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 Unlike many other forms of assessment, bit error rate, BER assesses the

full end to end performance of a system including the transmitter, receiver and
the medium between the two.
 As the name implies, a bit error rate is defined as the rate at which errors
occur in a transmission system.
 If the medium between the transmitter and receiver is good and the
signal to noise ratio is high, then the bit error rate will be very small.
 In a communication system, the receiver side BER may be affected by
transmission channel noise, interference, distortion, bit
synchronization problems, attenuation, wireless multipath fading, etc
1) Protocol data unit :
a) In telecommunications, a protocol data unit (PDU) is information that is
transmitted as a single unit among peer entities of a computer network.
A PDU may contain user data or control information and network
addressing. In layered architectures of communication protocol stacks,
each layer implements protocols tailored to the specific type or mode of
data exchange, or network function of the layer. For example,
the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) implements a
connection-oriented transfer mode, and the PDU of this protocol is called
a segment, while the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) uses datagrams as
protocol data unit for connection-less transfer. A layer lower in
the Internet Protocol Suite, at the Internet Layer, the PDU is called
a packet, irrespective of its payload type.
b) Protocol data units are relevant in relation to each of the first four layers
of the OSI model as follows:
i. The physical layer (layer 1) PDU is the bit or, more generally, symbol.
ii. The data link layer (layer 2) PDU is the frame.
iii. The network layer (layer 3) PDU is the packet.
iv. The transport layer (layer 4) PDU is the segment for TCP or
the datagram for UDP.

2) Communication protocol :
a) In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that
allow two or more entities of a communications system to
transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity. The
protocol defines the
rules, syntax, semantics and synchronization of communication and
possible error recovery methods. Protocols may be implemented
by hardware, software, or a combination of both.
b) A group of protocols designed to work together are known as a protocol
suite; when implemented in software they are a protocol stack.

3) Protocol stack:
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer
networking protocol suite or protocol family. The terms are often used
interchangeably; strictly speaking, the suite is the definition of
the Communications protocols, and the stack is the software implementation
of them.
4) Internet Protocol Suite:
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5) TCP/IP :
Short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, TCP/IP is a set
of rules (protocols) governing communications among all computers on the
Internet. More specifically, TCP/IP dictates how information should be
packaged (turned into bundles of information called packets), sent, and
received, as well as how to get to its destination.
a) How does TCP/IP work?

As the name implies, TCP/IP is a combination of two separate protocols:


Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). The Internet
Protocol standard dictates the logistics of packets sent out over networks; it
tells packets where to go and how to get there. IP has a method that lets any
computer on the Internet forward a packet to another computer that is one
or more intervals closer to the packet's recipient. The Transmission Control
Protocol is responsible for ensuring the reliable transmission of data across
Internet-connected networks. TCP checks packets for errors and submits
requests for re-transmissions if any are found.
b) Three of the most common TCP/IP protocols

i. HTTP - Used between a web client and a web server,


for non-secure data transmissions. A web client (i.e., Internet
browser on a computer) sends a request to a web server to view a
web page. The web server receives that request and sends the web
page information back to the web client.
ii. HTTPS - Used between a web client and a web server, for secure data
transmissions. Often used for sending credit card transaction data or
other private data from a web client (i.e., Internet browser on a
computer) to a web server.
iii. FTP - Used between two or more computers. One computer sends
data to or receives data from another computer directly.

c) Domain names and TCP/IP addresses

The TCP/IP address for a website or web server is typically not easy to
remember. To remedy this issue, a domain name is used instead. For
example, 216.58.216.164 is one of the IP address for Google
and google.com is the domain name. Using this method, instead of a set of
numbers, makes it much easier for users to remember Computer
Hope's web address.
d) What are the different layers of TCP/IP?

There are four total layers of TCP/IP protocol, each of which is listed below
with a brief description.
i. Network Access Layer - This layer is concerned with
building packets.
ii. Internet Layer - This layer uses Internet Protocol (IP) to describe
how packets are to be delivered.
iii. Transport Layer - This layer utilizes User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to ensure the proper
transmission of data.
iv. Application Layer - This layer deals with application network
processes. These processes include File Transfer Protocol (FTP),
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), and Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol (SMTP).

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