulation along with the multi-layer insulation (MLI) helps in minimising the heat conductivity. MLI has a thin metal on the spacer material to prevent radiation and thermal irradiance between the layers and also prevents heat intrusion from irradiation and gaseous convection.
Figure 8: Liquid Hydrogen Tank System, Source 
Hydrogen absorbing alloy tank The metal hydride tank has a characteristic of reversible hydrogen charge and discharge capability and it also offers the advantage of storing hydrogen in a more dense way than liquid hydrogen. Hence, a smaller tank than LH2 tank will allow the same amount of energy to be stored. However, since in metal hydride there is a combination of metal and hydrogen, the gravimetric density (hydrogen weight per tank weight) is low. Several materials such as Ti-V-Mn, Ti-V-Cr, Ti –V-Cr-Mn and Ti-Cr are are being used and could provide a capability up to 2.8 % H2 by mass 
Figure 9: Schematic Diagram of High Pressure MH tank, Source 
4.2 The issue of production of clean hydrogen
The issue of production of clean hydrogen has always been a major issue. However clean the FCV or HICEV may be if the production of Hydrogen involves large amount of pollution is involved, it makes little good to the issue of Global Warming and reducing GHG. At present, about 48% of world’s hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of Natural Gas, about 30% is produced by processing of Crude Oil Products such as Naphtha, around 18% via coal, and around 3% as a by-product of the Chloro-alkali process .
4.3 Issues related with FCVs
Fuel cells have developed much in the last 10 years and seem more likely to be a suitable alternative to petroleum product fuelled ICE. Yet there are still some technical and economical issues related to fuel cells that need to be resolved . Vehicle cost, performance and safety that meets customer expectations In order for the Fuel Cell vehicles to overtake the market from the existing ICE engines, the technology must be fully competitive with respect to the latter and also with other hybridised alternatives. The technology must be competitive all in terms of cost, performance and safety. As in terms of cost, there are many subsystems that need cost reduction: Fuel Cell Stack. H2 Storage system, the sensor that senses the condition of incoming H2 and air, electric drive motors, high voltage batteries for storing regenerating braking energy. Ongoing researches have been providing with new and less expensive solutions but at the moment the viability seems to be a bit further away. As for the technology itself, the fuel cell must prove to be more reliable, durable in every condition and safe. According to Waterstof , the cost to produce a fuel cell is around 3000 – 8000€/kW whereas an ICE would cost only €50/kW. It is however expected that the cost of the fuel cell will decrease to €200/kW within the
next decade . Even in the latter case the fuel cell seems to be 4 times
as expensive as an ICE. But the environmental benefits of being a Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) should also be taken into account as a positive point for fuel cells while making a comparison between ICE so that the extra costs of the fuel cell nullifies with the equivalent economic loss due to the pollution caused by the fossil fuel vehicles. For performance improvement of fuel cell and its cost reduction, technological Breakthrough technologies are needed in the following areas : Stack The PEM (Proton Exchange membrane) is the main element of the stack that permits the flow of hydrogen ion through makes the electrons to take the path of the outer circuit and hence generates electricity. Therefore PEM can be referred to as the heart of the Fuel Cell. However, it has got some technological and cost challenges. If the fuel used is only a fraction impure it might cause undesirable side reactions with the materials in the fuel cell stack. Proper inlet gas humidification level should be maintained else it would retard the performance of the fuel cell and damage it. These has been an issue with the fuel cell of having a poor start-up performance in freezing conditions. Progress has been made in addressing these issues along with the target to increase the life of the fuel cell to 6000-8000 hrs within 10 yrs (corresponding to equivalent life of gasoline and diesel engines). H2 Storage
Currently most viable storage is the Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen (CGH2). But CGH2 has a very low density and due to the packaging constraints (heavy and thick tank), it limits the storage and hence the range of the vehicle. In order to compete with the fossil fuel counterparts the Hydrogen Vehicle needs to be equivalent with the former in terms of storage capacity. With the present technology, a CGH2 tank has to be 5 times the size of a conventional gasoline tank to store equivalent amount of energy at 10,000 psi (700 bar) and if the pressure is to be reduced to 5,000 psi (350 bar) the size must be 7.5 times the former . This signifies that a breakthrough technology is needed in the design of these tanks as well as a material with higher strength to weight ratio needs to be discovered to form the wall-lining of the storage tanks. 28
Fuel cell system
The fuel cell system controls the flow of hydrogen and conditions the incoming reactant gases (hydrogen and air). It also maintains the proper level of humidification so that the PEM functions efficiently. At present the fuel cell system is a complex assembly of mechanical components and electronic controls. In future, however, with mass production of the Fuel cell systems some of the components are expected to be merged helping both in the reduction of cost and also in complexity. Electric drive motor and High Voltage (HV) battery
The future of the batteries provide very much optimism due to the extensive research taking place in order to improve existing electric and hybrid vehicles. The consequences of the researches in this field have been in the invention of batteries with a high energy density and with a faster charging rate. Platinum and Palladium
At present, Fuel cells incorporate Platinum as a catalyst at both the anode and the cathode which facilitates the dissociation of the hydrogen into ions at the cathode, and reacts the oxygen molecules with the electrons and hydrogen ions from the PEM to form water molecules. As platinum is the most expensive metal in the universe, the price of a fuel cell is bound to be high. The cost of Platinum accounts for as much as 40% of the cost of the fuel cell. Apart from being expensive platinum also has availability issues. So the use of platinum not only increases the price of fuel cell but also decreases the probability of the mass production of it. In 2001, a research paper in SAE concluded that platinum loading in the fuel cell must be reduced to 0.2g/kW to be economically viable . At present platinum loading are 0.7 g/kW which is significantly lower than fuel cells of previous generations. However to reach 0.2g/kW will take a significant time and more importantly a breakthrough technology. Material Industry Analyst Jack Lifton writes: “Hydrogen availability could make the mass production of fuel cell plants possible and the development of a substitute material for platinum could make it practical. But as long as a fuel cell of
vehicle operation capacity requires the long-term use of 1-3 troy ounces of platinum then no more than a maximum (at 1 troy ounce per vehicle) of 12 million vehicles a year could be built even if all the platinum and palladium produced yearly in the world were dedicated solely to this use.”  Research shows palladium as a replacement for platinum but both has issues relating to cost and availability as drawbacks. In March 2007, US Department of Energy Ames Laboratory Scientist Alan Russell, one of the investigators on project designed to find alternatives to Palladium quoted as, “Palladium is US$11,000 a kilogram, and even if you don’t choke at the price, there isn’t enough Palladium in the entire world to convert the world’s automobiles to hydrogen power.”  Hence palladium as a substitute for platinum does not seem to be viable options and advanced engineering materials are to be searched which has got the same properties as that of palladium and which is both readily available and cheaper. Rare earth elements
Platinum/palladium is not the only materials in the fuel cells that are rare. New efficient electric motor particularly designed for FCVs (and other electrified propulsion systems) involve the use of rare-earth-elements (REE). REE is an important element for super strong magnets used in minute and delicate mechanical components, electronic devices, nano-materials and catalytic converters. As per the current scenario, the demands for these elements are predicted to be more than their availability in the future. If this happens it would result in a negative impact in the overall system cost. In the years from 1997-2001, the demand for rare earth permanent magnets grew at 21% per year. The 2005 global production was somewhere about 103,000 – 130,000 tons, with 95 – 97% being produced in China. The average annual growth is projected at 10% for years 2005-2010. Demand projections for 2010 are 154,312 – 200,000 tons – almost double of what it was 5 years ago . If this projection holds true, the supply will fall short. Hence, the cost of the electric motor used in FCV will continue to be an unsolved issue. Manufacturing capability and efficiency 30
Fuel cell stack, fuel cell system, hydrogen storage, electric drive and high voltage battery are the major components of the FCV. Currently, since the technology is not fully reliable there are only a few manufacturers making these components. As we know that economically FCVs will be viable only if they be produced in a mass scale and for the manufacturers to produce it in mass scale the components have to be reliable and proven to be efficient and more importantly is should have a positive impact on people. For all of these to happen, it takes time so in the near future with the principles of Fuel Cells proven to be reliable and the most efficient number of manufacturers would be manufacturing it in mass, hence the prices might be reasonable then.
Supplier availability/ maturity for key systems /components
As stated above, technology must be fully proven. Only when this is the case, various manufacturers would be interested in entering the market. However, the case may be just the opposite. Even if the technology is not fully proven but the need of FCV is felt by the society, various manufacturers amateur in the field of FCV but very experienced in manufacturing field might step in enhancing the mass production of FCV which would increase the reliability and performance of FCV components and help decrease the price. Another scenario might be possible as well. New technologies evolving: possibility that completely different suppliers emerge in the market with completely different alternative technologies offering improvements in cost and/or performance.
4.4 Issues related with HICEV
There are various issues related to HICEV. HICEV would be an easy way to transform the transportation sector from petroleum to hydrogen. This is because conventional IC Engines could be converted to HICEV with negligible cost compared to FCV. HICEV would also allow the use of bi-fuel, i.e. it can run on gasoline if needed. However, HICEV needs to be viewed on by other aspects as well, i.e. well-to-wheel (cradle-to-grave) primary end use, GHG emissions, tailpipe emissions relating to local pollution, cost, public acceptance, etc which makes it difficult to differentiate between it being advantageous or disadvantageous.
Shelef and Kukkonen  made a comparison between FCV and HICEV compared to gasoline and electric vehicles on the basis of well-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions and primary energy use. They concluded that there would be a decrease in primary energy use and GHG emission with the use of FCV but HICEV would increase both. Although the study is 15 years old, the scenario for FCV and HICEV remains similar. Another recent study at Argonne National Laboratory , compared the fuel economy potential of hydrogen powertrains to conventional gasoline vehicles. The study concluded that by 2045 a HICEV hybrid-electric vehicle would only consume 9% more than a FCV hybrid, as a result of the recent and expected future significant improvements in hydrogen engine technology. Technical issues related with the HICEV are: Pre-ignition and knock: Although the auto-ignition temperature of Hydrogen is higher (858 K) , hydrogen has a low ignition energy. This means that the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine is very prone to pre-ignition, i.e. ignition occurring before the power stroke. However, knock, defined as auto-ignition of the hydrogen –air end –gas ahead of the flame front that has originated from the spark , is less likely to occur. This is due to the high auto-ignition temperature, finite ignition delay and high flame velocity of hydrogen. This results in hydrogen having higher research octane number (RON) (RON> 120 [41, 42] compared to gasoline (RON = 91 -99 ). Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) One of the main advantages of H2ICE is that it can undergo combustion in ultralean mixtures (F << 0.5). This condition is synonymous to mow temperature combustion which enables NOX reduction. However when F = 0.5 for hydrogen, the combustion starts emitting NOX. So for no or ultra low NOX production in an hydrogen engine, the equivalence ratio (F ) should be limited to 0.5 .
4.5 Hydrogen Infrastructure Requirement
Building a Hydrogen Infrastructure is one of the major challenges which need to be overcome in order for the Hydrogen Vehicles to become a practicably viable option for the permanent replacement of conventional IC Engines. Many studies have been carried out for the development of hydrogen infrastructure for the transport sector. Most of the times these studies have been targeted for a particular area or region. For example Melaina  for the US, and Mercuri et al  for Italy. These studies often seem to overcome the chicken-egg problem of “no hydrogen infrastructure, therefore, no demand for hydrogen vehicles” and “no hydrogen vehicles so no incentives to build a hydrogen infrastructure”. The main obstacle in the introduction of hydrogen infrastructure is the issue of cost. Also there are many others factors that play an important role. For example, people will not purchase a hydrogen vehicle unless there are sufficient refuelling stations; manufacturers will not start mass production of the vehicles unless people tend to buy it and fuel providers will not install hydrogen stations for vehicles that do not exist . Hence there are various factors – social, environmental, economic and judicial- which will affect the development of hydrogen as a practicable fuel for transport. The main focus while analysing the infrastructure needed for hydrogen in the transportation field is on hydrogen supply. Design of a Hydrogen System: The design is a hydrogen system needs to be strong and should take into consideration the local data of the locality where for which the system is to be designed. Hydrogen demands are identified on the basis of population size and density, car ownership and average vehicle use. The simplest approach in designing a hydrogen system in a locality is by applying a certain percentage to the current number of petrol stations in that area. For example, to attain a stage for enough hydrogen stations to satisfy the refuelling needs of many early adopters of the hydrogen technology, hydrogen stations should be in a percentage of 5% of that of the petrol stations . For a stage to be attained where enough hydrogen stations are in place to satisfy a much larger portion of the general public, 15% should be the target . Apart from this , the hydrogen system developed and the hydrogen supply should be reliable. 33
Capital Costs: The establishment of a hydrogen station would include more capital cost than those by other alternatives. According to Wang et al. , the cost of converting a current filling station to dispense 50,000 gallons of gasoline equivalent per month is US$1.4 million in case of Hydrogen, 0.9 million in case of CNG, and 0.6 million in case of LNG. According to Hart et al  for the supply of methanol as a alternative to the same case, the cost would be GBP 30,000. The capital cost depends upon the path in which the hydrogen vehicles are produced to penetrate the market. Hydrogen Prices: Hydrogen prices need to be competitive with respect to the conventional petroleum fuels. It should also be reasonable for the companies which produces hydrogen for them to invest in it.
4.6 Issues affecting the acceptance of hydrogen fuel
There are various issues that need to be addressed before hydrogen can be fully accepted as fuel. One of the issues is how the general public will take it. Spitzley et al , mentioned the following factors as being important in determining whether a vehicle will penetrate the market or not: Performance (including acceleration, ability to move up the slope, range) Fuel consumption Noise and vibration Cost to the Consumer Durability Safety A new product is expected to have an exceptional gain in at least one of the influencing factors in addition to better grading in all the influencing factors. Spitzley found that in terms of noise and vibration, and fuel consumption the FCV was superior with respect to IC engines whereas cost is a major factor that needs improvement. Although this study is about 10 years old, the scenario for Hydrogen Vehicles now still is similar. In an attempt to get an insight about the public perception of hydrogen, Ricci et al  made a study about the public perception towards hydrogen. Their key findings were as follows: Awareness and knowledge of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 34
There seems to be a lack of knowledge in general public about Fuel Cells and related Hydrogen Technologies. Demonstration Projects on Hydrogen Vehicles, Information about the pros and cons of hydrogen seem to be less noticed by the general public with exceptions to some a few geographical areas where the local nature of the demonstration project or the effectiveness of communication campaigns increased general public interest. Overall demand for more information needs to be quite high. Perceptions of, attitudes towards and acceptance of hydrogen and/or associated technologies The perception of the general public seems to be rather neutral or dull towards hydrogen and fuel cell. The perception that Hydrogen Fuelled vehicles had many technical difficulties like range, refuelling, etc seems to bother less as it is the same case with all the other Green alternative technologies. The high price for hydrogen and other alternative fuels raises questions to general public of social equity amongst all. Paying more price for ‘green’ fuel seems to be associated with ‘luxury’ in terms of general public perception and thought that only rich could afford this. Attitudes towards hydrogen refuelling stations The general public seems to be indifferent towards the acceptance of hydrogen refuelling stations, majority of them having willingness for it if it is supplied with gasoline at the same refuelling station. Preferences and willingness to pay for the introduction of hydrogen technologies
4.7 Economic feasibility of Hydrogen as a fuel
There are several factors influencing the economic viability of hydrogen as a fuel for automotive sector. These factors are: hydrogen production method, hydrogen production cost, cost of the Hydrogen Vehicle, the social costs inflicted by GHGs and regulated air emissions, the efficiency of the Hydrogen vehicle, capital costs of H2 stations. Hydrogen production: The cost of producing hydrogen depends upon the method by which hydrogen in produced. The cheapest way to produce hydrogen would be to produce it via hydrocarbons. Considering the fact that Hydrogen is ought to be a “Clean” energy, the fact might not hold true in this case. However if proper carbon sequestration techniques are applied, H2 might then be able to have the impact of clean energy. Presently, almost all of hydrogen is produced commercially using the hydrocarbon (Natural Gas, Naphtha, and LPG). This is because it is very cheap 35
with respect to hydrogen production from renewable resources like Wind, Solar or even Nuclear Energy. The cost of hydrogen produced via electrolysis would be high due to the high prices of electricity. The cost of hydrogen production via renewable resources and via nuclear energy is high because of the huge investment cost involved in it. Well-to-wheel (WTW) cost: The cumulative cost of the fuel from origin to a fuel station (well-to-tank) price and the cost of fuel utilization (tank to wheel) comprise the well to wheel price. The well-to-tank cost comprises of capital costs (production equipment, tank trailer, dispenser, etc), the operation and maintenance costs (material costs, energy costs, labour costs) and other costs like tax, insurance, etc. The tank to wheel cost consists of vehicle purchasing cost, operation and maintenance cost. It is important for a hydrogen vehicle to have as low as possible WTW costs and if possible lower than that of fossil fuels. Hydrogen Vehicle Prices: The price of the Hydrogen Vehicle, both FCV and HICEV, will play an important role in the feasibility of using Hydrogen. Prices of FCVs have decreased significantly from the past mainly due to the technological advancements and experience the automotive companies have gained with it. However they are still higher than their gasoline counterparts. According to the predictions from Hyundai Motors and Toyota [36, 37], the price of an FCV is expected to range between US$ 49,850 to US$ 60,750 in 2015. The well-to-wheel predictions for gasoline vehicles are around US$ 70,040 for gasoline and US$ 66,970. From this scenario , hydrogen vehicles are likely to be economically viable. However, this is just a prediction assuming mass production of FCV and even though FCV prices are lower, the price and availability of refuelling hydrogen would largely affect its sale. Social costs inflicted by GHGs and regulated air emissions: While talking about the advantages of a Hydrogen Vehicle, one should not forget its potential to reduce the emission of harmful gases like CO, NOx, SOX, and CO2. If the amount of reduction in these gases were regarded as profit (in a way it is a profit considering bulk of the money saved that an individual, in large a nation, 36
would have spent in curing health problems and in making the environment pollution free), hydrogen production from hydrocarbons might not seem much cheaper than hydrogen from electricity via renewable. According to a research carried out by Lee et al , the cheapest method of production of hydrogen with respect to well-to-wheel cost among Steam reforming of Naphtha, Natural gas, LPG and hydrogen via electricity supplied preferably by Wind Power was from Steam Reforming of Natural Gas. This was because of the cheap cost of the Natural Gas. However while taking into consideration the social cost benefit, hydrogen via the electrolysis of water was concluded to be the cheapest. The electricity would be generated from Wind Energy. But if the hydrogen were to be produced via electrolysis, and the electricity would be provided from the coal power plant, then the produced hydrogen would not have the benefit of saving social cost and might be resulted more expensive than those from steam reforming. Effect of capital cost of Hydrogen Station The term “Hydrogen Economy” would only be achieved if there are enough refuelling stations for the maximum numbers of Hydrogen vehicles that can be developed. It is only in this case that the consumer will be willing to buy a Hydrogen vehicle without fearing how much miles would he need to travel to fuel his vehicle or would he be able to drive his hydrogen car everywhere. It is evident that hydrogen fuelling stations need to be ubiquitous or at least cover a certain portion of current Petroleum stations in each geographical area. The capital cost of hydrogen fuelling station is expensive at present because of the cost of its equipments. Since the hydrogen equipments are produced in small quantities, they cost more. Would they be produced in mass, their unit cost will be a lot lesser. Again referring to the study done by Lee et al  in determining the most effective method of hydrogen production among Steam Reforming of Naphtha, Natural Gas, LPG gas, hydrogen production via electrolysis: electricity provided via the grid and electricity provided via Wind Power, the authors concluded that all of the methods would be economically competitive with the gasoline and diesel by 2015. The study had taken into account all the factors mentioned above during the analysis. Each of the methods for the production of hydrogen had a 37
huge advantage in one of the factors. For example Steam reforming of hydrocarbons had the advantage that the raw materials were cheap and the process itself was cheaper than Wind Power. The method of electrolysis via electricity provided by wind had huge advantage of emitting the least GHG and other pollutants whereas electricity from the grid was in the midline between the two. The other boon for these was the rapidly increasing price of gasoline and diesel. Although this study was done for Korea, the methodology and conclusions would hold true for everywhere else; the changes would only occur in the price of raw materials and electricity. However, another study  done in the Europe concluded that hydrogen production via electrolysis would not be economically feasible regardless of the source of electricity. It quotes: “The cost of hydrogen production could vary between 22€/GJ when electricity is generated by low cost nuclear power plant and 450€/GJ when renewable electricity coming from photovoltaic is used.” It is obvious that this study did not involve the cost of social benefit. Also because the costs of crude petroleum products were cheaper and electricity was much higher in Europe such a conclusion was reached. The study conclude that hydrogen production via the gasification of biomass would be the cheapest (10-12€/GJ). The authors say that hydrogen production via electrolysis would be suitable only in the places without the access of natural gas.
Comparison between FCV and HICEV
FCV The transition from petroleum vehicles to hydrogen vehicles taking FCV as base would take time.
HICEV It could make the transition phase between ICE and Hydrogen Engines shorter it could also run on petrol and vice versa
The cost of production will be high as of today’s technology. The high cost mainly in the manufacturing of Fuel Cell system due to the cost of Platinum and rare-earth-elements. Availability might also an issue owing to the availability issues of Platinim as well as REE The fuel that we feed I must be 99% pure. Since if fed impure fuels catalyst (platinum) would be poisoned Not reliable in all weather condition, like its difficult to start in Cold Conditions because of the inappropriate temperature in Fuel Cell
These engines won’t be much expensive regarding the fact that much of the construction is similar to IC engine
No issues with availability cost
Hydrogen doesn’t need to be pure, but free from hydrocarbons and sulphur
Rather reliable since the principles are same with the IC engines.
Time to transition to Hydrogen The transition from ICE to FCV will take a long time and HICEV could more effectively act as a link to bridge the gap between FCV and ICE. The main problem for now is the supply of hydrogen (discussed in section below). Even if enough hydrogen were supplied at enough refuelling stations over the world, the transition from ICE to Hydrogen can take a long time. There are billions of ICE vehicles today. Let us create a scenario that we have enough hydrogen to fuel the 39
FCV and also enough FCV’s manufactured at reasonable price. Let us also assume that the production of IC Engines has halted. Even so there would be huge number of IC engines over the world that scrapping them at the instant would be impossible. Also if those vehicles are in a rather good condition the consumer will not be able to throw it away. If he is to scrap the vehicle, he would want to be paid a reasonable value for his car. And there might not be so much money in the world to pay the scrap value of all the IC engines. Hence even if all the odds were in the favour of hydrogen economy, the transition phase would take some time. How long will it take depends upon the number of IC engine vehicles. The idea of switching into hydrogen economy would still seem further both from the consumers as well as the manufacturer’s point of view.
Comparison between different methods of Hydrogen Production
The need for alternative vehicle powered by renewable source has always been felt ever since the issue of global warming and fossil fuel crisis has been addressed. Hydrogen has proved to be superior amongst other alternatives because of its capacity to power a fuel cell as well as an internal combustion engine. With the introduction of HICEV vehicle by BMW and a lot of automotive industries developing FCV vehicle, it has now been time to transform to hydrogen economy. However, there are still obstacles for hydrogen to replace fossil fuels. As for fuel cell itself, mass production of it is still a major issue because it uses platinum as a catalyst and rare-earth-elements in its electronic components, both of which have got an issue with sufficient availability. This makes the price of an FCV higher would compete with the IC engine vehicles. The storage of hydrogen has another issue along with it. Since hydrogen has a very low density, much energy cannot be confined in a fuel tank of a vehicle as gasoline. The hydrogen needs to be highly compressed or liquefied for storage, both of which at present consume a lot of energy in them. A solution to this would be the storage of hydrogen in Metal Hydride tanks but that too has its own issue of having low hydrogen density. When talking about the production of hydrogen, at present most of the hydrogen seems to be produced from natural gas or naphtha, both of which are related to petroleum products and moreover emit CO2. Hence a proper carbon sequestration planning should be done in order to make the carbon capture positive. Hydrogen could also be produced via electrolysis and the required electricity be generated by renewable resources as wind, solar or even by nuclear resources. But the infrastructures needed for renewable resources are expensive making the produced hydrogen expensive as well. Nuclear energy on the other hand has an issue of emitting radioactive emission and hence has not been accepted globally. To conclude with, Hydrogen has got a huge potential to replace petroleum products mainly because of its properties. But until the issue mentioned above are solved hydrogen might not be economically feasible to compete with petroleum in terms of ruling the automotive industry.
. Veziroglu TN, Gurkan I, Padki MM. Remediation of greenhouse problem through replacement of fossil fuels by hydrogen. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 1989; 14(4):257-266 . Veziroglu TN, Barbir FH. Hydrogen, the wonder fuel. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 1992;17(6):391-404 . Ananthachar V, Duffy JJ. Efficiencies of hydrogen storage systems onboard fuel cell vehicles. Solar Energy 78 (2005); 687-694 . White CM, Steeper RR, Lutz AE. The hydrogen fuelled Internal Combustion Engine: a technical review. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 31 (2006); 1292-1305 . http://www.netinform.net/H2/H2Mobility/H2MobilityStart.aspx?CATID=0 . Wallner T, Lohse-Busch H, Gurski S, Mike D, Thiel W, Martin D, Korn T. Fuel Economy and emissions evaluation of BMW Hydrogen Mono-fuel demonstration vehicles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008); 7607-7618 . ETEC hydrogen internal combustion engine full-size pickup truck conversion. Hydrogen ICE truck brochure . Lohse- Busch HA, Wallner T, Fleming J, Transient efficiency, performance and emissions analysis of a hydrogen internal combustion engine pick-up truck. SAE Paper No. 2006-01-3430 (2006) . Abele AR. Quantum Hydrogen Prius, ARB ZEV Technology Symposium (Sacramento, California, 2006) . European fuel cell and Hydrogen Projects 2002-2006, European Commission . European fuel cell and Hydrogen Projects 2002-2006, European Commission. 128 . European fuel cell and Hydrogen Projects 2002-2006, European Commission,129 . Brown LF. A comparative study of fuels for on-board hydrogen production for fuel-cell powered automobiles. International journal of Hydrogen Energy. 26 (2001) 381-397
. Frenette G, Forthoffer D. Economic and Commercial viability of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from an automotive manufacturers’ perspective. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 34 (2009); 3578-3588 . Zegers P. Waterstof en brandstofcellen. Mobiliteit en toekomstige transport technologieen, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, 2005 . Garland, Milliken, Carlson, Wagner. Platinum: Too precious for fuel cell vehicles? SAE.2002. 01-1896 . Peak Platinum, Perhaps? Jack Lifton. ResourceInvestor.com.Consumer Goods and Services Jack Lifton is the founder of Jack Lifton, LLC, a consultancy focusing on the sourcing of nonferrous strategic metals, minerals, and chemicals used both as raw materials and for component manufacturing; 27 Feb 2007 . Hydrogen Fuel; removing the hydrogen –cell roadblock. Ames Laboratories, Office of Public Affairs; March 15, 2007 . Current Projection: rare earth hero collides with supply and demand. The Anchor House, Inc. Clint Cox; October 20th, 2006 . Yilancia A, Dincer I, Ozturk HK. A review on solar-hydrogen fuel cell hybrid energy systems for stationary applications. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2009;35:231-44 . Weindorf W, Altmann M, Yield of biofuels versus hydrogen from photovoltaics and wind power. Ludwig-Bollow-Systemtechnik GmbH, 2007 . Mori D, Hirose K. Recent challenges of hydrogen storage technology for fuel cell vehicles. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 34-2009; 4569-4574 . Okada M, Kuriiwa T, Tamura T, Takamura H, Kamegawa A, Met Mater Int 2001;7:67 . Mori D, Haraikawa N, Kobayashi N, Shionozawa T, Matsunga T, Kubo H, et al. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 2005, p 844E . Mori D, Kobayashi N, Matsunga T, Toh K, Kojima Y. Materia Japan 2005; 44:257 . Melaina M. Initiating hydrogen Infrastructures: preliminary analysis of a sufficient number of initial hydrogen stations in the US. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2003;28:743-55 . Agnolucci P. Review: Hydrogen Infrastructure for the transport sector. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 32-2007:3526-3544
. Wang M, Mintz M, Singh M, Stork K, Vyas V, Johnson L. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure, phase 2—-final report: additional capital needs and fuel cycle energy and emissions impacts. Argonne, IL: Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Transportation Research and Decision and Information Sciences Division. Available on line from; 1998. . Hart D, Leach MA, Fouquet R, Pearson PJ, Bauen A. Methanol Infrastructure— will it affect the introduction of SPFC vehicles. J Power Sources 2000;86:542–7. . Shelef M, Kukkonen CA. Prospects of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, Prog Energy Combust Sci 1994; 20:139-48 . Delorme A, Rousseau A, Sharer P, Pagerit S, Wallner T. Evolution of hydrogen fuelled vehicles compared to conventional vehicles from 2010 to 2045. SAE Paper No. 2009-01-1008 (2009) . Spitzley DV, Brunetti TA, Vigon BW. Assessing fuel cell power sustainability. SAE Technical Papers Series, No 2000-01-1490,2000 . Ricci M, Bellaby P, Rob F. What do we know about public perceptions and acceptance of hydrogen? A critical review and new case study evidence. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008): 5868-5880 . Lee J, Yoo M, Cha K, Lim TW, Hur T. Life cycle cost analysis to examine the economic feasibility of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2009-34: 4243-4245 . Busby RL. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells: a comprehensive guide. Pennwell Books; 2004 . Lee JY. A study on the establishment of the optimized hydrogen infrastructure in Korea through the environmental and economic analyses. Phd Thesis, Konkuk University, 2007 . Dolf G, Giorgia S. Prospects for hydrogen and fuel cells. OECD/IEA; 2005 . Mercuri R, Bauen A, Hart D. Options for refuelling fuel cell vehicles in Italy. J Power Sources 2002;106(1-2): 353-63 . Stolzenburg K, Tsatsami V, Grubel H. Lessons learned from infrastructure operation in the CUTE project. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34 (2009): 7114-7124 . Heywood JB. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill: 1988 . Tang X, Kabat DM, Natkin RJ, Stockhausen WF. Ford P2000 hydrogen engine dynamometer development. SAE paper 2002; 2002-01-242 . Topinka JA, Gerty MD, Heywood JB, Keck JC. Knock behaviour of a lean burn, H2 and CO enhanced , SI gasoline engine concept. SAE paper 2004; 2004-01-0975
Rare-earth-elements (REE): As defined by IUPAC, rare earth elements or rare earth metals are a collection of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium, yttrium, and the fifteen lanthanides. Scandium and yttrium are considered rare earths since they tend to occur in the same ore deposits as the lanthanides and exhibit similar chemical properties. Naphtha: A low octane gasoline product comprising of different flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures, a distillation product from petroleum or coal tar. It is used primarily as a feedstock for producing high octane gasoline components via the catalytic reforming process. Also used for the production of hydrogen Chloro-alkali Process: Electrolysis of common salt or sodium chloride 𝟐𝑵𝒂𝑪𝒍 + 𝟐𝑯𝟐 𝑶 𝒚𝒊𝒆𝒍𝒅𝒔 𝑪𝒍𝟐
+ 𝑯𝟐 + 𝟐𝑵𝒂𝑶𝑯
Depending on the methods used and the temperature various chlorates and chlorides can be formed.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.