³At the age of seven, a young boy and his family were forced out of their home.

The boy had to work to support his family. At the age of nine, his mother passed away. When he grew up, the young man was keen to go to law school, but had no education. At 22, he lost his job as a store clerk. At 23, he ran for state legislature and lost. The same year, he went into business. It failed, leaving him with a debt that took him 17 years to repay. At 27, he had a nervous breakdown. Two years later, he tried for the post of speaker in his state legislature. He lost. At 31, he was defeated in his attempt to become an elector. By 35, he had been defeated twice while running for Congress. Finally, he did manage to secure a brief term in Congress, but at 39 he lost his reelection bid. At 41, his four-year-old son died. At 42, he was rejected as a prospective land officer. At 45, he ran for the Senate and lost. Two years later, he lost the vice presidential nomination. At 49, he ran for Senate and lost again. At 51, he was elected the President of the United States of America. The man in question: Abraham Lincoln.´ ² Author Unknown

Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing
Helping New Teams Perform Effectively, Quickly

Effective teamwork is essential in today¶s world, but as you¶ll know from the teams you have led or belonged to, you can¶t expect a new team to perform exceptionally from the very outset. Team formation takes time, and usually follows some easily recognizable stages, as the team journeys from being a group of strangers to becoming united team with a common goal. Whether your team is a temporary working group or a newly-formed, permanent team, by understanding these stages you will be able to help the team quickly become productive.

Understanding the Theory
Psychologist Bruce Tuckman first came up with the memorable words ³forming, storming, norming and performing´ back in 1965 to describe the path to high-performance that most teams follow. Later, he added a fifth stage that he called ³adjourning´ (and others often call ³mourning´ ± it rhymes better!) Teams initially go through a "Forming" stage in which members are positive and polite. Some members are anxious, as they haven¶t yet worked out exactly what work the team will involve.

Others are simply excited about the task ahead. As leader, you play a dominant role at this stage: other members¶ roles and responsibilities are less clear. This stage is usually fairly short, and may only last for a single meeting at which people are introduced to one-another. At this stage there may be discussions about how the team will work, which can be frustrating for some members who simply want to get on with the team task. Soon, reality sets in and your team moves into a "Storming" phase. Your authority may be challenged as others jockey for position as their roles are clarified. The ways of working start to be defined, and as leader you must be aware that some members may feel overwhelmed by how much there is to do, or uncomfortable with the approach being used. Some react by questioning how worthwhile the goal of the team is and resist taking on tasks. This is the stage when many teams fail, and even those who stick with it feel that they are on an emotional roller coaster as they try to focus on the job in hand without the support of established processes or relationships with their colleagues. Gradually, the team moves into a "Norming" stage, as a hierarchy is established. Team members come to respect your authority as leader, and others show leadership in specific areas. Now the team members know each other better, they may be socializing together, and they are able to ask each other for help and provide constructive criticism. The team is developing a strong commitment to the team goal, and you start to see good progress towards it. There is often a prolonged overlap between storming and norming behavior: As new tasks come up, the team may lapse back into typical storming stage behavior, but this eventually dies out.

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When the team reaches the "Performing" stage, hard work leads directly to progress towards the shared vision of their goal, supported by the structures and processes which have been set up. Individual team members may join or leave the team without affecting the performing culture. As leader, you are able to delegate much of the work and can concentrate on developing team members. Being part of the team at this stage feels ³easy´ compared with earlier on. Project teams exist only for a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organizational restructuring. As team leader, your concern is both for the team¶s goal and the team members. Breaking up a team can be stressful for all concerned and the "Adjourning" or "Mourning" stage is important in reaching both team goal and personal conclusions. The break up of the team can be particularly hard for members who like routine or have developed close working relationships with other team members, particularly if their future roles or even jobs look uncertain.

Using the Tool
As a team leader, your aim is to help your team reach and sustain high performance as soon as possible. To do this, you will need to change your approach at each stage. The steps below will help ensure you are doing the right thing at the right time. 1. Identify which stage of the team development your team is at from the descriptions above.
2. Now consider what needs to be done to move towards the Performing stage, and what you can do to help the team do that effectively. The table below (Figure 1) helps you understand your role at each stage and how to move the team forward.

Figure 1: Leadership Activities at Different Group Formation Stages
Stage Forming Activity Direct the team clearly. Establish objectives clearly (perhaps with a team charter click here for our article on Team Diagnostics, which gives more information on these.) Establish process and structure, and work to smooth conflict and build good relationships between team members. Generally provide support, especially to those team members who are less secure. Remain positive and firm in the face of challenges to your leadership or the team s goal. Perhaps explain the forming, storming, norming and performing idea so that people understand why conflict s occurring, and understand that things will get better in the future. Norming Step back and help the team take responsibility for progress towards the goal. This is a good time to arrange a social or teambuilding event Performing Delegate as far as you sensibly can. Once the team has achieved high performance, you should aim to


After all. And make sure that people don¶t use knowledge of the ³storming´ stage as a license for boorish behavior. ³Three weeks have gone by and we¶ve still not got anywhere´. Tip 3: Not all teams and situations will behave in this way. The phases of each model largely correspond with each other. ³Storming´ and ³Norming´ stages before the team starts ³Performing´. although Cog's Ladder includes an additional "Why are we here?" phase which falls across Tuckman's Forming and Storming phases. Remember that you¶ve got to go through the ³Forming´. Another useful model of team formation is Cog's Ladder. it can take patience and professionalism to get to that stage. and this will be much easier if people view past experiences positively. but don¶t try to force situations to fit it. Key points Teams are formed because they can achieve far more than their individual members can on their own. and measure success against that. Without such targets. and adjust your behavior and leadership approach to suit the stage your team has reached. Tip 2: Think about how much progress you should expect towards the goal and by when.have as light a touch as you can. you may work with some of these people again. and that there may not be much progress during this time. take the time to celebrate its achievements. Tip 1: Make sure that you leave plenty of time in your schedule to coach team members through the ³Forming´. however many will ± use this approach. and while being part of a high-performing team can be fun. ³Storming´ and ³Norming´ stages. 3. Schedule regular reviews of where your teams are. they can feel that. . Communicating progress against appropriate targets is important if your team¶s members are to feel that what they¶re going through is worthwhile. You will now be able to start focusing on other goals and areas of work Adjourning When breaking up a team.

you give the team a good start on maximizing performance. how do you know what is working and what isn't if no one gives you an objective summary? There are usually plenty of people around who are ready and willing to give you their opinions on this. To learn more on giving feedback. Participation and Articulating Vision (Questions 3. finally. Unfortunately. it has to be delivered properly. it has been found that successful teams have certain aspects of their development paths in common. as well as the overall team performance. see our articles on Giving and Receiving Feedback. you risk not forming the solid foundation needed when trouble or setbacks occur. It's the vision that motivates and directs a team to reach its goal. Two other factors that significantly increase a team's chances of being effective are having a well thought out team orientation process. lead. From this vision. and 360° Feedback. For feedback to be positive and growth-inspiring. this information is often conveyed in a manner that causes resentment and animosity. Through extensive research. and developing a clear team charter. Team Development (Questions 1. To build. 9. 13) One of the best ways of improving people's performance is by providing information to team members about their individual performance. The GROW Model. or participate in a team requires an understanding of the stages of team development. Team building is a process that requires due attention and care.Effective team leaders can accelerate that process and reduce the difficulties that team members experience by understanding what they need to do as their team moves through the stages from forming to storming. The one that most people are aware of is Tuckman's Forming. Both of these help you establish clear guidelines and set clear expectations. Feedback (Questions 2. and Performing model. The best teams invest a great deal of time and energy into exploring and understanding the overall purpose and vision of the team. Norming. If you try to skip over important development stages. performing. 10) Articulating the team's vision is fundamental to developing a high performing team. When the individuals on a team all know what they are supposed to be doing and how they are to go about doing it. a set of goals and objectives emerges that helps the team stay focused and on track. Storming. with enough attention being paid to how the receiver is going to perceive and process it. norming and. . After all. To read more about these processes see the Mind Tools articles on Successful Induction and Team Charters. 11) Teams do not become effective overnight.

This disagreement is actually part of the reason why teams can be so effective . The articles on RACI and Task Allocation discuss this exact issue and provide practical methods for getting the most out of your team. When the individuals on a team are functioning at high capacity. usually! Allowing the differences to get out of hand. styles. you allow the team to explore the vision. Managing Conflict (Questions 4. and provide meaningful opportunities for team members to assist in the team's success. or what tasks he or she has been assigned to. Opinions. Team members and leaders should take it upon themselves to understand the basics of conflict management and also learn more about different styles and ways of thinking and working. and a whole host of other differences provide more than enough grounds for disagreement. there is almost always room for personal improvement. . Mind Tools has featured two such models of team roles: Belbin's Team Roles and Benne and Sheats' Team Roles. causes unnecessary disruption and leads to breakdowns in working relationships. To learn more about tying vision to goals see Performance Management and KPIs. Some research has also been done on the different types of roles people play within teams. though. You can tell a team what the vision is and team members may or may not agree that the cause is worth working hard for. and Management By Objectives. For more information on effectively managing conflict. having insight into the types of roles that are taken on in teams can help you see which roles and behaviors are constructive and which ones aren't. Theory X.the more perspectives that go into a process. The articles on Avoiding Micromanagement and Successful Delegation discuss why it is important to provide challenges to your team members and allow them to use their skills and abilities to the fullest. 12. 14) Conflict can be an inevitable consequence of working with other people. values. 14. If. however.The key to using vision successfully is making the process of discovering it a participative one. see the article on the The Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid. 8. An effective team capitalizes on these natural differences and maximizes performance by putting the right people in the right roles. While the jury is still out on the detail of this research. Group Roles and Structure (Questions 6. 15) The differences between how people work and view the world make for interesting conversations and dynamic teams. Team Member Development (Questions 7. the team can flourish as well. see Managing Conflict. the better the end result. then you have the basis for a high performing team. To learn where you sit on the participative management scale. 12) No matter what role a person plays in a team. to see how their specific roles fit into the big picture. Theory Y and Role Playing. The Balanced Scorecard.

this goes back to the idea of cohesion. . and work for the same purpose. tensions appear within the team. To do this. you can uncover areas of improvement that will help you become a better overall team member and team builder. it is easy to believe we know what makes a team perform well. You can choose to ignore it. the articles on Concept Attainment and the Delphi Technique are highly recommended. otherwise it's too easy to get pulled into the argument and create an even larger mess. or you can be direct. The articles on Understanding Developmental Needs and Training Needs Assessment provide practical tips for identifying areas that need improvement. You have to build and foster the skills in the individuals that are congruent with the needs of the team. Understanding and Collaboration (Questions 5. Although there is no "I" in "Team" you have to remember there is no team without individuals. and attempt to reach a resolution through common techniques like negotiation or compromise. Again.This is a critical understanding in team performance. clarify what is going on. Key Points: An effective team is much more than a bunch of people thrown together to accomplish a goal. People have different viewpoints and under the right set of circumstances. Resolving Team Conflict Building Stronger Teams by Facing Your Differences Conflict can be pretty much inevitable when you work with others. and the whole is often no longer greater than the sum of its parts. however this is often not the case. This is a fundamental issue for high performing teams. It's clear that conflict has to be dealt with. consistency and agreement are vital for effective teamwork. Consensus. but the question is how: It has to be dealt with constructively and with a plan. Using this test. complain about it. blame someone for it. 14) The last area of team functioning explored by this quiz covers how well you and your team are able to collaborate and understand the key issues facing the team. or try to deal with it through hints and suggestions. Because teams are such an inherent part of how we work. Even if your test score didn't point to this aspect of teamwork. The article on Successful Induction talks about setting out a training needs analysis from day one. When priorities and goals diverge. How you handle that conflict determines whether it works to the team's advantage or contributes to its demise. Members of successful teams all head in the same direction. those differences escalate to conflict. requires a solid understanding of training methods and ways of identifying the needs of the team members.

resolving conflict requires respect and patience. or an afternoon at the climbing gym learning to rely on one another. the combined effort can far surpass what any group of similar individual could achieve. managers plan an activity with no real thought or goal in mind. Healthy and constructive conflict is a component of high functioning teams. there has to be a real purpose behind your decision to do the exercise ± for example. These are key skills for all team members to develop.Conflict isn't necessarily a bad thing. and the ability to keep it healthy and avoid conflict in the day-to-day course of team working.. though. Conflict arises from differences between people. Perhaps it was a weekend retreat. develop strengths.) Team-Building Exercises Planning activities that actually work You've probably been involved in a team-building exercise at some point. Understanding and appreciating the various viewpoints involved in conflict are key factors in its resolution. This tends to be a waste of time ± and managers risk losing the team's respect when they plan an exercise that doesn't actually help those involved. But. Team-building exercises can be a powerful way to unite a group. Resolving Conflict When a team oversteps the mark of healthy difference of opinion.. (Sign in to read more. what happened when your team members returned to the office? Did they go back to their usual behavior ± perhaps arguing over small assignments. or a day on the golf course getting to know everyone. The human experience of conflict involves our emotions. and actions. and opinions are tasked with a project or challenge. then at preventing it. Getting to. experiences. particularly the ability to resolve conflict when it does happens. Let's look at conflict resolution first. or refusing to cooperate with each other? The 'day of fun' may have been a nice break from business. and avoid negative conflict that's destructive and disruptive. we experience it on all three levels. and we need to address all three levels to resolve it. Team members must be open to these differences and not let them rise into full-blown disputes. We must replace the negative experiences with. that balance requires well-developed team skills. the same differences that often make diverse teams more effective than those made up of people with similar experience. improving the team's . skills. When people with varying viewpoints. but did they actually use any of the lessons learned during the exercise once they were back in the workplace? Too often. In other words. The important thing is to maintain a healthy balance of constructive difference of opinion. and maintaining. whether or not you and your colleagues enjoyed the experience. and address weaknesses ± but only if the exercises are planned and carried out strategically. perceptions.

you can plan exercises that will address these problems. if you're faced with issues of communication. or trust in your team. This will help your team to derive real benefit from the event ± and feel that it was worth their while. Team Building that Actually Builds Teams The most important step when planning a team-building exercise comes at the very beginning: You must start by figuring out what challenges your team faces. y Improving Communication y Back-to-back drawing Divide your group into pairs. stereotyping. Only then can you choose exercises that will be effective in helping them work through these issues. Ask the people holding the pictures to give verbal instructions to their partners on how to draw the shape without actually telling the partners what the shape is. and harm the group as a result? Does poor communication slow the group's progress? Do people need to learn how to work together. try our Team Effectiveness Assessment. instead of individually? Are some members resistant to change. Give one person in each pair a picture of a shape. This article shows you what to consider when planning a team event. Once you've identified the causes of your team's issues. Examples of Team-Building Exercises There are literally hundreds of team-building exercises that address a wide range of issues. Ask yourself these questions to identify the root of any problems: y y y y y y y Are there conflicts between certain people creating divisions within the team? Do team members need to get to know one another? Do some members focus on their own success. and we offer a variety of exercises to address different issues that teams commonly face. straightforward examples into sections that focus on the most common challenges for teams.problem-solving or creativity skills ± rather than because you felt like giving your staff a nice day out of the office. read our Bite-Sized Training session on Team Building. and give the other person a pencil and pad of paper. We've separated just a few basic. Spend time thinking about your team's current strengths and weaknesses. and does this affect the group's ability to move forward? Do members of the group need a boost to their morale? If you'd like to test how well you and your team work together. Here are come basic exercises you could try. If you'd like to learn more about team building. After they've . and have each pair sit on the floor back to back.

' Tell your group that their airplane has just crashed in the ocean. Postal worker. and pin or tape one tag to each person's back. so that they eventually hold each other up. Movie star. Then. How do they decide? How do they rank or rate each item? y Eliminating Stereotypes and 'Labeling' y Stereotype party This is a fun exercise for a medium-sized or large group. with their palms facing toward each other. and there's room on the lifeboat for every person plus 12 items they'll need to survive on the island. ask each pair to compare their original shape with the actual drawing. y Building Interdependence and Trust y Human spring Ask group members to stand facing each other in pairs. and consider the following questions: y y y How well did the first person describe the shape? How well did the second person interpret the instructions? Were there problems with both the sending and receiving parts of the communication process? y Survival scenario This exercise forces your group to communicate and agree to ensure their 'survival. . Olympic medalist. ask each person to figure out which personality type is on his or her back by asking questions to other people "Am I a man?" "Am I an athlete?" "Am I an entertainer?" and so on. but not their own. Instruct the team to choose which items they want to take.finished. Now. Their elbows should be bent. Don't show people which tag is on their back they'll be able to see everyone else's tag. Instruct them to touch their palms together. \ Here are some personality types you could consider: y y y y y y Auto mechanic. Fast-food restaurant worker. Professor. instruct everyone to move their feet further and further back. Write on nametags many different 'personality types (see the list below). and gradually start leaning toward each other. There's a desert island nearby. so that they have to depend solely upon their partners to remain standing.

continuous training and exercise would you have a chance at winning. Finally. Next. What Not to Do If you were a marathon runner. For example. baseball and soccer can be fun. make sure that your team-building exercises aren't competitive. balls. There's rarely any regular 'training' or follow-up. Plan an event that makes people truly depend on others to succeed. and give verbal directions. so you might want to put together people who have trust issues with each other. Then. and stay away from competition and 'winning. This probably isn't a good way to build team spirit and unity. and that's it. Set up a 'mine field' using chairs. it's a way to divide a group. Before you begin.y Mine field This is a great exercise if you have a large room or outdoor field. aim to incorporate team-building exercises into your weekly or monthly routine. divide your group into pairs. Yes. You would run every day. More likely. Most managers plan one or two events per year. and it will give them a chance to have fun. make sure there are consequences when people hit an obstacle. helping the mine walker avoid the obstacles. Blindfold one person. Many companies use sports for team-building activities. cones. If you lead a group.' Key Points For team building to be effective. Ask his or her partner to stay outside the mine field. or any other object that could potentially be an obstacle and trip someone up. and this can hold back the group's longterm success. But these activities can do far more harm than good if they focus just on competing. boxes. perhaps they have to start again from the beginning. Effective team building needs to happen continuously if you want your group to be successful. Why? Because only through regular. Pay attention to who you match with whom. Team building works on the same principle. leaders must first identify the issues their group is facing. the 'mine walker' this person is not allowed to talk. This is a perfect opportunity to work on relationships. would you train just a few times a year for your next race? Of course not. and learn to trust one another ± more than just once or twice a year. This will help everyone address their different issues. allow partners a few minutes to plan how they'll communicate. Think about it ± competition can make one person or team work against another. and reach the other side of the area. Leave enough space between the objects for someone to walk through. It needs to be part of the corporate culture. and some people will enjoy it. Then they can plan activities to address these challenges directly ± and make sure that the team will actual .

. To coach your team.µj m. performance and productivity can suffer. So how can you help your team improve? With good team coaching (as distinct from individual coaching) you can take your team to the next level. and unclear expectations within your teams? These are symptoms of an unhealthy team. Keep competition out of the exercises. you can put a lot of high-performing individuals on a team and still have performance problems.these are important drivers of effective team performance. Have you seen hostility. Note: We're assuming here that your team has a well-defined direction as well as the resources and support needed to achieve its goals. If these needs are not met. It's a valuable activity. The way people act with their teammates. you need be proactive about improving team performance. Coaching for Team Performance Improving productivity by improving relationships Teams are the force that drives most organizations. and the way they communicate with one another . That's not good for anyone. So when members of a team don't work well together.otherwise the team's output will be less than it could be. conflicting goals. there's often room for improvement.y gain some benefits from the event. and aim to make team building part of the daily corporate culture. and achieve its objectives.. focus on interpersonal skills and interactions instead of on individual development (as you tend to do with individually-focused coaching). people get most done when they work together effectively.. Team Coaching Team coaching helps people understand how to work better with others. It's an effective method for showing teams how to reduce conflict and improve their working relationships. People must learn to work together and understand how to relate to one another . or a project team. Whether it's a functional team. and it's an essential management and leadership tool. After all. To avoid these harmful effects. And even when a team is meeting its objectives. The team can then focus on its real work. instead of a once-a-year event. then you should build a solid team foundation before you start coaching for improved performance. a team of managers.

Treating everyone with respect. she'll have a better appreciation for why he prefers to do tasks independently. offering opinions when needed. when George realizes that social acceptance is important to Sally. With a greater level of understanding. teams still need to follow ground rules so they can accomplish their goals. this can lead to poor decision-making and unproductive work. he can make an effort to be more friendly and interested in what she's doing. We all have different styles of working and communicating. and talking directly to a person when you feel wronged . at the same time that it breeds tolerance by helping people understand that different approaches may be valid in different situations. A great way to formalize these expectations is with a team charter." you outline a set of behavior rules that everyone is expected to follow and support.these are all examples of ground rules that a team can use. Sally can focus instead on finding ways to relate to George on his terms. and another speaks his mind and doesn't back down from an argument. If one person walks away from conflict. and fail to recognize his or her unique strengths. As a coach. Myers-Briggs. her teammates might have a different perspective. You can also use 360-degree feedback to help people better understand themselves. and they give team members a better understanding of why they react to their colleagues in certain ways. you can't really accept that from him if you also expect him to provide expert opinions that may not match the general consensus. Some people can be "pushier" than others. A pushy person may think everything is going great however. This allows them to adjust their own behavior for better results. and when we encounter a person with a style that's different from our own. and ensure that individual preferences aren't given more importance than team objectives. however. Rather than assume he's just not interested in working with her. However.Understand Team Dynamics A great place to start team coaching is by understanding the dynamics of the team. For example. Personality and behavior assessments are great tools for improving a team's understanding of its own dynamics. The expectations help to build empathy and understanding. DiSC. This is the process of figuring out how team members relate to one another. your role is to bring team members together to discuss their individual profiles and help them find ways to work together. This new understanding helps them think about how they can relate to one another more effectively. Likewise. and they're able to interpret others' behavior with more insight and empathy. Establish Behavior Expectations Understanding other people's perspectives is a great way to improve relationships with them. we can often get frustrated with that person. team members begin to see one another differently. and FIRO-B are all excellent tools for uncovering individual patterns in things like communication and conflict resolution. if Sally knows that George is shy. For example. In a charter or "contract. you may know that Harold prefers to avoid conflict. This is why developing a clear set of behavior and communication expectations is an important aspect of team coaching. .

For example. Key Points Coaching to improve team performance can need different approaches for different teams and different people. follow up with training opportunities. What works for one team may not necessarily work for another. departmental or business unit loyalties often get in the way of effective teamwork. be sensitive to those differences. When this happens. With cross-functional teams. but still reward individual behavior. Typically. then you might use the Stepladder Technique to encourage individual participation. For example. and model great team behaviors yourself.Taking this one step further. a conflict resolution process would define the steps to take when one team member feels offended by another. By helping people understand their own styles and appreciate the different styles of others. Each person has a different level of readiness to take the steps necessary to change. you can naturally expect problems with team members who give personal reward a higher priority than team performance. As a team coach. and these create a major obstacle to team unity and effectiveness. For details on structuring reward systems that align individual performance with strategic objectives." hidden behavior.like reward and recognition. and styles of work.and find ways to fix them.may need to be addressed as well. performance management. Team members may need help to learn new skills. it's not uncommon for an organization to promote teamwork. if expressing opinions is an issue. Effective working relationships are built by understanding team members' needs. be supportive of individual development. Give feedback regularly. Likewise. . As a team leader and coach. find ways in everyday work situations to coach people. help set individual performance goals. preferences. you can also define processes for team members to follow to meet the expectations. Evaluate Reward and Recognition Systems Quite often. When team members have personal goals that don't match team goals. and training . the process would state that the offended person first speaks with the offender before going to a supervisor. this can lead to "secret. and it may involve looking deeper than team processes. In addition to arranging individual coaching where possible. your role is to identify the sources of competing values . and find resources to support each person's development goals. Support Individual Development Finally. see Performance Management and KPIs and Management by Objectives. These types of rules and processes help build trust among colleagues and create a more unified team. so that they can meet team expectations and follow supporting processes. you can work with them to change their behaviors and use everyone's strengths. people have competing values. Organizational systems . The process of improving team performance takes time.

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You¶ll discover ways to balance conflicting time demands. Next. Order now and take control of your life. you learn how to manage much of the stress that comes with work overload. If (for any reason) you are not completely satisfied with the results.. and ‡ Avoid or Recover From Burnout Mind Tools' Stress Management Masterclass comes as a full length..And Bringing Joy Back Into Your Life The first modules give you an understanding of what stress is. these become much easier to resolve. we will refund your money with no questions asked. Or read on and see the detail of what the Masterclass can do for you.. through this. Take your time to use the course and experience its benefits. And of course.‡ Build Defenses Against Stress. we will give you a full refund for up to 365 days . 182-page manual with practical skills and practice exercises. correct job design flaws. the Stress Management Masterclass comes with our iron-clad guarantee: Order it today and put these life lessons to work for you.no questions asked. As long as you contact us within 365 days of your original purchase. develop focus and efficiency and. and help you pin-point the sources of stress in your life. You¶ll then learn how to identify inconsistencies and structural problems within your job that can cause huge problems. You¶ll find out how to distinguish the essential tasks that you must complete from the distractions that contribute to overload. then just contact us at the address at the bottom of this page. Once identified. You can then quickly target the most important sources of stress for early attention. "I particularly appreciate the clear structure of the course and the modular design which permits one to manage time involvement and to see clearly what is expected and what will be gained." Adéle Wilkinson New Zealand Overcoming Work Overload . Mind Tools' Guarantee: If you are not completely satisfied. regain control of your workload. .

especially in the negative to positive section. more so. there are some techniques that I wish I had known. In 'Working with Powerful People'. handle seemingly unreasonable demands. you learn how to fairly defend your rights. you¶re introduced to the latest techniques for correcting structural problems within teams and working smoothly with team members. You¶ll learn issue resolution techniques for your mutual satisfaction.A side effect of these modules is that you learn to be more effective and productive in your work ± this can only enhance your career. and mark you out as someone who can maturely and positively handle difficult situations. Backed by practical exercises. These skills will win you respect in the workplace. reasonably defend your rights. You¶ll discover skills that help you work harmoniously with coworkers. and manage the complex politics of a challenging role. manage unreasonable demands and. the Stress Management Masterclass thoroughly explains the important topics of performance stress management. effective and successful team. in doing so. and do the things that bring real joy to your life. Taking The Stress Out Of Working Relationships The next modules help you deal with stress coming from other people. spend more time with friends and family. "[The Stress Management Master-class] is something I wish I had all those years ago when I first entered the workforce. With your job under control you can win back your leisure time. . All the hard lessons I had to quickly learn are all covered in this book but. minimizing environmental stress." Peter Ivancsits USA Surviving the Stress You Can't Avoid As you would expect. and building buffers against stress with changes to your lifestyle. The team stress module gives you useful new skills for resolving stressful conflict with your coworkers and your team. protect your free time. become a valued member of a happy. use of relaxation techniques.

you¶ll learn important rational. You'll learn how to monitor yourself for burnout. These help you to see the good within situations as well as the bad. and eliminate the background irritations that 'niggle' away at us. Together. these skills help you to overcome much of the negative thinking that accompanies and sometimes even causes the experience of stress. energy and commitment to your job that bring real fulfillment . you'll know what you have to defend to protect the sense of fulfillment that is so important in a satisfying career. . is exceptional value at just $19.99. From Negative Thinking to Self-Confidence But as well as this. They help you to move from unhappiness to a positive and self-confident frame of mind. relax when under unavoidable stress.and positive-thinking skills. With Cognitive Restructuring you learn to turn around the deep unhappiness that lies at the root of much stress. Once you have identified these things.These help you to perform well under pressure.no questions asked.even when you're under pressure. Finding Real Job Satisfaction You¶ll also learn to identify the things that give deep meaning to your work so that you can protect yourself against ill-health and burnout. and spot opportunities in the difficulties that arise. and get help protecting yourself against it. Considering its benefits. All of these things help you keep alive the enthusiasm. we will give you a full refund for up to 365 days after you receive the course . Mind Tools' Guarantee: If you are not completely satisfied. Course Information The Stress Management Masterclass comes in Adobe Acrobat (digital) format and is available for immediate download. With Emotional Analysis you learn to use your emotions as the powerful µ¶early warning system´ they are ± this helps to alert you to problem situations before they become serious. You¶ll also learn Emotional Analysis and Cognitive Restructuring ± new and useful stress management tools. increasing our experience of stress.

whether you manage a team at work. So. or subconsciously. and that leadership emerges from these traits. which approach is best? Consciously. there are many different frameworks that have shaped our current understanding of leadership. This article looks at some of the most common frameworks. and many of these have their place.Again. Early trait theories promoted the idea that leadership is . Sources acknowledged. just as long as they're used appropriately. we'll remind you of our full. Plus a certain generosity of spirit shines through. These can be categorized into four main types: 1. there are as many leadership styles as there are leaders. Well done!" Patrick Wiggins Leadership styles Using the right one for your situation From Mahatma Gandhi to Winston Churchill to Martin Luther King to Rudolph Giuliani. Leadership Theories Researchers have developed a number of leadership theories over the years. and these can help aspiring leaders understand which styles they should use. Fortunately. 365-day money-back guarantee. personal leadership style ± and help you become a more effective leader. and then looks at popular styles of leadership. This gives you all the time you need to try the course out and get the benefits we promise. If after this you aren¶t completely satisfied with the Stress Management Masterclass. Distillation without distortion. Trait theories ± What type of person makes a good leader? Trait theories argue that leaders share a number of common personality traits and characteristics. Understanding these styles and their impact can help you develop your own. you'll probably use some of the leadership styles in this article at some point. With this in mind. "Incredible value. captain a sports team. Amazing scope. or lead a major corporation. businesspeople and psychologists have developed useful and simple ways to describe the main styles of leadership. we¶ll refund your money ± with no questions asked.

nor any combination of them. these emerge as a generalized leadership style. produce or perish. 2. country club. Clearly. that many of these leadership behaviors are appropriate at different times. Examples include empathy. and we're learning more about what we can do as individuals to develop leadership qualities within ourselves and others. In our article Building Tomorrow's Leaders. however. The model describes five different leadership styles: impoverished. c. assertiveness. though. Typically this happens when the team is highly capable and motivated. Democratic leaders allow the team to provide input before making a decision. they allow the team to make many of the decisions. This is considered appropriate when decisions genuinely need to be taken quickly. Do they dictate what needs to be done and expect cooperation? Or do they involve the team in decisions to encourage acceptance and support? In the 1930s. depending on your concern for people versus your concern for production. team. together. The descriptions of these will help you understand your own leadership habits and adapt them to meet your team's needs. but it can be quite difficult to manage when there are lots of different perspectives and ideas. we've moved on from this approach. Leaders who spend time managing each of these elements will likely be more successful than those who focus mostly on only one element. then. how leaders behave impacts on their effectiveness. we discuss a series of attributes that are important for all types of leaders to develop. or middle of the road. the Blake-Mouton Managerial Grid helps you decide how best to lead. Kurt Lewin developed a leadership framework based on a leader's decision-making behavior. Similar to Lewin's model. Thankfully. although the degree of input can vary from leader to leader. Using this model. Researchers have realized. So. John Adair's Action-Centered Leadership model is another framework that's consistent with behavioral theories of leadership. Behavioral theories ± What does a good leader do? Behavioral theories focus on how leaders behave.an innate. and when team agreement isn't necessary for a successful outcome. help us identify some qualities that are helpful when leading others and. What's more. . This type of style is important when team agreement matters. and likability. when there's no need for input. and it doesn't need close monitoring or supervision. good decision-making. instinctive quality that you either have or don't have. Lewin argued that there are three types of leaders: a. and individual responsibilities. team leader. traits are external behaviors that emerge from things going on within the leader's mind ± and it's these internal beliefs and processes that are important for effective leadership. Laissez-faire leaders don't interfere. Trait theory does. the best leaders are those who can use many different behavioral styles and use the right style for each situation. However. b. the "best" leadership style is determined by balancing task. Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting their teams. You need more than that. will guarantee success as a leader. none of these traits.

which links leadership style with the maturity of individual members of the leader's team. This model distinguishes between using your position to exert power. and it therefore focuses on designing tasks and reward structures. The model suggests that using personal power is the better alternative and. Effective leadership is not simply based on a set of attributes. You must have a wide range of abilities and approaches that you can draw upon. While it may not be the most appealing leadership strategy in terms of building relationships and developing a long-term motivating work environment. there's one leadership style that is appropriate in very many corporate situations ± that of Transformational Leadership. Power and influence theories ± What is the source of the leader's power? These theories of leadership take an entirely different approach. Similarly. and the leadership styles that emerge as a result. behaviors. When a decision is needed fast. Perhaps the most well known of these theories is French and Raven's Five Forms of Power. it does work. Another valid leadership style that's supported by power and influence theories is Transactional Leadership. and approaches to leadership. This approach assumes that work is done only because it is rewarded. Sets clear goals. Contingency theories ± How does the situation influence good leadership? The realization that there isn't one correct type of leader led to theories that the best leadership style is contingent on. that you should actively work on building this. and coercive ± and two sources of personal power ± expert and referent (your personal appeal and charm). is there a better way to lead? Should a leader be more people oriented or task oriented? These are all examples of questions that contingency leadership theories try to address. An Up-to-Date Understanding of Leadership Within all of these theories. A popular contingency-based framework is the Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory. French and Raven identified three types of positional power ± legitimate. and using your personal attributes to be powerful. or depends on. Clearly communicates a vision. These theories try to predict which leadership style is best in which circumstance. and it's used in most organizations on a daily basis to get things done. leading by example is another highly effective way to establish and sustain a positive influence with your team. Having said this.3. the situation. . because Expert Power (the power that comes with being a real expert in the job) is the most legitimate of these. and for no other reason. A leader using this style: y y y Has integrity. reward. They're based on the different ways in which leaders use power and influence to get things done. 4. which style is preferred? When the leader needs the full support of the team. frameworks. or influences. there's an underlying message that leaders need to have a variety of factors working in their favor. however.

Having said that Transformational Leadership suits very many circumstances in business. and is really "fired up" by the way you lead. Helps people see beyond their self-interests and focus more on team interests and needs. Popular Leadership Styles A Glossary The leadership theories and styles discussed so far are based on research. This is a very appropriate style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery. However.y y y y y y y y Sets a good example. or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved (such as handling cash). many more terms are used to describe approaches to leadership. Encourages. even if these don't fit within a particular theoretical system. In short. Most people tend to resent being treated like this. and they're trusted. where leaders have absolute power over their workers or team. Therefore. autocratic leadership usually leads to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover. the style can remain effective because the advantages of control may outweigh the disadvantages. 2. When your team trusts you. transformational leaders are exceptionally motivating. Supports. we need to remember that there may be situations where it's not the best style. Charismatic leadership . and ensure that their staff follows procedures precisely. although we do recommend that other styles are brought in as the situation demands. Expects the best from the team. It's worth understanding these! 1. Inspires. Bureaucratic leadership Bureaucratic leaders work "by the book. Staff and team members have little opportunity to make suggestions. Provides stimulating work. 3. even if these would be in the team's or the organization's best interest." They follow rules rigorously. Autocratic leadership Autocratic leadership is an extreme form of transactional leadership. This is why it's worth knowing about the other styles shown below so that you have a greater chance of finding the right combination for the situation you find yourself in. For some routine and unskilled jobs. Recognizes good work and people. you can achieve great things! The transformational leadership style is the dominant leadership style taught in our How to Lead: Discover the Leader Within You program. with toxic substances.

Laissez-faire leadership This French phrase means "leave it be." and it's used to describe leaders who leave their team members to work on their own." In many ways. In the eyes of the followers. and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader. Team members feel in control of their own destiny. When someone. Servant leadership This term. However. Most often. leaders are totally focused on organizing. . most leaders use both task-oriented and people-oriented styles of leadership. and it tends to encourage good teamwork and creative collaboration. at any level within an organization. people who practice servant leadership can find themselves left behind by leaders using other leadership styles. 7. created by Robert Greenleaf in the 1970s. because the whole team tends to be involved in decision making. People-oriented leadership or relations-oriented leadership This is the opposite of task-oriented leadership. this type of leadership can also occur when managers don't apply sufficient control. Unfortunately. servant leadership is a form of democratic leadership. but it also helps to develop people's skills. supporting. describes a leader who is often not formally recognized as such. this approach can take more time. 5. success is directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. Supporters of the servant leadership model suggest that it's an important way to move ahead in a world where values are increasingly important. Democratic leadership or participative leadership Although democratic leaders make the final decisions. he or she is described as a "servant leader. With people-oriented leadership. because these leaders inspire lots of enthusiasm in their teams and are very energetic in driving others forward. laissez-faire leadership is effective when individual team members are very experienced and skilled self-starters. 6. This not only increases job satisfaction by involving team members. charismatic leaders can tend to believe more in themselves than in their teams. It's a participative style. 4. It can be effective if the leader monitors what's being achieved and communicates this back to the team regularly.A charismatic leadership style can seem similar to transformational leadership. might collapse if the leader leaves. Others believe that in competitive leadership situations. In practice. and where servant leaders achieve power on the basis of their values and ideals. leads simply by meeting the needs of the team. but often the end result is better. The approach can be most suitable when working as a team is essential. and developing the people in their teams. Because participation takes time. and this creates a risk that a project. charismatic leadership carries great responsibility. or even an entire organization. they invite other members of the team to contribute to the decision-making process. and when quality is more important than speed to market or productivity. so they're motivated to work hard by more than just a financial reward. As such.

It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work. Transformational leadership As we discussed earlier. because task-oriented leaders don't tend to think much about the well-being of their teams. 10. However. Alternatively. while the transformational leaders look after initiatives that add value. this approach can suffer many of the flaws of autocratic leadership. The leader could give team members some control of their income/reward by using incentives that encourage even higher standards or greater productivity. You own preferred or natural style. Team members can do little to improve their job satisfaction under transactional leadership. there's no one "right" way to lead or manage that fits all situations. The leader has a right to "punish" team members if their work doesn't meet the pre-determined standard. The "transaction" is usually the organization paying the team members in return for their effort and compliance." That's why. he or she can need to be supported by "detail people. in many organizations. organize. and they can be quite autocratic. Transactional leadership is really a type of management. The work involved (routine. conservative or adventurous). both transactional and transformational leadership are needed. because the focus is on short-term tasks.8. consider the following: y y y y The skill levels and experience of your team. The transactional leaders (or managers) ensure that routine work is done reliably. Establish trust ± that's key to this process ± and remember to balance the needs of the organization against the needs of your team. Task-Oriented leadership Highly task-oriented leaders focus only on getting the job done. a transactional leader could practice "management by exception" ± rather than rewarding better work. 9. according to the people they lead and the work that needs to be done. put structures in place. . While this leader's enthusiasm is often passed onto the team. or new and creative). Good leaders often switch instinctively between styles. To choose the most effective approach for yourself. not a true leadership style. with difficulties in motivating and retaining staff. The organizational environment (stable or radically changing. Key Points While the transformational leadership approach is often highly effective. people with this leadership style are true leaders who inspire their teams constantly with a shared vision of the future. Transactional leadership This style of leadership starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader totally when they accept a job. the leader could take corrective action if the required standards are not met. and monitor. They actively define the work and the roles required. plan.

and what happens when you don't? Why It Matters There's an old saying about the difference between a manager and a leader: "Managers do things right. Although Gandhi's situation is very different from yours.always feel like betrayals. And a big part of your responsibility is to lead them with your own actions. Consider what Mahatma Gandhi accomplished through his actions: He spent most of his adult life living what he preached to others. not as I do" philosophy. the principle is the same. and people followed in his footsteps. you must show them the way by doing it yourself. There's the supervisor who criticizes everyone for spending time on the Internet. that it could be done. Jack Welch of General Electric. I can do it.and cynicism and disappointment usually take its place. to independence ." When you lead by example. you create a picture of what's possible. and India. in turn. he had to turn everything upside down. double standards . Stop and think about the inspiring people who have changed the world with their examples.m. "Well. and then leaves promptly at 5:00 p. part of your job is to inspire the people around you to push themselves .to greatness. . to go golfing.) As a leader. you can probably remember that sense of disappointment and letdown.and. Do you know any of these people? There's hardly anything worse for company morale than leaders who practice the "Do as I say. When you lead by example. you can almost see the loss of enthusiasm and goodwill among the staff.witnessing people say one thing.Leading by Example Making sure you "Walk the Talk" There's the boss who tells everyone to stay late. If you're in a leadership position. then you know that you have a responsibility to your team. And the CFO who recommends layoffs to stop "unnecessary spending. They look to you for guidance and strength. So that's just what he did." but then buys herself brand-new luxury office furniture. He was committed to nonviolent resistance to protest injustice. It's like watching the air go out of a balloon . He led them. that's part of what being a leader is. If this ever happened to you.they're just different processes. So why is it so important to lead by example. if he can do it. They can be very destructive." (It's best to be both a manager and a leader . To do this. Welch knew that to push GE to new heights. you make it easy for others to follow you. and then doing another .because his life proved. People can look at you and say. No matter what the situation is. the company . but is discovered buying groceries online in the middle of the afternoon. Leaders do the right things. Look at legendary businessman. by example. When this happens.

or that you know what you're talking about. but does another? Consider what might have happened if Gandhi had. Enthusiasm may disappear. If you say one thing and do another. The chances of them getting into physical arguments or committing acts of violence probably would have increased dramatically." and he promised to listen to ideas from anyone in the company. productivity will drop. safe from the battle? Probably not. they'll follow you anywhere." This means that everyone is free to brainstorm and think of ideas . They may no longer believe in you. even one time. most likely. He wanted his team "turned loose. been in a physical fight with his opposition. then it shouldn't be hard to remember how angry and disappointed you were. all because your team doesn't trust you anymore. If you lead a team that doesn't trust you. Do you think that Alexander the Great's soldiers would have fought so hard for him if he had sat on top of a hill. What does this mean for you? If you give yourself to your team and show them the way. Welch stayed true to his passions and what he knew was right. As a result. And so it is with your team.if they had something to say or a new idea that might make the company better. and vision." it can be almost impossible for a team to work together successfully. Good leaders push their people forward with excitement. they likely won't follow you enthusiastically.instead of waiting for someone "higher up" in the bureaucracy to think of them first. The vision you're trying so hard to make happen may lose its appeal. GE became an incredibly successful company under his management. How can anyone trust a leader who talks about one thing. Everyone from the lowest line workers to senior managers got his attention . They may not trust that you're doing the right thing. if this ever happened to you. . instead of the example of a successful leader that we know today. trust. Why should they? Everything you tell them after that may meet with suspicion and doubt. He would have been just another average general in our history books. And he did. But what happens when you don't follow this rule? How does your team feel when you tell them to do one thing. His team was always willing to follow his lead. and then you do the exact opposite? As we said earlier.He developed the whole idea of a "boundaryless organization. When You Don't Lead by Example We've seen just how powerful it can be to lead by example. because the people within it knew that he always kept his word. then. When leaders don't "practice what they preach." and it didn't take his team long to figure that out. It wasn't just "talk. inspiration. His followers would have looked at him with suspicion and distrust. His important message of nonviolent protest would probably have been much harder to believe after that.

your team may feel guilty and start staying late too. For example.by example isn't as hard as it might sound. they accomplished great things. at the right time.if you want your team to take a full hour to rest and relax. then follow those rules just as closely as you expect everyone else to follow them. If you stay late to get more work done. which can destroy the whole purpose of the rule. Yes. If you criticize people for interrupting. If you implement new rules for the office." then don't talk to your spouse at work. y y y Leading Equals Motivating People Effectively.m. If your team knows that you'll also do whatever you expect from them. If. if the new rule is "no personal calls at work. make sure you'd be willing to do it yourself.. You'll be seen as dishonest. and your staff may become angry and start disobeying you. Look closely at your own behavior. in the spirit of goodwill. so demonstrate this yourself.and living . Leading . This means doing what you say. It's really the easiest path. when you say it. you need to fix this. Without Authority Does this sound like a job you'd want? . but you constantly do it yourself. then you need to do it too. then you need to do it too.Key Points Good leadership takes strength of character and a firm commitment to do the right thing. If your team can't trust you. you make a rule for everyone to leave the office at 5:00 p. Apply This to Your Life y If you ask a co-worker to do something. you'll probably never lead them to greatness. you want people to pay attention to one another and listen to all viewpoints. they'll likely work hard to help you achieve your goal. for the right reason. as a result. The same is true for something like a lunch break . Mahatma Gandhi and Alexander the Great helped change the world because they lived by example and.

empowering leaders. The people don't report to you. your level of authority is often nonexistent. They each have different areas of expertise and different ways of getting work done. to motivate. This doesn't sound like a lot of fun." he said. charismatic leaders. communicate effectively. He writes the "Leadership at Work" column for HarvardBusiness. and his most recent book is Lead Your Boss: The Subtle Art of Managing Up. a traditional leader has the status and position to demand how work is done. the one thing that traditional leaders can usually rely on. Leadership is a complex subject. and you'll have little to no authority over directing their performance. While Silberling was describing the context of his movie. movie director Brad Silberling explained that conflict is essential to good comedy.org. and values-based leaders. encourage. During a recent interview on NPR's Morning Edition. you'll be expected. However. facilitate. build trust. When things get tough. regardless of their style or situation. is legitimate power. For each of these styles. these are typical challenges. There are visionary leaders. does it? When leading a team of your peers. among other things. You misght have a little status as the person to whom the work has been given . But when you're in charge of a team of your peers. "Land of the Lost. you'll be held accountable for the team's output. "You want to put the wrong people into the wrong situation and watch the fireworks. However." he also could be describing the reality of bad management: the wrong person in the wrong job. there are situations where that style is and is not effective. coach. and resolve conflict.but is that enough to lead what is essentially a horizontal collaboration? Five signs of bad management John Baldoni is a leadership consultant.You'll be managing a diverse group of people from a variety of departments. And how do you know what qualifies as bad management? Here are the tell-tale signs: . To accomplish the team's goals. and speaker.

Co-workers learn to ask each other. it's essential for organizations who want to position themselves for future challenges. It may be a matter of gender or ethnicity or may simply involve choosing people with a personality or style similar to their own. incompetence breeds incompetence until the entire organization is affected. they result when a manager is insecure about his own abilities and therefore lives in fear of disapproval from above. Call it the revenge of the clones: Bad managers often hire people just like them. Leaders do not intentionally drive their companies into insolvency. something is definitely wrong. as there is less room for error. decides one thing one day only to reverse it the next day. Too often they have been put into their positions by equally poor managers who either do not understand the consequences of their inferior underlings or are incapable of putting such managers out to pasture because it would reflect badly on their own hiring decisions. it erodes morale. "Is he in a good mood today?" Putting up with a boss who swings from one mood to another. The boss who plays favorites is one who typically is very insecure in her own abilities. The resulting lack of diversity hurts problem solving. you might have to find ways to do it yourself." this strategy releases the talents and skills of individuals by giving them increasing levels of responsibility. When the boss is always right. more leadership for the middle. bad managers are nowhere to be found. A bad manager vents his mood on his direct reports. Absent without responsibility. or worse. Lack of decisiveness not only hinders efficiency. Now is the time for superior managers to step forward and help pilot their companies to better times. Sometimes called "leading up. Part of that good decision-making involves recognizing managerial incompetence and taking measures to correct it before it becomes epidemic and puts the company into a nose-dive. Sameness. The economic crisis we are experiencing highlights poor management. Favoritism. One solution for those trapped in organizations led by bad managers is to ask for.Failure to decide. these differences can produce new approaches that result in better ways of doing things. and that those in the middle need to step up when called to action. Grooming leaders from the middle ranks creates new opportunities for people to demonstrate their abilities and influence their organizations. thoughtful decisions cannot lead purposeful teams. we have seen far too many senior executives insist on bonus compensation even as their organizations lost billions. And if your boss won't do it. Such lack of accountability is not reserved for the middle ranks. managed well. People with different backgrounds look at issues and problems from different perspectives. . This leaves underlings to bear the brunt of the failure. No one likes to work with a boss who cannot decide. they disappear. can be trying. even insist on. Leadership from the middle is not simply a nice-to-have perk. Inconsistency. This means senior leaders need to delegate more authority to those below them. Why? Because those she favors are often folks who rarely disagree with her and never challenge her thinking. That's why bad management is so insidious. Long years of experience have tuned their antennae to danger and so when things seem tense. and then back again. When things go wrong. Managers who cannot make clear. Such mood swings are not clinical in nature. they simply fail to make good decisions at the right time. But it is not easy to get rid of bad managers.

9. They'll be thrilled for the opportunity to express their respect for your leadership style. assign it to someone else immediately. They'll be grateful for your input. staff should just enjoy being together. Inc. Whenever an idea comes to mind. 4. Someone else can keep track of important things for you. 16 is National Boss's Day. 8. 2. Va. instantly retain them as subcontractors for. is president of Dalton Alliances.. Don't inform staff of your calendar. .and don't worry about remembering to let appropriate staff know about such decisions. As you meet competent people during networking events. Don't have agendas for meetings. Remember: They're smart and will figure it out. Today. Friday. 7. 6. and behavioral sciences. Whenever staff are handling a particularly difficult situation. Oct. management. Previously a technology columnist and senior technology reporter at USA Today. and an agenda would probably constrain innovative thinking. 5. Always assign the same task to multiple people.. The discipline of not being all things to all people Kevin Maney is the author of Trade-Off: Why Some Things Catch On. After all. Remind your subordinates that today is Bosses' Day. 10. 3. Your staff will come to love that sense of the unexpected and will be happy to see you when you do drop by. You can always abandon it later. This will help you leverage the risk of missed deadlines. and Others Don't. Never put things in writing. This demonstrates flexibility. Here are 10 ways to increase your effectiveness as a leader and win the love and respect of your followers: 1.. Your direct reports are sure to appreciate the extra help.10 Tips for Winning the Respect of Your Followers Francie Dalton. a Maryland-based business consultancy specializing in the communication. he lives in Centreville. Don't be concerned about whether it should be done. CMC. call them every five minutes or so to offer assistance and to provide feedback on the actions they're taking. Don't hesitate to switch up people's responsibilies . Particularly on major projects.something. Change your mind often.

yet the agency's approach didn't focus on the big plus they did offer: ready-to-work employees. the convenience of having a "goodenough" prospect ready to jump into a critical vacancy is often a convenience managers appreciate. or ditch fidelity for great convenience." The agency often can't supply an ideal employee.i." That's where music CDs and newspapers find themselves today. inconvenient -. Stevens' agency fell into the fidelity belly.the very trade-offs that were at the heart of my research into the way some of the smartest CEOs and entrepreneurs think about their strategies. in Washington. They'll describe an ideal employee. Even if they don't consciously map out those trade-offs.i.e. these offices are having increased success. we quickly supply good-enough employees to your door. "One thing you don't ask is what kind of employee a manager is looking for. employers didn't see Stevens's clients as high convenience either. the "real" employee is someone who is ready and available right now. N.by focusing on convenience. . But high fidelity employees are hard -. but not both.one or the other.to find. the "ideal" employee is a high-fidelity employee. "When compared with their numbers from last year." Steven said." Stevens told me in late 2008. good leaders seem to innately know they need to manage them and be disciplined about driving toward either high fidelity or high convenience. That agency.e. and he pushed his office to try a different approach -. "We implemented this [focus on convenience] one year ago with just a few offices. "Appeals to the heart don't work. The most successful products and services tend to be either high in fidelity or high in convenience -." Looking through the lens the fidelity-convenience trade-off. On the other hand.C. So how could the agency be more effective in finding jobs for its clients? Stevens worked through his dilemma by thinking about the trade-offs between fidelity (the quality of an experience) and convenience (the ease of getting it) -. that's when a manager feels like he needs to hire a dishwasher right away. ready to work -. "If the dishwasher just quit." Stevens told me. Products or services that offer just so-so fidelity and so-so convenience fall into a no-man's-land of customer apathy that I call the "fidelity belly. Even if he or she doesn't have every skill an employer might ideally want. and the agency's job is not easy.. Stevens' agency was trying to sell a product (disabled job-seekers) that customers (business managers) saw as of lesser quality. Stevens had the courage to admit that his agency needed to change. A lot of CEOs manage by understanding that customers are willing to give up convenience for great fidelity. we see managers and leaders in a new way. As a result. is run by Daniel Stevens.it should have more success than when it fell into the gray middle area of so-so convenience and so-so fidelity. If his agency could become the employment agency of convenience -.One of the most moving example of leadership that I found while researching my book Trade-Off: Why Some Things Catch On and Others Don't turned up in a small-town agency that helps people with disabilities find jobs. As Stevens figured out.

Growing up.6 billion Bellagio. He kept reaching out to do something no one had done before. his father ran a string of bingo parlors in the Northeast. Of course. . Wynn built a hotel and casino that topped his competitors not by just a little.tructed Treasure Island on The Strip and then the $1. he spent $630 million building the Mirage on Las Vegas' strip. and the approach seems to be part of Wynn's very fiber. And each time.and put him in the highest-fidelity position. he topped them all by building the Wynn for $2. Wal-Mart stumbled in the same time period when its CEO forgot Wal-Mart was all about convenience and tried to do upscale clothing lines advertised in Vogue. like Stevens and Wynn. Each time. At each step. renovating it from a shabby casino into a resort. Perhaps no one in business understands fidelity better than casino owner Steve Wynn.7 billion. He eventually bought controlling interest of The Golden Nugget. But that's the key to super-fidelity.Let me give you another example. In the 1980s. He took over the family operation and leveraged it to buy a small stake in the Frontier Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas in the 1960s. In the 2000s. Wynn responded with a project that leapt far beyond competing properties and reclaimed the high-fidelity position. and its size and luxuriousness topped anything in the city at the time. understand the fidelity-convenience trade-offs and have the courage to act on them. Wynn next consjmu. other developers followed by matching or going just beyond Wynn's standard. but by a huge margin -. each response was a costly. Good leaders. risky bet. one that's the polar opposite of Stevens and his agency. Starbucks stalled in the mid-2000s because its leaders didn't stay disciplined about keeping Starbucks a high-fidelity brand.

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