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1 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

uniform weight, the curve formed is

called a catenary. For simplified

analysis, some of the design engineers

assume that the curve is parabolic. This

is only true if the sag is small as

compared with the span length which

happens mostly on the distribution lines.

Although the formula is quite complex, it

is always recommended to follow

catenary calculations.

tension of the conductor to determine if:

clearances to ground, right-of-way

(blowout) and uplift (wts and strain)

it will not exceed the tension limits of

the conductor at varying loading

conditions

it will pass the required levels of

electric and magnetic field, aeolian

vibration and ice galloping

the structure is sufficient to withstand

the conductor tension.

Span Length

Tension in the conductor

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Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

ice)

Temperature

Elasticity of the conductor materials

Creep

CATENARY CURVE

taken as the origin, then it can be

modeled by the equation:

where:

point in span (m)

y = vertical distance from lowest

point of span

C = Catenary constant

constant is essentially the ratio of the

horizontal tension in the conductor to

the unit weight.

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Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

and

where:

(N)

W = distributed load on conductor

(N/m)

m = unit mass of conductor (kg/m)

g = gravitational constant of 9.81

m/s2

tangentially through the conductor.

The horizontal component of

Tension, H, is constant all throughout

4 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

For simplification purposes, some

calculations assumed that Tension is

equal to the horizontal Tension, T =

H.

Also, some calculations assumed that

vertical component of tension Ty =

WS/2.

marginally greater than the span length,

S. Applying calculus, the conductor

length from the lowest point to any

other point along the conductor is given

by the following equation:

lowest point to one conductor support is

x = S /2. Thus the total conductor length

is:

of the line is the difference between true

conductor length and span length.

5 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

CHANGES IN CONDUCTOR

LENGTH

affected by two factors:

tension, and

Conductor expansion and contraction

according to temperature

Horizontal Tension, H

modulus of elasticity (Young’s

Modulus) , E

The cross-sectional area of the

conductor, A

are made of aluminum reinforced of

steel wires. Thus the modulus of

elasticity of composite conductor is:

coefficient of expansion of the composite

conductor is:

6 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

the stress to strain, as follows:

E = Stress / Strain or

Strain = Stress / E

length due to strain-stress, is as follows:

thermal expansion, is as follows:

EQUATION

expands in length and therefore its

tension decreases, while the sag

increases. With the reduction in tension,

there is also a reduction in strain in the

conductor. Thus, there is a complicated

relationship between temperature and

tension.Thus,

Conductor Length + Effect of Thermal

7 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

equation:

where:

temperature (N)

W1 = unit weight of the conductor at

initial temperature (N/m)

Δt =t2 t1 = temperature change (°C)

E = final modulus of elasticity (Pa)

A = cross-sectional area conductor

(m2)

∝ = coefficient of linear thermal

expansion (/°C)

S=length of ruling span ( simply span

length for a single span) (m)

stringing charts and sag template. This

is called the conductor state change

equation.

temperature can be calculated by

iterative solving the roots of this

equation. This can be easily carried out

in excel or other spreadsheet that has

8 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

my spreadsheet once it will be

completed.

span length, for a level single span, is as

follows:

ice and/or subjected to wind, the total

unit weight of the conductor increases

and changes the shape of the catenary

curve. Line design engineers must

consider expected extreme loading in

the area in considering the sag-tension

calculation. Conductor and supports may

fail under this extreme loading

conditions. Also, it may exceed the

required electrical clearances.

that my form in the conductor. These

9 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

are:

glaze ice

rime ice

wet snow

usually considered with density of 57

lb/ft3.

maximum vertical load that the

structures and foundations must

support.

Ice loads + conductor weight + wind

load is the maximum transverse load

that the structure must also

withstand.

WEIGHT

Volume of ice:

10 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

where:

(m3 / m)

D = outside diameter of the

conductor (m)

t = thickness of the ice (m)

ρice = ice density (kg/m3)

EFFECT OF WIND ON

CONDUCTOR WEIGHT

assume to act horizontally on the

projected area of the conductor. On the

next post, I will present a detailed

derivation and example calculations of

wind pressure on conductors and poles.

(and/or radial ice included):

WEIGHT

11 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

given by the following equations:

angle θ with the vertical. So the vertical

sag of the conductor is, as follows:

of wind is essential only if you are

concerned in horizontal clearance

because of the conductor blowout.

CREEP

suffer from creep, i.e. permanent

elongation or inelastic stretch. The factor

affecting creep are:

12 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

material composition

manufacturing process

everyday conductor tension

operating temperature

time

stranding

span length

increase and may lead to insufficient

clearance if not included in the design.

calculate wind pressure and make

example calculations for sag-tension of

same level support.

13 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

Fundamental Concepts of Sag-Tension Relationship in Transmission a... https://electricalengineerresources.com/2018/01/02/complete-sag-tensi...

14 of 14 19/11/2018, 15:07

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