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TCP/IP

Application Services
Application Services

• Services for end users (from wide use to


specialized purposes)
• Defined by RFC’s or developed by independent
organizations
• Available in different computing environment
TCP/IP protocols
Application Service Categories

End User Services and Protocols


Services and protocols employed directly by
users

Support Services and Protocols


Services and protocols to support user-requested
services
End User Services and Protocols

• Ping Connectivity Testing


• Telnet Interactive Login
• Rlogin Interactive Login
• Rsh Remote Execution
• FTP File Transfer
• NFS Remote File Access
Support Services and Protocols

• TFTP File Transfer


• Name Resolution
• SMTP Electronic Mail
• X-Windows Presentation
• Kerberos Security
• Remote Procedure Calls
• NTP Distributed Time
• SNMP Network Management
Ping Interconectivity Testing

• Test reachability of remote hosts


• Uses Internet Control Message Protocol (IMCP)
oSend IMCP echo message
oReceive IMPC Echo reply
oCalculate elapsed time
Ping Example
Telnet Interactive Login

• Allows user login to remote host


• Establishes client-server relationship
• Performs three operational functions
oNetwork Virtual Terminal
oOption Negotiation
oSymmetric Session View
Rlogin Interactive Login

• Similar to Telnet
• Local UNIX to remote UNIX host
• Provides additional services
Rsh Remote Execution

• Requests operating system functions or


execution of an application program
• Implements a client-server relationship
• Remote host runs a daemon server process
FTP File Transfer Protocol

• Enables bidirectional data transfer between a


local and remote host
• One-file-at-a-time transfer
• Uses two separate TCP connections to
accomplish file transfer
ocontrol connection
odata transfer connection
FTP Example

(insert image FTP screen)


NFS Remote File Access

• Similar to FTP
• Allows access to files maintained of file servers
• Additional services (ex. assigning drive letters to
directories)
TFTP

• Support service (unlike FTP)


• Runs on top of any transport service
• Used by system software (ex. Loading program
code)
SMTP Electronic Mail

• Provides access to messaging facilities


• Establishes a client-server relationship
• Deals only with the exchange process
ono transport method
ono message format
ono guarantee of message delivery
SMTP connection

• Setup connection (Hello port 25)


• Mail transfer
oMail (who sends)
oRcpt (who receives)
oData (content)
• Close connection (Quit-Quit)
X-Windows

• Set of distributed graphical presentation services


• Implements visual windowing interface
• Multiple windows controlled by separate client
applications
Domain Name System

• Hierarchical naming facility


• Maintains mappings between host names and IP
addresses
• Used for name resolution
oinitiate user resolver process
ocontact DNS nameserver
oresolve name using hosts files or DNS
DNS – Internet Naming Scheme

• Hierarchical Namespace
obased on domain names
olocal domain first, global domain last
• Standard Domain Names
otop-level domain names
(com, edu, gov, mil, net, org, int)
oadditional top-level domain names
(biz, tv, info, etc)
ocountry codes
Denial of Service (DoS)
Attacks
TCP Connection
Denial of Service
Bandwidth consumption
Distributed Denial of Service
Distributed Denial of Service –
Traffic Aggregation