You are on page 1of 32

RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN FROM CORINTH: Stylistic and Chemical

Analyses
Author(s): Ian D. McPhee and Efi Kartsonaki
Source: Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Vol. 79,
No. 1 (January-March 2010), pp. 113-143
Published by: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40835456 .
Accessed: 18/03/2014 10:12

Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .
http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.

.

The American School of Classical Studies at Athens is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and
extend access to Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.

http://www.jstor.org

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
»..».«„(...o) RED-FIGURE POTTERY
P'g""3"43 OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN
FROM CORINTH
Stylistic and Chemical
Analyses

ABSTRACT

The focusofthisarticleis a groupof18 red-figure
fragmentsorfragmentary
vesselsfoundat Corinthwhoseplaceofmanufacture cannotbe determined
byvisualanalysis.All are datableto thelater5thor early4th centuryb.c.
SeveralofthevasesweredecoratedbytheAcademyPainter(an AtticLate
Mannerist)orbyanother painter, thePainterofCorinth1937-525,
designated
whois consideredhereforthefirst time.Chemicalanalysisofthefragments
indicatesthat15 ofthe18 forma discretegroupdistinctfromnormalAttic
and Corinthianclays.The analysisalso confirmstheCorinthianoriginofa
bellkraterpaintedbytheAtticSuessulaPainter.

Manyfragments ofred-figure
vaseshavecometolightintheexcavations
at AncientCorinthconductedsince1896 by theAmericanSchoolof
ClassicalStudiesat Athens.1
Most ofthesefragments can be identified
easilybyvisual offabricandstyleas eitherAtticor Corinthian,
analysis
and mostof thesignificantfragments havealreadybeenpublished.2A
fewfragments havebeenidentifiedas importsfromSicily,
SouthItaly,
or

1. We wishto expressourgratitude acceptedthisprojectand facilitated 2. Atticred-figure:
Luce 1930;
to CharlesK. WilliamsII, Director ourwork.We alsogreatly appreciated Pease 1937,pp.257-272; Beazley
EmeritusoftheCorinthExcavations, theefficient cooperation ofourGreek 1955;Palmerin Corinth XIII, pp. 152-
forhisgenerouspermission, given colleaguesin AncientCorinth.The 166; Boulter1966;McPhee 1976;
manyyearsago,to analyzeandto photographs ofthepottery wereex- Boulterand Bentz1980;McPhee 1981;
publishthematerial presentedin this pertlyproducedbyLenio Bartziotiand Boulterin Corinth XV.3,pp. 364-365;
article.
We arealsoverygrateful to the Ino Ioannidou.Much ofthecostofthe McPhee 1987;Pemberton 1988; Cor-
current GuySanders, his
director, for chemicalanalysisundertaken at the inthXVIII.l, pp. 143-151;McPhee
continuingsupport.Ian McPhee is FitchLaboratory was defrayed bya 2000,pp.457-461. Corinthian red-
indebtedto NancyBookidis,Assistant grantfromtheResearchCommitteeof figure:Corbettin PerachoraII, pp.286-
DirectorEmerita,forherfriendly theSchoolofHistoricaland European 289; CorinthVII.4; McPhee 1983;
in theCorinthMuseumover
assistance Studiesat La TrobeUniversity; forthis Boulterin Corinth XV.3,p. 225;
manyyears.Her successoras curator, generous we
assistance, aremost appre- Herbert1986;McPhee andTrendall
IouliaTzonou-Herbst, has alsobeen ciative.Ian McPhee is responsible for 1986; CorinthXVIII.l, pp. 136-138;
mosthelpful. EvangeliaKiriatzi, thecatalogueand thestylistic discus- McPhee 1991; 1997,pp. 118-120;
DirectoroftheFitchLaboratory of sion;EfiKartsonaki is responsiblefor 2004,pp.2-9.
theBritishSchoolatAthens,kindly thechemicalanalysis.

© The American School of Classical Studies at Athens

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
114 IAN D- McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Etruria.3In othercases,however,it is not possibleto be certain,froma
visualinspectionalone,whethera fragment or fragmentary vase is Attic
or Corinthianor was producedin some othercenter(e.g., Sikyon,the
Argolid,Lakonia,Elis).4
With thisproblemin mind,the feasibility of a projectthatinvolved
thescientific analysisof a smallnumber of red-figuresherdsfromCorinth
was raisedwithIan Whitbreadin 1997-1998,whenhe was thedirectorof
the Fitch Laboratoryof the BritishSchool at Athens.With his support
forthe project,an applicationwas made throughthe AmericanSchool
of Classical Studiesto the GreekMinistryof Culture,and a permitwas
eventually receivedinJanuary 2002. In 2003, 18 fragments orfragmentary
vases,representing themajority ofthered-figure pottery ofuncertain origin,
together with two control groups ofAttic and Corinthian red-figure frag-
ments, were selected and analyzed at the Fitch Laboratory in Athens.5 In
thecase ofthefirst16 piecesofuncertainorigin,theaimwas to determine
whethertheywerelikelytobe Atticornot;in thecase ofthelasttwopieces,
thequestionwas whetheror nottheclaywas Corinthian.
In thefirst partofthisarticle,the18 fragments and fragmentary vases
of uncertainorigin are catalogued. The of
clay pieces that have already
been publishedis carefully described,but theiconography is givenonlya
summarydescription and theappropriate references appended.The cata-
logue is followed a
by stylistic discussion thatfocuses upon the workof
theAcademyPainterand thatof anotherpainter, the Painter of Corinth
1937-525,whose workis identifiedand characterizedforthe firsttime.
In the secondpart,the resultsof the chemicalanalysisare presentedand
brieflydiscussed.The implications ofthestylisticand scientific analysesare
consideredfurther in theconclusion,particularly in regardto a bell krater
potted, as it seems, with Corinthian clay but decorated by the Suessula
Painter, most ofwhose vases are made ofAttic clay.

CATALOGUE

In thefollowingcatalogue,thereferencein parenthesesafterthecatalogue
numberis the sample numberassignedforchemicalanalysis.Munsell
readingsareprovidedforfabriccolors.6Grid coordinatesareindicatedfor
findspotsin the centralarea of Corinth.7All dimensionsare in meters.
When a summary is givenandthesceneis onlypartly
description preserved,
thedescriptionof theremainsis placed in parentheses.

1 (Cor03/11) Bellkrater Fig.1
C-1971-258a,b (exC-1937-526).ForumSouthwest, grid58:K,water-laid
beneath
deposit roadway levels of
north II
building (lot 6785); ForumSouth
Central,
grid50:L,well1937-1.

3. Publishedin McPhee andPem- ForLakonian,see McPhee 1986, materialwithouta precisefindspot.
berton2004. Stroszeck2006. ForElean,see Schier- Balti-
6. MunsellSoilColorCharts,
4. Fora briefsurveyoflocalred- ino-1964-MrPfipp19«6k 1990 more1975.
figurein Greece,see TheDictionary
of 5. The sherdsin thetwocontrol 7. Fora planofthecentralarea,ca.
Art13,pp.533-535,s.v.Red-Figure groupsarepresented in theAppendix. 400 b.c.,withthegridcoordinatesindi-
Pottery:OtherAreas(I. D. McPhee). All werechosenfromuncatalogued cated,seeWilliams1980,p. 112,fig.2.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN II5

Figure1. Bell krater1. Scale1:3
Hard,slightly
gritty variably
fabric, 7.5YR6/4(light
fired, brown)-6/6(reddish
yellow)incore,to 7.5YR6/2(pinkish gray)andin spots2.5YR5/8(red),7.5YR
5-6/4(lightbrowntobrown)onsurface; finespecksofmicaonsurface,fewsmall
fewsmallvoids.Darkreddish-brown
whiteinclusions, miltos.Blackglazewith
slightsheen.Sample:C-1971-258a.
A (drapedfigure).B, threedrapedmales.
McPhee1987,pp.284-286,no.27,fig.2,pl.52.C-1971-638(McPhee1987,
p.286,no.28,pl.52) maywellbelongto thesamevase.
Academy Painter,ca.420-390b.c.

2 (Cor03/18)Lip andupperwallofbellkrater Fig.2
C- 1978-99.ForumSouthwest, grid61-62:C,fillfromrobbing for
trenches
wallsofbuildingIV (lot1978-43).
Hard,grittyfabric,7.5YR6/4(lightbrown); frequentfinespecksofmicaon
surface,
frequentsmall to largewhite few
inclusions, verylargedarkinclusions,
many small
to largevoids. Lightred miltos.
Black to greenishblackglazewith
sheen.
onlyslight
B (drapedyouthstanding toleft).
McPhee1987,p. 286,no.30,fig.3,pl.53.
Academy Painter, ca. 420-390b.c.

3 (Cor03/02)Wallofbellkrater Fig.2
C-1929-206.Probably of
fromthenorthslope Temple Hill.
Hard,slightly fabric,
gritty veryfine
7.5YR 6/4(lightbrown);numerous
specksofmicaonsurface,
fewsmalltomedium whiteinclusions,
manysmall
voids.
shiny
Slightly on
blackglaze,appliedthinly theinterior.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Il6 IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure2. Fragmentsofbell kraters
2, 3. Scale1:2

B (drapedyouthstanding
toright,rightarmextended).
Corinth no. 17
VII.4,p.55, Ill, pl. (cataloguedas Corinthian);
mentioned in
McPhee1983,p. 144,underno.21,and McPhee 1987,p. 286,underno.27.
Academy ca.420-390b.c.
Painter,

4 (Cor03/05)Fragments ofa bellkrater Fig.3
C-1937-525a-e.ForumSouthCentral, grid50:L,well1937-1.
Hard,slightlygranularfabric,7.5YR 6/6-8, butredder5YR 6/6(reddish
yellow)in lowerbody;rarespecksof mica on fewsmallwhiteanddark
surface,
inclusions,
many small
to medium voids. Slightlyshiny, blackglaze,red-
brownish
dishwhereappliedthinly;redinbottomofbowl.Sample:C-1937-525b.
A,wingedfigure between twowomen.B (drapedmales).
McPhee1976,pp.388-389,no.21, pl. 88; citedin McPhee 1981,p. 277,
underno.49,andin Corinth XVIII.1,p. 89,underno.61.
Painter ofCorinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.

5 (Cor03/12)Fragments ofa bellkrater Fig.4
C-1971-259a-d. ForumSouthwest, grid58-59:K, water-laid
depositbeneath
roadway levelsnorthofbuilding II (lots6785-6787).Fournonjoining fragments.
Fragment a: manyjoiningsherdspreserving muchofone side,givinga profile
from therimalmosttothestem;beginning ofthestumpofa handleattheupper
leftbreak.Fragment b: 13 sherdspreservinga sectionofthebodywiththestump
of a handleat theupperrightbreak.Fragment foursherds
c: (notillustrated)
preservinga small
section ofthe lower d:
body.Fragment single sherd fromthe
lowerbody.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN 11J

Figure3. Bell krater4. Scale2:5

a) Max.p.H. 0.220,Diam.rim0.290-0.300;b) max.p.H. 0.175,p.W.0.173,
Th. 0.006-0.010;c) max.p.H. 0.074,p.W.0.091;d) max.dim.0.053.
Hard,slightlygrainy 7.5YR6/4to6/6(lightbrown
fabric, toreddishyellow),
butredder,5YR 6/8(reddishyellow),inthelowerbowl;fewsmallwhiteinclusions,
rarespecksofmica,manysmallto medium voids.Lightredmiltosoverreserved
areas.Shinyblackglaze,appliedthinlyinplaces.Glazedinsideexceptfortwore-
servedbands,one(W. 0.001-0.003)attherim,theother(W. 0.004)atthebase
ofthelip.Tracesofwearon theupperband.Sample:C-1971-259b.
Fragment a,from theobverse ofthevase,preservesa libation
sceneinvolving
twowomen.The womanon theleftstandsinfrontal view,herleftfootandhead
turnedto theright.She wearsa peploswithblackstripeat thehemaboveand
below,andholdsa cistawithherleftarm.The secondwomanis similarly dressed
andhasa similarstance,butreversed,so thatshefaceshercompanion. Sheholds
a bowlin heroutstretched righthandand a trefoil-lippedjug in herleft.Each
womanwearsa wreath ofwhiteleaves.Behindtheleft-hand woman,a leafofthe
floralbelowthelefthandle.At theright, a side-spiral
fromthepalmette below

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
Il8 IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure4. Bell krater5. Scale2:5

theright handle.On thelip,a laurelwreath, witha singlerowofleavespointing
toleft.Belowthepicture, a horizontalbandofegg-pattern. Fragment b,from the
reverse,preserves mostofthe right-hand (head
figure and feetmissing),standing
in profileto left,wrappedin a himation. Below,a sectionoftheegg-pattern. At
theright, belowthehandle,a singlepalmette andone ofthespiralling tendrils
thatflanked it.Theremayhavebeena narrow reserved bandaroundthestumps
ofeachhandle,butnopattern. c
Fragment(notillustrated), partsofa
preserving
side-tendrilofthefloral belowa handle,probably comesfromtheleft-hand side
ofthereverse, as alsofragmentd,which preservesthe back footofa drapedfigure
standing inprofile toright.
Thinpreliminary sketch forthehead
lines,especially
oftheright-hand womanon fragment a.
Citedin Corinto XVIII.1,p. 145,underno.339.
Painter ofCorinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN II9

ofkraters
Figure5. Fragments 6, 7.
Scale3:4

6 (Cor03/10)Upperwallandlipofbellkrater Fig.5
C-1969-96.SacredSpringCentral, dumpedfillabovefloor2 (lot5777).
Hard,gritty 7.5YR 6/4-6/6(lightbrownto reddish
fabric, yellow),butalso
7.5YR 6/8in places;manyveryfinespecksofmicaon surface, fewsmallwhite
somevoids.Slightly
inclusions, blackglazeoutside,
shiny dullon theinside.
A, symposium (partsoftwomales).
McPhee1981,p. 277,no.49,pl.69.
Painter
ofCorinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.

7 (Cor 03/13)Upperwallandlipofkrater Fig.5
C-1971-581.ForumSouthwest, grid55:M, red earth of
northeast pottery
depositindrain1971-1.
Max.p.H. 0.094,p.W.0.108,Th. 0.009-0.010.Probably froma bellkrater
ratherthana calyxkrater.
Hard,slightlygrainy 5YR 6/6(reddish
fabric, yellow)incore,but7.5YR6/4
(lightbrown)in places,andlightgraytowardtheoutersurface; fewsmallwhite
numerous
grits, specksoffinemicaon surface, manysmallvoids.Red miltoson
reservedareas.The glazehasfireda reddish brownon theinside,a dullgrayish
blackon theoutside.Reserved band(W. 0.003) on theinside(thelowerofthe
usualtwo).
The fragment preserves partofthepicture fromthemainsideofthevase.
The head,in profileto right,andpartofthetorso,in frontal view,ofa standing
woman,whowearsa sleeveless chitonandholdsa boxwithherlefthand.Her
hair,whichis tiedup in a bun,is adornedwiththreeleaves.At therightis the
head(forehead andnose),inprofile whomaybe maleandwho
toleft,ofa figure,
was probably seated.The figure wearsa curioustallcap,characterized bydots
andfinerelieflines,so perhapsmadeofanimal-skin, andhasa wreath aboutthe
head.Abovethefigures, on thelip,a laurelwreath,theleavespointing to left.
Some preliminary sketchlinesforthewoman.Addedwhitewashedwithred

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I2O IAN D. MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure6. Fragmentsofkraters8, 9.
Scale3:4

miltoson theleavesin thehairofthewomanandon thewreathofthesecond
figure.
Citedin CorinthXVIII.1,p. 145,underno.339.
PainterofCorinth1937-525,ca.430-400b.c.

8 (Cor03/14)Upperwallandlipofkrater Fig.6
C-1975-30.ForumSouthwest, grid71:D.
Max.p.H. 0.053,p.W.0.045,Th. 0.007-0.008.Froma bellkrater ora calyx
krater.
Hard,slightlygrainy 7.5YR 6/6(reddish
fabric, numerous
yellow); finespecks
ofmicaonsurface, many smallvoids.Light wash overreservedareas.Shinyblack
glaze.Glazed on the insideexceptfor a reservedband (W. 0.003) aboutthe
at
midpoint.
A singlefigureremainsfrom theobverse:head,inprofiletoright,uppertorso,
in three-quarter and
view, parts of theupper arms ofa naked youth,whoseems
tobe gazingslightlyupward. the
Given position ofhisheadjustbelow theoffset
ofthelip,hewasprobably standingormoving ratherthanseated.He mayhave
beenholding objectsinhishands.Aroundtheyouthshead,a thinwhitefillet. At
theupperbreak, thereserved groovemarking thebeginning ofthelip.Manythin
sketch
preliminary lines.
PainterofCorinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.

9 (Cor03/09)Upperwallofbellkrater Fig.6
C-1964-478a-c.Sanctuary ofDemeterandKore(lots2165,4347,4474).
7.5YR6/6to 7/6-8(reddish
Soft,finefabric, yellow);numerous finespecks
ofsurfacemica,fewwhiteinclusions,smallvoids.Lightredmiltos. Dull brown-
ishblackglazeon interior, slightsheenon exterior.
appliedunevenly; Sample:
C-1964-478C.
A (youth inhimation,woman).Onlyfragment a is illustrated
here.
CorinthXVIII.1,p. 145,no.339,pl.38.
PainterofCorinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.

10 (Cor03/07)Rimandwalloflargeskyphos Fig.7
b.
C-1961-227a, Sanctuary ofDemeter andKore,pit1961-2.
Mediumhard,slightly gritty 7.5YR 6-7/6(reddishyellow);some
fabric,
finespecksofsurfacemica,fewsmallvoids.Surfacedarkenedwithmiltos.Dull
glaze on
misfired brownish
exterior, blackwith sheen
slight on interior.
Sample:
C-1961-227a.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN 121

Figure7. Fragmentsofskyphoi10,
11 and bell krater12. Scale1:2
B (drapedmale- theright-hand figurein thescene).A second,smallfrag-
ment(max.dim.0.035),notpublished inCorinthXVUI.l andnotillustrated
here,
the
preserves right side of theyouth's himation at the hem withpartofa black
thestemofa tendril
to theright,
stripe; fromthefloral beneaththehandle.The
was
skyphos large, witha diameterat therim of ca. 0.290.
CorinthXVIII.1,p. 89,no.61,pl.9; Stroud1965,p. 7,pl.2:b.
Painter Corinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.
of

11 (Cor03/08)Upperwallandrimoflargeskyphos Fig.7
C-1964-403.Sanctuary ofDemeterandKore,roomL (lot2142).
Max. p.H. 0.058,p.W. 0.066,Diam. (est.)0.280-0.300,Th. (lowerbreak)
0.006.
misfired
finefabric,
Soft,relatively a grayishbrown, closestto7.5YR6/4but
grayer; numerous finespecksof surface
mica, smallvoids. Lightredmiltos.Dull
brownish blackglaze.
Head,inprofiletoleft,
andshoulders, seeninthree-quarterview,ofa woman.
Shewearsa sleevelesschitonandherhairis tiedatthebackofherhead.It is not
clearwhether shewasstanding orseated,butthethinobjectnearthebreakabove
herproper rightshouldermay be thefinial A fewpreliminary
ofa scepter. sketch
lines.
Otherfragments ofskyphoi fromtheSanctuary ofDemeterandKore(e.g.,
C-1965-317a-c, C-1965-542) havea similarclay glaze,butonlyC-1965-317c
and
(a rim fragment an
preservingegg-pattern below,
and, thetopofa head)maycome
from thesamevase.
ClosetothePainter ofCorinth1937-525,ca. 430-400b.c.

12 (Cor03/15)Lowerwallofbellkrater Fig.7
C-1975-55.ForumSouthwest, grid73:E,PentagonalBuilding, between west
wallandbedrock (lot1975-47).
Max. p.H. 0.099,p.W. (chord)0.103,Th. 0.008-0.009.Mendedfromtwo
sherds.
Hard,slightlygrainy 5YR 6/8(reddish
fabric, incoreto7.5YR6/6on
yellow)
manyfinespecksofmica,fewsmallwhiteinclusions,
surface; somevoids.Shiny
blackglaze.Insideglazed.
The fragment theleftsideoftheobverse.
preserves At left,a tallleafand
budfromtheside-tendril ofthefloral
under the handle.
left To theright, a male

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
122 IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure8. Fragmentofcalyxkrater13.
Scale 1:2

(torsotocalf),standing
figure inthree-quarter
viewtoright.He wearsa himation
offhisleftshoulder,exposing therightsideofhistorso.He seemsto havebeen
wearing a secondgarment, a shortcloakperhaps,theendsofwhichhangdown
alonghisleftandright side,withblackstripe
atthehem.In frontofthisfigure
are
thehindquarters ofa sheepstanding ormoving Manythinpreliminary
to right.
sketchlines.Reliefcontour alongthebackofthesheep.
Lastquarter ofthe5thcentury b.c.

13 (Cor03/16)Wallandlipofsmallcalyxkrater Fig.8
C-1976-155.ForumSouthwest, grid74:B (lot1976-74).The beginning of
thebowl(cui)is preserved at thelowerbreak;thelipis offset fromthewallbya
reservedgroove.
Max.p.H. 0.145,Diam. (est.)rim0.270,H. offigured area0.112,Th. wall
0.006-0.007.
Hard,slightly granular 5YR 6/8(reddish
fabric, yellow)incore,butbrowner,
7.5YR 6/6(reddish in
yellow), places and at surface;numerous veryfinespecks
ofsurface mica, some voids. Slightlyshiny black glaze,appliedthinlyandfired
reddishin spots.Insideglazedexceptfortworeserved bands(W. 0.002) at top
andbottom oflip.Reddishbrownmiltosoverthemalefigure butnot,apparently,
on thelaurel.
A naked,rather corpulent male(head,leftarm,righthand,andrightfoot
missing) is shown in to
profile right, hisleftleg raised.Belowhisleftfootis a
curvinggroundline rendered in added whitewashedwithredmiltos. The figure
be
may standing withhis leg raisedon a risein the or
terrain, moving forward to
His
right. right arm is bent forward.To judge from the brushstrokesofglazeat
theleft,hewasthefirst figure on theleftside of the On
picture. thelip,a laurel
wreath,witha singlerowofleavespointing toleft.Thinpreliminary sketch lines
on thefigure, especially the
along legs.
Lastquarter ofthe5thorearly4thcentury b.c.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I23

Figure9. Fragments
ofbellkraters
16.Scale1:2
14,15 andcalyxkrater
14 (Cor03/17)Lowerwallofbellkrater Fig.9
C-1977-98.ForumSouthwest, grid68:E,PunicAmphora fill
Building, under
paved floor(lot1977-35).
Max.p.H. 0.070,p.W.0.103,Th. (lowerbreak)0.015.
Hard,grainy 7.5YR6/4(lightbrown)incore,tending
fabric, to7.5YR7/4on
surface;secondary burning left
along break; few white manyveryfine
inclusions,
specksofmica, few small
voids.Brownish blackglazewith slightsheen.
Legs ofa standingfigure,
probably female, her
herrightleg seenfrontally,
leftleginprofile Shewearsa peploswitha doubleblackstripe
toright. downher
properrightside.To theright, thebottomofan unidentified object(thyrsos?),
perhapsheldbythewoman,is setupona groundline renderedin addedwhite.
Below,a horizontal reservedbanddefiningtheupperedgeofthepattern-band.
Thinlinesofpreliminary sketch.Reliefcontourforthefeetandtheunidentified
object.
About430-400b.c.

15 (Cor03/03)Wallofbellkrater Fig.9
C-1931-320a.No precisefindspot.
Max.dim.0.076,Th. 0.004(top)-0.006(bottom).
Hardfabric,7.5YR 6/6tending to 7/6(reddishyellow)in core,7.5YR 5/4
on
(brown) surface, some very finemica on surface.
Brownish blackglazewith
sheen.
slight Miltos on reserved areas.
The sherdpreservesa section belowonehandle:a doublepalmette
ofthefloral
on itsleft.At theleft,a bitofthepattern
withspiraltendril (eggs?)aroundthe
stump ofa handle.
Probablylastquarter ofthe5thorfirst ofthe4thcentury
quarter b.c.

16 (Cor 03/01)Bowlandwallofcalyxkrater Fig.9
C-1929-133.Odeion.Thefragment preservesthebeginningofthewalloffset
fromthebowlbya reserved groove.
Max.p.H. 0.078,p.W.0.100,Th. (upperbreak)0.010-0.011.
Hard,slightly
grainy 7.5YR6/6to 7/6(reddish
fabric, yellow)incore,some
veryfinespecksofmica,smallvoids.Slightly brownish
shiny, blackglaze.
On thebowl,a zoneofalternating uprightandpendant Littleof
palmettes.
thepictureonthewallremains: andthe
a foottoleft,thetoesofa secondfoot(?),
baseofan altaroroffering-
table- seatedon orbesidean altar?
perhapsa figure
Whitegroundline belowthefeet.
ofthe4thcentury
Firstquarter b.c.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
124 IAN D- MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure10. Bell krater17. Scale1:3

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I25

17 (Cor 03/04)Bellkrater Fig.10
C-1937-447.ForumSouthCentral, grid50:L,well1937-1.
Max.p.H. 0.186,Diam.lip0.300.
Hard,finefabric, 10YR7/3-4(very palebrown)incore,but7.5YR6/6(red-
dishyellow)on surface. Orange pale wash.Slightly
to red shiny,brownishblack
glaze,flaking on
(particularly the inside
of thevase).
A, departureorreturn ofa youngman.B (twodrapedyouths).
Morgan1937,pp.547-548,fig.11; Beazley1940-1945,p. '1;ARV2 1345,
VII.4,pp.47-48,no.76,pl.13;Johnston
no.13; Corinth 1991,p.231;Pemberton
1997a,p. 415,fig.26; Pemberton 2003,p. 173.
SuessulaPainter[P.E. Corbett inPerachoraII, p. 287],ca. 420-400b.c.

18 (Cor 03/06)Wallofcalyxkrater Fig.11
C-1940-402.NewMuseumEast,well1940-1.The fragment preservesatthe
lowerbreakthebeginning ofthebowlandthehorizontal reserved grooveabove.
Max.p.H. 0.145,p.W.0.172,Th. 0.005(upperbreak).
Hard,finefabric, 7.5YR 7/6(reddish yellow)to 10YR 7/6(yellow). Thin
orangeslip (surface7.5YR 7/4-6).
Slightly shiny, mottled,greenish black glaze,
flaking.
At left,representing thefirst
figure on theleftofthepicture, arethelower
in
legs, profile to of
left, a seatedmale wearing a himation with a blackborder. To
theright, a femalefigure (headandlowerlegs,exceptrightfoot,missing) seated
to right,hertorsoin three-quarter view.Her armsandrightfootarepaintedin
addedwhite.She wearsa beltedgarment ornamented
thatis elaborately (wave,
pendant rays,palmettes).A himationwith blackborder enfoldsher legs. holds
She
a whitewreathin herloweredrighthand,anda scepter in herraisedleft,so she
is probably The fragment
a goddess. alsopreserves thehemofthechitonandthe
lowerpartofa secondgarment (ependytes)ydecorated witha wave-pattern and
rays,worn by a third
figure, probablyfemale. Behind theseatedwoman, rocks are
indicated withincisedlines.Preliminary sketch linesforallfigures.Reliefcontour
forthelowerpartofthehimation oftheseatedwoman.
Citedin Corinth VII.4,p. 22; McPhee1978,p. 563.
Firstquarter ofthe4thcentury b.c.

Figure11. Fragmentofcalyxkrater18.
Scale 1:2

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I2Ó IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS

Items 1-16 display,to the nakedeye,a verysimilarfabric.The firedclay
is usuallya pale brownin color,7.5YR 6/6 (reddishyellow)in the core,
althoughit maybe slightly redder,5YR 6/6 (7) or 6/8 (5, 12, 13) or even
2.5YR 5/8 (1). In textureit is usuallyhard,8and rathergrainy, withsmall
whiteinclusions,mica,and voids.The fabricis generallysimilarto that
used forcontemporary Atticred-figure vases,and hardlydistinguishable
by eye,but it is perhapsa littlebrownerthanis normalin Attic,the fir-
ing tendsto producemorevoids,and thereare morefinespecksof mica,
particularlyon thesurface.
Amongthesefragments theworkoftwopaintersmaybedistinguished
on groundsof style.Items1-3 can be attributed to theAcademyPainter,
who comes at theveryend of the so-calledManneristtraditionin J.D.
Beazleys compilationofAthenianred-figure vase-painters.9 Fourvasesby
onehandwerefirst groupedtogether byBeazleyin 1939.10 Threeyearslater,
in thefirsteditionofAtticRed-FigureVase-Painters, thesewereattributed
to a PainterofBonn 1614,and a separategroupofsixvaseswas considered
tobe theworkoftheAcademyPainter.11 Later,Beazleyrecognizedthatthe
PainterofBonn 1614 represented thelate phase of theAcademyPainter,
and by 1963 thetotalnumberofvases attributed to him had increasedto
20.12In 1979 CharlesWilliamscontributed twofragments ofa bell krater
fromhis excavationsat Corinth,13 and we are able to add, also fromthe
Americanexcavationsin Corinth,fragments of a further fiveor sixvases
thatseem to be attributable to the painter,alongwithanotherthatis at
leastin his manner,14as well as twosmallbell kratersin thearchaeological
museumsofThebes and Chalkis.15Recently, Giada Giudice has assigned
to the same paintertwo morecolumnkratersin Ragusa and Camarina,
and Angela Schöne-Denkingerhas added a previouslyunpublishedbell
kraterin Berlin.16This bringsthe numberof knownvases by thepainter
to about31, withanotherthreeor fourin his manner.17

8. The skyphos fragment 11 is an liams1979,p. 132,no.41, pl. 49; oftheRagusavase(no.210: see Giu-
exception, butthisis probably
due to its McPhee 1987,p. 286, no.29, pl. 53; dice2007,p. 124; Pelagatti1973,
depositional history.The Sanctuary of Mannack2001,p. 125,no.AC.20. p. 149,no.442,pl. 47) areinadequate
Demeterand Koreis situatedon the 14. AcademyPainter:kraters 1-3 to confirm Giudice'sattribution.
Berlin
northslopeofAcrocorinth, wherethe above, to whichadd C-1938-330 (Mc- 31573: CVA,Berlin11 [Germany86],
fillis shallowandhasbeenseriously Phee 1987,pp.285-286),C-1977-70 pp.48-49,pl.46 [4546].The bellkrater
affected bywaterrunoff overthe (McPhee 1987,pp.286-287,no.31, in Berlinis small,only0.193 m high.
centuries: see Pemberton 1983,p. 65. pl. 53), C-1974-29 (McPhee 1987, 17. See thelistin Mannack2001,
9.ARV2 1124-1125,1684;Parali- p. 287, no.32, pl. 53). Mannerofthe pp. 124-126,whichaddsa column
pomenap. 453; BeazleyAddendap. 332. AcademyPainter:C-1972-91 (McPhee krater in Ferrara,inv.2996 (no.AC.26),
The AcademyPainterhas recently been 1987,p. 287, no. 33,pl. 53). butfailsto includeC-1938-330and
studiedas one oftheLate Mannerists 15.ThebesTh.P.702: CVA,Thebes1 C-1929-206 (bellkrater 3) fromCor-
in Mannack2001,pp.43-45, 114, [Greece6], pp. 88-89,fig.41, pl. 83 inth,as wellas thebellkratersin Chal-
124-126. [361]; Chalkis2719: mentioned in kis,Thebes,Camarina,and Berlin.
10. Beazley1939,p. 26. McPhee 1987,p. 286,underno.27. Mannackalsogivesa separatenumber
n.ARV1 849 (PainterofBonn 16. Giudice2007,pp. 124-125, (no.AC.22) to C-1971-638,even
1614),394 (AcademyPainter). nos.210,211. Therecan be no doubt thoughitprobably belongsto thesame
X2.ARV11124-1125,1684. aboutthecolumnkrater in Camarina vaseas C-1971-258 (no.AC.21) (bell
13. C-1978-113 + CP-1668: Wil- (no.211), buttheavailablephotographs krater1).

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I27

The AcademyPainteris principally a painterofbellkraters, buthe
decorates threeothershapesas well:columnkrater, and
pelike, hydria. In
thishefollows theMannerist tradition, in
except preferring bell kratersto
columnkraters. The columnkrater, was to
however, beginning disappear
from therepertory oftheAthenian potter bythelate5thcentury infavor
ofthebellkrater and,toa lesserextent,thecalyxkrater.18 Fromtheknown
findspots, it is obviousthatthevasesoftheAcademyPainterreacheda
widemarket, from Al Mina(2),toSpina(4), Suessula(1),Camarina(1 or
2), andAmpurias (1). Most,however, havebeenfoundinGreece:Athens
andAttica(atleast5), Corinth(atleast5), Rheneia(1), Boiotia(1). The
number ofvasesbytheonehandfromCorinthis surprising, eventhough
vasesbyearlier Mannerists hadcertainly reachedthecity.19
AdolphGreifenhagen datedthebellkraterinBonntothe"EndeS.Jahr-
hundert odernichtvielspäter," in
and, publishing a fragmentary vase
Al
from Mina, Beazleyremarked, style "daft of the beginning the
of
fourth century."20 Thereis,unfortunately,littlecontextual evidence forthe
of the
chronology painter, independent ofthe individual scholar s concept
ofthestylistic development ofAtticred-figure. First,someofthesherds
thatmakeup krater 1 werefoundin a depositat Corinth, well1937-1,
thepottery ofwhichcoverstheperiod420-380b.c.21Second,a pelikein
Mykonoswasfoundon Rheneia:presumably it hadbeenremoved from
Delos during theAthenian "purification"ofthe islandin 425 b.c.,and so
musthavebeenmanufactured beforethisdate.22 Third,therearethevases
fromtombsat Spina,although the
only pottery fromtomb200 hasbeen
fully published.23 This tomb must belongbroadly tothelastquarter ofthe
5thcentury, andthatis thedatealsosuggested fortomb 794,although its
contents do notseemto havebeenillustrated.24
In alltheseinstances, however,thedating ofthecontext depends atleast
in partuponthered-figure so
pottery, that the argument is circular.
The
smallbellkrater inThebesis supposed the
tohavecomefrom polyandrion
oftheThespianskilledinthebattleatDelionin424 b.c.,which, ifcorrect,

column
18. Late Atticred-figure 6) CP-2635: Boulterand Bentz1980, elsewhere in theCorinthia:e.g.,Pera-
kraters:ARV21409,nos.2-8, and 1693 p. 300,no. 15;ARV2584,no. '9ter chora(ARV2566, no. 7,Mannerofthe
(MeleagerPainter);Kathariou2002, (EarlyMannerists: Undetermined); Pig Painter)and Solygeia(ARV2570,
pp.9-11,pl. 9; Napoli 1970,p. 197, 7) T-620: Corinth XIII, pp. 326-327, no.56, LeningradPainter;586,no.50,
figs.115,116 (Montesarchio,T. 227). pl. 9S' ARV2587,no.68 (EarlyMan- EarlyMannerists: Undetermined).
19. VasesbyMannerists fromCor- nerists: Undetermined); 8) C-1934-372 20. Greifenhagen, in CVA,Bonn 1
inth:1) Athens,NationalMuseum and C-1934-373:Pease 1937,p. 263, [Germany1], p. 22; Beazley1939,
1427:ARV2564,no.29 (Pig Painter); fig.4, andp. 271, no. 19;ARV21108, p. 26, no.62.
2) C-1932-72and C-1932-161: no.24 (NausicaaPainter);9) T-2790: 21. Well 1937-1is discussedin
BoulterandBentz1980,p. 299, Corinth XIII, p. 326,no.X-264, Corinth VII.3, pp.216-217,deposit79;
nos.12,13;ARV2568,no. 34 (Lenin- pl. 97;ARV2 1120,no. 7 (LaterMan- Corinth VII.4, pp. 18-19,deposit4;
gradPainter);3) T-1144:Beazley1955; nerists: Undetermined). Comparealso McPhee 1997,pp. 124-125;McPhee
ARV2571,no. 74 (LeningradPainter); C-1970-100:McPhee 1981,p. 268, 2005,pp. 84-85.
4) C-1936-530:BoulterandBentz no. 6 (Pig Painter?);C-1973-270: 22. ARV21124,no.3; DelosXXl,
1980,p. 299,no. 11; Paralipomena McPhee 1987,p. 281, no. 8 (Early p. 36, no.41, pls.14, 16.
p. 391,no.93 (LeningradPainter); Mannerist?); C-1972-139:McPhee 23. Aurigemma 1965,pp.53-54,
5) CP-998: BoulterandBentz1980, 1987,p. 281, no. 9 (EarlyMannerist?). pls.54-58.
p. 300,no. 14;ARV2573,no. 14 This listis confined to Corinth,but 24. Berti,Bisi,and Camerin1993,
(ManneroftheLeningradPainter); thereareotherManneristvasesfrom p. 49.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
128 IAN D. MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

wouldprovide a terminus antequernforthevase.Unfortunately, Demetrius
Schilardi, whohascarefully studied thematerial from thepolyandrion, be-
lievesthatthebellkrater may be intrusive.25 At present,therefore, one
canonlysuggest tentatively thattheAcademyPainter was activeduring
thelastquarter ofthe5thcentury b.c.,withhisearlyworkprobably dat-
ing to the years before 425 and his laterwork perhapsproduced theat
beginning ofthe 4th century.26 None ofthe vasesfromCorinthseems,as
faras onecandetermine, tobelongtothepainter's earlyphase,andsome
areclearly lateworks;thus,a datein theperiodfromca. 420 to 390 b.c.
seemsappropriate.27
Atleastseven(4-10),andpossibly eight(11),oftheitemsinthecata-
loguerepresent the work of a second whomaybecalledthePainter
painter,
ofCorinth 1937-525,after krater 4,oneofhismorecomplete vases.In his
publication ofthis vase in 1976, McPhee noted that theclay seemed tobe
Attic, but that the was
style "peculiar," and he pointed out the similarityin
fabric andstyleto thatofan unpublished fragment (6 here).28The latter
waspublished in 1981,together withthreeotherfragments (C-1972-66,
C-1972-69,andC-1972-181),whichseemedto be relatedin fabric, but
whichweretoosmallto allowanyattribution.29 In publishing theGreek
pottery fromtheSanctuary ofDemeterandKore,ElizabethPemberton
pointed out that skyphos 10 and bellkrater 9 couldbe assigned tothesame
hand, and she drew attention to fragments of two other kraters as well
(5, 7).30To these we can add a further kraterfragment (8), and another
(11) thatis atleastnearthepainter instyle.To thisnucleusfromCorinth
canbe addeda fragment ofa bellkrater inTübingen(S./101612),which
wasrecognized by Elke Bohr as havingbeenpaintedbythesamehand
as krater 4.31
Atpresent onlya smallnumber ofvasescanbeattributed tothePainter
of Corinth1937-525.He is almostentirely a decorator of bellkraters
(4-9,TübingenS./101612),although we haveatleastonelargeskyphos
(10) from hishand.One bellkrater waspaintedwitha symposium onthe
mainside(6),butitis striking thatatleastfourhadscenesthatincluded
womenholdingcistaeandvessels(oinochoe,phiale)usedforpouringa
libation (4,5, 7,TübingenS./101612).32The subjects areappropriate for
vasesthatcomefromsanctuaries (SacredSpring,Sanctuary ofDemeter
andKore),orfromtheexcavations beneaththesouthwestern partofthe
Forum, where during the Classical period there were both sanctuaries and
buildings withdiningfacilities.

25. Schilardi1977,vol.2, p. 275. + CP-1668 (McPhee 1987,p. 286, Herbertin Corinth VII.4, p. 56,
See alsoV. Sabetai,in CVA,Thebes1 no.29, pl. 53) and C-1977-70 (McPhee no. 120.
[Greece6], pp. 11,89. 1987,pp.286-287,no.31, pl. 53) are 30. Corinth XVIII. 1,pp. 89, 145,
26. This datingaccordswiththat verysimilarto lateworkssuchas the nos.61, 339.
proposedin Mannack2001,p. 119, bellkraters in Antiochand Bonn: 31. CVA,Tübingen4 [Germany 52],
wherethepainter s earliestworksare ARV2 1125,nos.13, 14; Beazley1939, p. 68, pl. 30 [2547]:2.The fragment
datedca. 430 andhislatestca. 400- p. 26, no.62; CVA,Bonn1 [Germany 1], camefromtheArndtCollection,but
390. pl. 21:2. withouta findspot.
27. None ofthepiecesfromCorinth 28. McPhee 1976,pp. 388-389, 32. Elke Bohr{CVA,Tübingen4
is comparable to an earlyworksuchas no.21. [Germany 52], p. 68) believesthatthe
theMykonospelike(see n. 22, above). 29. McPhee 1981,pp.277-278, womanon theTübingenvaseis a mae-
On theotherhand,thefragmentary nos.49-52. C-1972-66 had been nad,butthisis unlikely in lightofthe
bellkraters represented byC-1978-113 cataloguedas Corinthian bySharon right-hand figure on 5.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I2O,

In termsofstyle, thetreatment ofheadsis mostdistinctive. The eye
is bigandopen,withtwostraight linesaboveandonebelow,anda black
dot,oftenlarge,forthepupil.The lineofthemouthis shortandturned
downsharply. Heads ofyouthsmayhaveshortcurlsbeforeandbehind
theear.Womenwearpeploiwithblackborders, thepleat-lines sometimes
drawnwithcurlingends,and forming a V-shapedarrangement at the
neck.Wreathsor fillets be
may painted with white (5, 8), or with white
orslipcovered witha strong redmiltos(4, 6, 7). The reverses ofkrater 5
andskyphos 10 bothpreserve a drapedyouthon theright-hand side;the
himation is rendered withstraight running
pleat-lines aslantfrom theleft
shoulder ofthefigure.
Atpresent, thestylistic
connections ofthePainter ofCorinth 1937-525
are unclear. It may,however, be noteworthy thatfragments ofa bellkrater
bytheAcademy Painter (1) werefoundinthesamecontexts asbellkraters
bythePainterofCorinth1937-525(4, 5). Certainly thereis somesimi-
larityin the way that both painterstreatthe pleats ofa himation: compare
thedrapedmalesstanding inprofiletolefton 5 and10,bythePainter of
Corinth 1937-525, with the right-hand on
figure krater the
1,by Academy
Painter.
In regard tostyleandiconography thereislittletobenotedaboutfrag-
ments12-16.The flat, swirlingpleat-lines thebentlegofthemaleon
over
krater 12 suggest thatthis pieceis notAttic.If thesubjectis a myth, the
flight ofOdysseusfrom thecaveofPolyphemos mightcometomind,but
thecuriously drapedstanding malewould notfitthe standard iconography
ofthatstory, atleastinAthenian vasepainting,so itis morelikely thatthe
scenerepresents thepreparations witha sheepbrought
fora sacrifice, to
orstanding beforean altar.33

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

thescientific
In general, studyoftheprovenanceofGreekpottery hasbeen
undertakenthrough twocomplementary approaches: examina-
pétrographie
tionofnonplastic intheclaybody,
inclusions andchemicaldetermination,
usingvariousmethods, oftheelementalcomposition clay.In thecase
ofthe
thehighly
offineware,especially processedred-figure oftheClassi-
pottery
ithaslongbeenrecognized
calperiod, thatchemicalanalysis morelikely
is
toachievesatisfactory The mostcommon
results.34 techniquesemployedin
ofprovenance
studies havebeenneutron activation (NAA),
analysis X-ray
(XRF),andinductively
fluorescence coupledplasmaspectrometry(ICP).35
The present was carriedout at theFitchLaboratory
analysis usingthe
techniqueICP-AES (ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy).36
- returnto
33. As, forexample,on theAttic coupledplasma thatis,a plasmafor energystate.The atoms/ions
red-figure bellkraters in Van
illustrated whichtheenergyis suppliedbyan elec- theirlowerorgroundstatebyemitting
Straten1995,figs.32-34. tricalcurrentproducedbyelectromag- electromagnetic The radia-
radiation.
34. A convenient ofearlier neticinduction - to determine the ofeachelement,
tionis characteristic
summary
research is providedinJones1986. quantity of an element in a sample.The whileitsintensitydependson thecon-
35. See Hein et al. 2002. plasma is used first
to break downthe centrationoftheelementin thesample,
36. ICP-AES is a chemicalanalyti- sampleintoatomsand/orionsand then thuspermitting quantification.
cal techniquethatusesan inductively to excitetheseatoms/ions to a higher

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
130 IAN D. MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Method

Samplesweretakenfromthe18 itemscatalogued above,and fromtwo
control each
groups, consisting of 10 uninventoried red-figure sherds,one
groupsupposedly Corinthian, the otherAttic,and all roughly contemporary
withthepiecesin thecatalogue(seeTable 1). The 20 sherdsin thetwo
control groupsaredescribed andillustrated intheAppendix. About1 cm3
ofeachsherdwascleanedwitha tungsten carbidedrillandpowdered inan
agate mortar. About 50 mg(exactly weighted) of the powdered and dried
samplewasputintoa platinum crucibletogether withtwicethequantity
oflithium metaborate (LiBO2)flux. The crucible wasplacedin a furnace
andheatedto 1100°C. The meltwasthendissolved in a 25% aqua regia
solution (3:1 HC1 [30%]:HNO3[65%],suprapurereagents) up to50 ml.
The finalsolution waskeptinPET vials.Priortotheanalysis byICP the
solution wasdiluted10 timeswithdeionizedwater.
The ICP-AES analysis wasperformed witha Perkin-Elmer Plasma
400 spectrometer (sequential) witha 40MHz RF generator. The elements
detected weresilicon(Si), aluminum (Al), iron(Fe), manganese (Mn),
chromium (Cr), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium
(Mg),titanium (Ti), strontium (Sr),andnickel(Ni).AlfaAesarstandards
wereusedforthepreparation ofthecalibration standards. Table2 liststhe
concentration ofthestandards usedforeachelement. Bothstandards and
blanksolution hada content of2.5%ofaqua regia,inorderto matchthe
matrix ofthesamples.
The analytical dataweresubmitted to principal component analysis
(PCA),withtheaidofthecommercial statisticalpackageSTATISTICA
6.0,usingthelogarithms oftheconcentrations of theelements Si, Al,
Fe,Mn, Cr,Na, K, Ca, Mg,Ti, Sr,andNi as themeansofnormalizing
thedata,in orderto explorecompositional similarities and differences
among the sherds. PCA is a well-known chemometric techniquethat
allowsthediscrimination ofnumerical groups, corresponding in ourcase
tothecompositional dataofceramic materials.The mainpurposeforthe
useofPCA, andforchemometric in
techniques general, is to reducethe
complexity of a multivariate data set.This method can reveal information
thatis noteasilynoticeable intheoriginal setbecauseofthelargevolume
ofdata.The newvariables, knownas principal components, aredenoted
as principal 1,
component principal component 2, and so on,according to
theirdecreasing contribution to thevariability ofthedata.The dataare
thenrepresented andplotted bythefirst twoprincipal components, which
accountforthemajority ofthevariability, thereby facilitatingthe assess-
mentofthesimilarities anddifferences amongthem.

Results
The multivariateanalysis
produced threedistinct
compositionalclusters
ofpotterysamples(groups A-C). Figure12 showstheclusters,
plottedon
thefirst
twoprincipalcomponents.The first
principal
componentaccounts
for55.08%ofthetotalvariability,
whilethesecondaccounts for25.12%.
The factorloadingsarelistedinTable3. Table4 presents
theelemental
composition as
(expressed oxides) of thesamples,groupedaccordingto
theirprobableorigin.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I3I

TABLE 1. SAMPLES FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS
SampleNumber CatalogueorLotNumber Description
Red-Figure of Uncertain Origin
Cor 03/01 16 Calyxkrater bowlfragment
Cor 03/02 3 Bell krater
wallfragment
Cor 03/03 15 wallfragment
Bell krater
Cor 03/04 17 Bell krater
Cor 03/05 4 Bell krater
Cor 03/06 18 Calyxkrater wallfragment
Cor 03/07 10 Skyphos wall and rimfragment
Cor 03/08 11 Skyphos wall andrimfragment
Cor 03/09 9 Bell krater
wallfragment
Cor 03/10 6 Bell krater
wallandlip fragment
Cor 03/11 1 Bell krater
Cor 03/12 5 Bell krater
Cor 03/13 7 Kraterwallandlip fragment
Cor 03/14 8 Kraterwallandlip fragment
Cor 03/15 12 Bell krater
wallfragment
Cor 03/16 13 Calyx kraterwallandlip fragment
Cor 03/17 14 Bell krater
wallfragment
Cor 03/18 2 wallandlip fragment
Bell krater
Corinthian Red-Figure Control Group
Cor 03/19 7138-1 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/20 7138-2 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/21 7138-3 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/22 7138-4 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/23 7138-5 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/24 7138-6 Bell kraterwalland handlefragment
Cor 03/25 7138-7 Bell kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/26 7138-8 Bell kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/27 7138-9 Kraterwallandlip fragment
Cor 03/28 7138-10 Bell kraterwallfragment
Attic Red-Figure Control Group
Cor 03/29 7201-1 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/30 7201-2 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/31 7201-3 Kraterlip fragment
Cor 03/32 7201-4 Bell kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/33 7201-5 Kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/34 7201-6 Bell kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/35 7201-7 Kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/36 7201-8 Bell kraterwallfragment
Cor 03/37 7201-9 Krater wall fragment
Cor 03/38 7201-10 Bell kraterwallfragment

TABLE 2. STANDARDS USED FOR ICP-AES ANALYSIS
Element Si Al Fe Mn Cr Na K Ca Mg Ti Sr Ni
Std 1 (ppm) 15 5 2Ü ÕÕ5 Õl O2 2^5 5 2^5 O5 ÕÕl Õl

Std2(ppm) 30 10 5 0.5 0.5 2 5 10 5 1 0.05 0.5

Ppm= partspermillion.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
132 IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

2.5i 1 1 1 1 1 1

¡ ! 03/29 ! ! !
20 r - - ¿c- __-TIC J J
¡- ' rr>^^^_

; ; ¡ ' ¡03/01 ^v ! ;
; ; ; ' ; * g3/38 >v .

'
! ! ^V 03¿33' 03/32' |

! ! ! ** 03/37 !
10 j- j- '
^^^^^
'-TTTy^ ;
j

Í
! ! ¡ 03/36 ¡ !
¡

„ 0.5 i i ;. L .....L
.^-»y.ji«a '
' / ' ' ' ! ' '
03/051 ■ ¡
=■
!00
•/ ; ;
: r - '
¡-
'
r
yU.Ï".'i-feJ ¡7 «^
I /03lì2,03m, 03/1?«a _ i' I' ' 03^ ^^ i
3 +
'
/ D ' ^'
E-o- USBj*»-i-
-/ ' ì j-V-?^?^^ !
lofts !, // : : ¡. ' 0^19I 0^27
X :
' 03/17 ; N. 1 + N. ¡
;

-1.0 >^- - 1 ¡- L
^T_¡
i • i i ;
-'û3/26' '.-'
X
n N.o-33^
i ; i i ^ i^S. :'
.1.5 ; 'r ;. 1 1 _r^v^-- _-- -- ; j
' '
¡ ! ! ! 03/25
-2 0 ; r ¡- ;■ 1
1

"2?1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Principal Component 1

Figure12.Principal
component
One of the clusters(groupC) includesall the potteryin the control plotofanalyzedsamples.
analysis
groupthathad been assigneda Corinthianorigin(see Fig. 12, Table 4). GroupA: Atticcontrolgroup;
Two vases originallyof uncertainorigin,Cor 03/04 (17) and Cor 03/06 groupB: samplesofuncertain
provenance;groupC: Corinthian
(18), fallherewithinthe compositionalrangeof the Corinthiancontrol control
group.
group.Since thesamplesin thisgrouphavea similarelementalprofile, all
thepottery shouldhavethesameprovenance, in thiscase Corinth,as visual
fabricanalysisand stylistic had suggested.
characteristics
Previousstudiesof Corinthianpottery, going back to the work of
Marie Farnsworth in the 1960s and 1970s, have been mainlyconcerned
withthecompositionofCorinthianclayand thedetermination ofpossible
clay sources,and analysis has concentrated upon coarse or semi-coarse
ware,particularlyamphoras,or fineware of the Archaicperiod.37 There
has been no previousscientific of
analysis Classical Corinthian red-figure
pottery.All studies,however,have shownthatCorinthianclayhas a high 37. The mostrecentgeneralaccount
calciumcontent.A neutronactivation analysisof40 samplesofCorinthian is giveninWhitbread2003. See also
finewaredatingfromthe 7thto the3rdcenturyb.c. yieldeda mean cal- Jones1986,pp. 173-189;Whitbread
ciumcontentof 10%, close to thatof 9.98% forgroupC here.38 Another 1995,pp.293-346. Fortheworkof
Farnsworth, see,e.g.,Farnsworth
1970;
analysis,by opticalemission spectroscopyat the Fitch Laboratory, of 15 andAsaro1977.
Farnsworth, Perlman,
Corinthiancoarsewaresamplesdatingto the 4th centuryb.c., produced 38. See Farnsworth, and
Perlman,
a compositionalrangequitesimilarto thatofgroupC, althoughhigherin Asaro1977,p. 457,tableI (4).

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I33

TABLE 3. FACTOR LOADINGS
FOR PCA
Element Factor1 Factor2

Si -0.853192 0.160563
Al -0.906524 0.176488
Fe 0.152423 0.869148
Mn 0.794656 -0.207639
Cr 0.527952 0.795195
Na -0.919159 -0.165538
K -0.615133 0.254529
Ca 0.686941 -0.602385
Mg 0.761256 0.573139
Ti -0.815630 0.443191
Sr 0.862620 -0.244308
Ni 0.665024 0.697441

calcium.39Somedifferences aretobe expected in theseresults,sincetwo
different of
types pottery were analyzed, and two different
methods of
were
analysis employed.
A secondcluster (groupA) includes themajority ofthesamplesfrom
theAtticcontrol group(see Fig. 12,Table4). However, twofragments,
Cor 03/30and Cor 03/34,whichhad originally beenpresumed to be
Atticbaseduponvisualanalysis andstylistic characteristics, seem
do not
to fallwithinthecompositional rangeoftheAtticgroup, butrather into
therangeofthethirdcluster (group B) thatcontains most ofthe examples
ofunknown Thisresult
fabric. wasunexpected, butsubsequent inspection
hasshownthatthetwofragments canindeedbe visually separated from
theAtticgroup:thesurface ofCor03/30hasa pinkish wash,verylikethe
surface of7 (Cor 03/13);andCor 03/34cannowbe seento be so like5
(Cor 03/12)thatitmayevencomefromthesamebellkrater (partofthe
if
belowtherighthandle),or notfrom vase,
floral this then from itstwin.
One ofthefragments ofuncertain origin(16 [Cor03/01])alsoseemsto
be compatible withtheAtticcontrol group.
groupA ismuchlowerincalciumthangroupC, butricher
In general,
in iron,chromium, and nickel,as we wouldexpectforpottery ofAttic
origin,althoughthe concentrations ofcalcium and titaniumare lower and
thoseofsodiumhigherthanmightbe expected.40 Apart from the meth-
odologicalproblem ofcalibratinganalysesdoneatdifferent times, indiffer-
andwithvarying
entlaboratories,41 techniques,previous analyses ofAttic
pottery havenotusuallyinvolvedmaterial ofsuch a restricted
chronological
rangeorceramic typeas ourred-figure controlgroup.42 Moreover, although
39. See theappendixbyR. E. Jones favora Corinthian origin. See alsoMirti,Perardi, and Gulmini
inWright1980,pp. 176-177.In Gare- 40. ForearlieranalysesofAtticpot- 2006,p. 34, table1.
zou 1997,p. 382,theelemental com- seeJones1986,pp. 150-164.Par-
tery, 41. Forthisproblem, see Hein et al.
of a
position calyx in
krater the Na- usefulforourpurposesare
ticularly 2002.
tionalMuseumin Athens(NM 1381) Praget al. 1974,esp.p. 173,table6; 42. Foran analysisofAtticred-
is givenin orderto supporta possible and Fillieres,
Harbottle, and Sayre figure fragments, see Mirtiet al. 2004,
Atticprovenance. However,thehigh 1983,esp.p. 61, table2. Fora conve- p. 716, table2 (samplesLF40, 43,
calciumcontentandthegeneral nienttableofmorerecentchemical 47-50).
elemental mightbe takento
profile analyses,seeAloupi-Siotis2008,p. 116.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
134 IAN D. MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

TABLE 4. SAMPLES EXPRESSED AS OXIDES AND SORTED BY PCA INTO GROUPS
Sample SiO2 A12O3 Fe2O3 MnO Cr2O3 Nafl K20 CaO MgO TiO2 Sr(ppm) Ni(ppm)
Group A (probable Attic origin)
Cor 03/01(16) 55.6 16.1 8.34 0.108 0.078 1.99 4.73 3.08 3.67 0.390 246.5 288.0
Cor 03/29 53.8 19.1 7.91 0.089 0.073 2.60 3.11 3.52 4.19 0.400 223.0 239.7
Cor 03/31 54.1 18.4 7.66 0.104 0.074 2.72 3.21 3.38 4.03 0.388 237.7 243.6
Cor 03/33 51.1 17.1 7.41 0.106 0.065 2.35 4.07 3.51 4.18 0.382 227.6 245.1
Cor 03/36 44.1 15.8 7.12 0.100 0.072 2.04 3.47 2.90 3.46 0.356 154.4 215.9
Cor 03/37 42.7 16.0 7.24 0.098 0.073 2.17 3.63 3.08 3.67 0.353 197.0 239.8
Cor 03/38 41.3 17.6 7.72 0.108 0.079 2.37 3.62 3.65 4.34 0.392 187.5 209.6
Cor 03/32 48.1 16.7 7.61 0.150 0.076 2.45 4.98 3.85 4.59 0.376 247.5 257.5
Cor 03/35 46.2 18.0 8.13 0.139 0.085 2.48 3.80 3.67 4.37 0.386 163.1 311.4
Mean 48.6 17.2 7.68 0.112 0.075 2.35 3.85 3.41 4.06 0.380 209.4 250.1
Std 5.3 1.1 0.40 0.020 0.005 0.25 0.64 0.32 0.38 0.016 35.3 32.3
Std% 11.0 6.7 5.2 17.9 7.2 10.4 16.7 9.4 9.4 4.2 16.9 12.9
Group B (unknown origin)
Cor 03/02(3) 56.6 18.9 6.57 0.093 0.029 1.22 2.09 4.70 2.12 0.393 224.41 122.05
Cor 03/03(15) 51.7 21.1 7.81 0.092 0.032 1.02 2.02 4.51 2.17 0.378 129.19 131.16
Cor 03/05(4) 53.4 19.9 6.96 0.101 0.031 1.09 2.28 4.51 2.01 0.389 145.96 119.33
Cor 03/07(10) 54.8 20.0 6.70 0.090 0.033 1.03 2.02 4.22 1.93 0.416 119.87 95.03
Cor 03/18(2) 53.6 19.9 6.80 0.088 0.032 1.04 2.26 4.45 2.22 0.398 126.49 80.68
Cor 03/10(6) 54.6 20.3 7.14 0.106 0.028 1.11 2.36 5.23 2.16 0.394 118.76 82.83
Cor 03/14(8) 53.5 19.5 7.31 0.104 0.029 0.94 2.30 5.38 2.08 0.382 122.77 81.19
Cor 03/13(7) 56.3 20.0 6.16 0.099 0.023 1.17 2.31 5.52 2.15 0.409 117.76 89.82
Cor 03/30 52.9 21.2 6.45 0.101 0.022 1.02 2.40 5.18 2.37 0.391 99.22 83.66
Cor 03/17(14) 55.1 19.2 6.26 0.101 0.021 1.17 2.15 5.01 2.17 0.391 104.70 71.43
Cor 03/12(5) 55.9 19.5 6.19 0.094 0.026 1.01 2.48 4.52 2.09 0.400 117.53 94.62
Cor 03/15(12) 54.6 20.0 6.62 0.100 0.018 1.04 2.55 5.37 2.09 0.395 104.37 95.43
Cor 03/08(11) 54.2 21.5 7.09 0.094 0.031 1.03 1.97 3.65 2.15 0.428 122.02 68.45
Cor 03/09(9) 55.3 19.9 6.21 0.095 0.031 1.10 1.83 3.09 2.09 0.413 127.22 81.85
Cor 03/11(1) 51.8 21.9 7.67 0.109 0.027 0.85 2.39 4.85 2.28 0.409 111.11 112.10
Cor 03/34 48.5 18.6 5.85 0.092 0.021 1.04 2.48 4.63 2.06 0.370 221.57 78.43
Cor 03/16(13) 54.8 20.3 6.37 0.094 0.020 1.05 2.32 4.63 2.22 0.411 123.51 79.68
Mean 54.0 20.1 6.71 0.097 0.027 1.05 2.25 4.67 2.14 0.398 131.56 92.22
Std 2.0 0.9 0.55 0.006 0.005 0.09 0.20 0.63 0.10 0.015 36.08 18.43
Std% 3.7 4.4 8.2 6.1 18.3 8.2 9.1 13.4 4.8 3.7 27.4 20.0
Group C (probable Corinthian origin)
Cor 03/04(17) 42.0 14.4 6.41 0.124 0.037 0.63 1.74 8.98 2.66 0.325 383.72 134.69
Cor 03/19 45.8 15.8 6.51 0.127 0.032 0.59 1.98 9.28 3.11 0.366 422.92 145.26
Cor 03/20 46.6 17.3 6.94 0.131 0.035 0.63 2.18 9.26 3.21 0.381 444.44 131.94
Cor 03/23 46.7 17.5 6.95 0.135 0.036 0.63 2.02 10.75 3.27 0.347 445.31 134.77
Cor 03/24 46.1 17.2 7.09 0.128 0.026 0.64 2.10 9.41 3.39 0.354 448.62 137.35
Cor 03/27 46.6 16.4 6.74 0.163 0.034 0.63 2.08 10.07 2.97 0.338 406.43 159.84
Cor 03/22 46.1 15.9 6.50 0.151 0.032 0.67 1.79 11.19 3.05 0.336 531.31 144.81
Cor 03/21 47.2 17.6 6.76 0.128 0.032 0.55 1.74 9.98 3.37 0.363 323.18 147.35
Cor 03/28 45.3 17.1 7.18 0.137 0.036 0.71 2.03 9.65 3.27 0.361 502.94 180.39
Cor 03/26 46.1 16.2 6.39 0.136 0.037 0.74 1.81 10.06 3.00 0.329 287.55 119.57
Cor 03/25 41.0 13.8 6.01 0.134 0.033 0.59 1.42 11.81 2.90 0.300 530.27 116.21
Cor 03/06(18) 41.9 14.4 6.23 0.121 0.036 0.46 2.10 9.33 2.78 0.317 287.43 117.76
Mean 45.1 16.1 6.64 0.135 0.034 0.62 1.92 9.98 3.08 0.343 417.84 139.16
Std 2.2 1.3 0.36 0.012 0.003 0.07 0.22 0.87 0.23 0.023 84.98 18.41
Std% 4.8 8.3 5.4 8.7 9.2 11.6 11.4 8.7 7.5 6.8 20.3 13.2

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I35

somepotential claysourcesin Attica(e.g.,Amaroussi, Cape Kolias)are
known, others haveprobably notbeendiscovered orhavebeenexhausted,
circumstances thatmayaccountforthevariation in elemental composi-
On theotherhand,thevariation
tion.43 may alsobe theresultofvarying
technologicalpracticesindifferent red-figureworkshops.
Mostoftheceramics ofuncertain origin,whicharethefocusofthis
are
study, groupedtogether in a thirdcluster(groupB), alongwiththe
twosamplesofpresumed Atticprovenance (Cor 03/30,03/34)discussed
above.Thisgrouppresents a rather differentchemicalcomposition from
thatofthetwocontrol In these are
groups. particular, samples noticeably
lowerin chromium, sodium,potassium, and magnesium thanthoseof
theAtticgroup.Our analysisindicatesclearlythat,withtheexception
ofvessels16-18 (Cor 03/01,03/04,03/06)mentioned above,all ofthe
questionablefragments share a common composition, thusa similar
and
useofraw material,suggesting that one workshop wasresponsible forthe
production ofthispottery.
Two hypotheses mayaccountfortheseresults: all ofthepotscould
havebeenmadein a workshop outsideCorinthorAttica,perhapssome-
whereintheArgolid; ortheymayhavebeenmadebya workshop activein
Atticabutusinga distinctive sourceofclay.Unfortunately, although local
of
production pottery in the Classical period is known from a number of
centersin thenortheastern Péloponnèse, no scientificanalyses have been
publishedthatprovide a useful comparison.44 On theotherhand,sincetwo
ofthesamplesoriginally assumedto be Attic(7201-2[Cor 03/30]and
7201-6[Cor03/34])areincludedingroupB, itmaynotbe unreasonable
tosuggest thattheentire groupcomesfrom a workshop activesomewhere
in AthensorAttica.In thatcase,thecompositional differences between
groups A and B may be due to the use ofdifferentclay sources or ofdif-
ferentproduction methods. In order to exploreeach of these possibilities,
moreanalyses of5th-century finewarearenecessary, bothfrom Atticaand
fromsitesinthenortheastern Péloponnèse.

CONCLUSIONS

ofthechemical
Theresults analysissuggestthatitems1-15inthecatalogue
whichis distinct
a singlefabric,
do indeedrepresent fromthatnormally
usedforAtticred-figure
potteryinthelater5thandearly4thcentury. Of
thefragmentsofuncertain
origin,only krater16 seems tobe with
aligned
theAtticcontrol
group.As discussedabove,itis notknown whether these
vasesweremadebyAtticpotters usinga differentclaysourceand/ordif-
ferent methods,
processing orwhether theiroriginis tobe soughtoutside
Attica.45
We maynote,however, thatwhereasmuchoftheworkofthe

43. Forclaysources,seeJones1986, 44. Forlocalpotteryproduction 45. Analysisoftheclayofother
pp. 150-152.Forkilnsand debrisfrom associatedwithkilnsin theArgolid, vasesproducedin theworkshop of
potters'workshopsin Athensand see mostrecentlyHjohlman,Penttinen, theLaterMannerists wouldbe useful.
Attica,see nowMonaco 2000. For andWells2005. Most scientific
anal- Mannack(2001) is concerned primar-
discussionofpotteryproductionin ysesofceramicsfromthePéloponnèse ilywithstyle,notthetechnologyof
AthensandCorinthwithinitssocial haveusedpre-Classicalmaterial:
see manufacture.
context,seeArafatandMorgan1989. Jones1986,pp. 190-224.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
136 IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Academy Painter is equallysplitbetween AthensandCorinth, thework
ofthePainter ofCorinth1937-525(4-10,11?)is foundonlyat Corinth.
(Thefindspot oftheTübingen fragment isnotknown.) CouldtheAcademy
Painter haveleftAthensatsometimeduring thePeloponnesian Warand
established himself somewhere in thenortheastern Péloponnèse? Could
he haveworkedtogether withthePainter ofCorinth1937-525?
The lasttwoitemsin thecatalogue(17, 18) werechosenforstudy
becauseitseemed, onthebasisofvisualanalysis, thattheyweremadefrom
Corinthian clay,butin bothcasesthisassessment had beenquestioned.
The ICP-AES analysis nowstrongly supports a Corinthian identification.
The calyxkrater 18, which had been thought to be Attic andhad been
usedtodatetheearlyphaseofCorinthian red-figure tothelastquarter of
the5thcentury, nowtakesitsplaceas a fragment fromone ofthemore
elaborateCorinthian calyx kraters, probably oftheearly 4thcentury.46More
interesting is the case of the bell krater 17, which has been attributedto
theSuessulaPainter, whois usuallyconsidered to haveworkedinAttica.
Thisattribution, whichwasfirst proposed by Peter Corbettandaccepted
D.
byj. Beazley, seems tobe correct.47 All ofthe other vasesassigned tothe
SuessulaPainter appear to have been potted from normal Athenian clay.
It is,ofcourse, possiblethatthisparticular vasewaspottedandpaintedin
Atticausingimported Corinthian clay,butatpresent thereis noevidence
thatAthenian potters imported clay from anywhere outsideAtticadur-
ingthelater5thcentury. It is muchmorelikelythatthepotwasmadein
Corinth, forfragments oftwootherCorinthian vases,a bellkrater and
a pelike,seemto be theworkofa closeimitator oftheSuessulaPainter,
andthegeneral influence oftheSuessulaPainter ontheearlyphaseofthe
localCorinthian red-figure is demonstrable.48 Ifthisis correct,we might
speculate that the Suessula Painter, whether he was a residentalienor a
slave,took an opportunity the
during Peloponnesian War toleave,orescape
from, and
Athens, subsequently established himself in Corinth.49

46. This is the"largefragment of (1980,p. 191),in herreviewof Corinth thenreturned to Athens(see,e.g.,
an Atticred-figure calyx-krater" dated VII.4, does notfindtheattribution of Johnston 1991,p. 229). Pemberton
ca. 420-410 byHerbertin Corinth C-1937-447to theSuessulaPainter (1997a,pp.416-417),however, has
VII.4, p. 22, andusedto providea convincing. She thinksthatthebell suggested that thepaintermay have
roughdateforan earlyCorinthian krater is a Corinthian imitation and beena Corinthian. Doric dialectforms
red-figure fragment bythePelikai suggeststhatBeazleymayhavetaken arefoundin inscriptions on vasesdeco-
Painter(p. 32, no. 15) fromthesame overCorbetts attribution withouthav- ratedbytheKadmosPainter, from
context(use fillofwell1940-1). ingseentheoriginal.SinceBeazley whomtheSuessulaPainterprobably
McPhee (1978,p. 563) had already visitedCorinthafter1937,thesugges- learnedhiscraft, and on at leastone
pointedoutthatthefragment was more tionis unlikely to be correct.In any vasebytheSuessulaPainterhimself:
likelyto be Corinthian, and thedate case,thereis no reasonto doubtthe see McPhee and Pemberton 1988,
early4thcentury. attribution. p. 90, n. 11; Pemberton 1997a,p. 417.
47.ARV21345,no. 13. Corbett 48. The twofragments areC-1937- Pemberton (1997a,p. 417; 1997b,
{Perachora II, p. 287) first
noted"the 445 {Corinth VII.4, p. 48, no. 77fpl. 14) pp. 76, 88) alsopointsouta contempo-
presencein CorinthMuseumofa and C-1976-136a-c(McPhee 1983, raryinstanceofa stampthatwas used
bell-krater bytheSuessulaPainter p. 148,no.37, pl. 39). Fortheinfluence on an Atticheavy-wall cup-skyphos
whichdiffers fromnormalAttic oftheSuessulaPainteron Corinthian and a Corinthian light-wall cup-sky-
examplesoftheperiodin thepale red-figure, see Herbertin Corinth phos:thestampwas presumably
colourofitsclay."Herbert{Corinth VII.4, pp. 10-11; MacDonald 1981, brought bya potterfromAthensto
VII.4, p. 48) remarks: "The clayofthe pp. 162-163;McPhee 1983,p. 148. Corinth.Formigrant pottersin the
Corinthkrater is definitely
Corinthian, 49. It hasbeenassumedthatthe Archaicand Classicalperiods,see most
andthehandofthereverse, at least,is SuessulaPainterwas an Athenianwho recently Papadopoulos2009.
thatoftheSuessulaPainter." Bohr wentto Corinthfora shortperiodand

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
APPENDIX
RED-FIGURE CONTROL GROUPS

The Corinthian
andAtticred-figuresamplesinthetwocontrol are
groups
described
andillustrated
below.The samples werechosenfrom red-figure
sherds
withnodefinite takenfrom
findspots, lots7138and7201from early
excavations
conductedat Corinth.The first
number listedis thesample
number,andthesecondnumber is thatofthesherdwithinthelot.

Corinthian Red-Figure Control Group (Lot 7138)
Cor03/19(7138-1) Fig.13
Lip ofa calyxkrater
orbellkrater.
W. 0.158,Diam.0.39.2.5Y 8/4(paleyellow).
Laureltoleft.

Cor03/20(7138-2) Fig.13
orcalyxkrater.
Lip ofa bellkrater
W. 0.082.10YR7/6(yellow).
Laurelandberry toleft.

Cor03/21(7138-3) Fig.13
Lip ofa krater
calyx orbellkrater.
buta littlebrowner.
W. 0.091,Diam.0.38.10YR7/6(yellow), Orangeslip.
Laureltoleft.

Cor03/22(7138-4) Fig.13
Lip ofa calyxkrater
orbellkrater.
W. 0.085.10YR7/6(yellow).
Laureltoleft.

Cor03/23(7138-5) Fig.13
Lip ofa bellkrater
orcalyxkrater.
W. 0.082.10YR7/6(yellow). Orangeslip.
Laureltoleft.

Cor03/24(7138-6) Fig.13
Wallofa bellkrater
withthestumpofa handle.
W. 0.069.10YR7/6(yellow),buta littlebrowner.
Orangeslip.
Partofpalmettebelowthehandle.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
138 IAN D. MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure13.Corinthian
control
samplesCor03/19-Cor03/28.
Scale 1:2

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I39

Cor03/25(7138-7) Fig.13
Lowerwallofa bellkrater.
H. 0.046,W. 0.088.10YR6-7/6(yellow).Orangeslip.
ofa male,andtheheelofhisforward
rightleg,to right,
Spiraltendril; left
foot;below,egg-pattern.

Cor03/26(7138-8) Fig.13
Lowerwallofa bellkrater.
H. 0.065,W. 0.058.10YR7/6(yellow)to 7/4(verypalebrown).
Partofa floral;
below,meandertorightanddottedsaltiresquare.

Cor03/27(7138-9) Fig.13
Lip andupperwallofa bellkrater
orcalyxkrater.
W. 0.07.10YR7/6(yellow).
Laureltorighton thelip.

Cor03/28(7138-10) Fig.13
Wallofa bellkrater.
Max.dim.0.089.10YR7/6(yellow)to2.5Y 7/6(yellow).
Tips ofpalmette and,above,thereserved
froma handle-floral, areabetween
thestumps ofthehandle.

listedabovemaybe datedwithintheperiod425-
All ofthefragments
350 b.c.

Attic Red-Figure Control Group (Lot 7201)
Cor03/29(7201-1) Fig.14
orcalyxkrater.
Lip ofa bellkrater
W. 0.058.7.5YR6/6(reddish yellow).
Laureltoleft.
Ca. 450-420b.c.

Cor03/30(7201-2) Fig.14
orcalyxkrater.
Lip ofa bellkrater
W. 0.086.7.5YR6/4(lightbrown).
Laurelandberry toleft.
Ca. 425-375b.c.

Cor03/31(7201-3) Fig.14
orcalyxkrater.
Lip ofa bellkrater
W. 0.036.7.5YR6/6(reddish yellow).
Laureltoleft.
Ca. 450-400b.c.

Cor03/32(7201-4) Fig.14
Lowerwallofa bellkrater.
H. 0.065,W. 0.077. 7.5YR 6/6(reddishyellow)to 10YR 6/6(brownish
yellow).
Patternband:meanders toright.
Ca. 450-400b.c.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
I4O IAN D. MCPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

Figure14. Atticcontrolsamples
Cor 03/29-Cor 03/38.Scale1:2

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I4I

Cor03/33(7201-5) Fig.14
Lowerwallofa bellkraterorvolutekrater.
H. 0.094,W. 0.058.7.5YR6-7/6(reddishyellow).
Hem ofchitonandtoesofleftfootoffigure moving toleft.Below,stopped
meanderstoleft.
Ca. 450-430B.c.

Cor03/34(7201-6) Fig.14
Lowerwallofa bellkrater.
H. 0.055,W. 0.067.7.5YR6/6(reddish
yellow).
Spiralsatbaseofa palmette below,egg-pattern.
(handle-floral);
Ca. 425-375b.c.

Cor03/35(7201-7) Fig.14
Wallofa bellkraterorcalyxkrater.
H. 0.070,W. 0.048.7.5YR6/6(reddish yellow).
Male (backof head,rightside,thighs,rightarm)seatedin three-quarter
viewtoleft,
lookingback,holding The stylerecallstheMeleager
up a whitefillet.
Painter(ARV21408-1415).
Ca. 400-375b.c.

Cor03/36(7201-8) Fig.14
Lowerwallofa bellkrater.
H. 0.057,W. 0.075.7.5YR6/6(reddish yellow).
Uncertainremains(stele?);below,continuous toleft.
meanders
Ca. 400-375b.c.

Cor03/37(7201-9) Fig.14
Lowerwallofa columnkrater(?).
H. 0.066,W. 0.069. 7.5YR 6/6(reddishyellow)to 10YR 6/6(brownish
yellow).
Partsofa meanderandchecker square.
Ca. 450-400b.c.

Cor03/38(7201-10) Fig.14
Lowerwallofa bellkrater.
H. 0.043,W. 0.044.7.5YR6/6(reddishyellow).
Palmetteandside-tendril
(rightsideofhandle-floral).
Ca. 425-375b.c.

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
142 IAN D. McPHEE AND EFI KARTSONAKI

REFERENCES

Aloupi-Siotis, E. 2008. "Recovery and DélosXXI = C. Dugas,Les vasesattiques Studies(FitchLaboratory Occa-
RevivalofAtticVase-Decoration afigures rouges{DélosXXI), Paris sionalPaper1),Athens.
Techniques:What Can TheyOffer 1952. Kathariou, K. 2002. Toepyaoxr'pio
Archaeological Research?" in Papers Farnsworth, M. 1970."Corinthian Pot- rovZcoypáçovrovMeXeáypov Kai
onSpecialTechniques inAthenian tery:TechnicalStudies," AJA74, T]enoxArov,Thessaloniki.
Vases.Proceedings ofa Symposium pp. 9-20. Luce,S. B. 1930."AtticRed-Figured
Heldin Connection withtheExhibi- Farnsworth, M., I. Perlman, and Vasesand Fragments at Corinth,"
tion"TheColorsofClay:Special F. Asaro.1977."Corinthand Corfu: AJA34,pp. 334-343.
*at A NeutronActivation
Techniques inAthenianVases, Studyof MacDonald,B. R. 1981."The Emigra-
Villa
theGetty June15-17,2006, TheirPottery," AJA81,pp.455- tionofPottersfromAthensin the
ed. K. Lapatin,Los Angeles, 468. Late FifthCenturyb.c. andIts
pp. 113-128. D., G. Harbottle,
Fillieres, and E. Sayre. Effecton theAtticPottery Indus-
Arafat,K., and C. Morgan.1989."Pots 1983."Neutron- Activation Study try,"AJA85,pp. 159-168.
andPottersin Athensand Corinth: ofFigurines, Pottery, andWork- Mannack,T. 2001. TheLateManner-
A Review,"OJA8,pp. 311-346. shopMaterialsfromtheAthenian istsinAthenianVase-Painting,
Aurigemma, S. 1965.La necropoli di Agora,"//^10,pp.55-69. Oxford.
Spina in Valle Trebba 1.2,Rome. Garezou,M.-X. 1997."Whitebaitor McPhee,I. D. 1976."AtticRed Figure
Beazley,J.D. 1939."Excavations at Al Pottery? A Case ofan AtticImport oftheLate 5thand4thCenturies
Mina,SueidiaIII: The Red-Figured in Fourth-Century Boeotia,"in fromCorinth," Hesperia45,
Vases,"///S59,pp.l-44. Athenian PottersandPainters: The pp. 380-396.
. 1940-1945."Miniature Pana- Conference Proceedings,ed. J.H. . 1978.Rev.of Corinth VII.4,
thenaics," BSA 41,pp. 10-21. Oakley,W. D. E. Coulson,and inAJA82,pp. 563-564.
. 1955."Hydria- Fragments in O. Palagia,Oxford,pp. 371-384. . 1981."Red-Figured Pottery
Corinth," Hesperia24, pp. 305-319. Giudice,G. 2007. Il tornio, la nave, fromCorinth:SacredSpringand
Berti,F.,F. Bisi,andN. Camerin.1993. leterrelontane: Ceramografi atticiin Elsewhere," Hesperia50,pp.264-
"Revisionecriticadellanecropoli Magna Grecianellaseconda metàdel 284.
di ValleTrebba:Le cremazioni," in Vsec.a. C. Rottee viedi distribuzione, . 1983."Local Red Figurefrom
Studisullanecropoli di Spinain Valle Rome. Corinth,1973-1980,"Hesperia52,
Trebba.Convegno del15 ottobre Hein,A., A. Tsolakidou,I. Iliopoulos, pp. 137-153.
1992,Ferrara, pp. 7-54. H. Mommsen,J.Buxedai Garrigós, . 1986a."LaconianRed-Figure
Bohr,E. 1980.Rev.of Corinth VII.4, in G. Montana,andV. Kilikoglou. fromtheBritishExcavations in
Gnomon 52,pp. 190-192. 2002. "Standardisation ofElemental Sparta,"BSA 81,pp. 153-166.
Boulter, C. G. 1966."The Berlin Analytical TechniquesAppliedto . 1986b."The Painterofthe
Painterat Corinth," Hesperia35, Provenance StudiesofArchaeologi- LargeEgg-Patterns: An Elean Red-
pp.310-319. cal Ceramics:An Interlaboratory FigureVase-Painter," NumAntCl 15,
Boulter, C. G., andJ.L. Bentz.1980. CalibrationStudy," TheAnalyst127r, pp. 169-177.
"Fifth-Century AtticRed Figure pp.542-553. . 1987."AtticRed Figurefrom
at Corinth," Hesperia49,pp.295- Herbert,S. 1986."The Torch-Raceat theForumin AncientCorinth,"
308. Corinth," in Corinthiaca: Studiesin Hesperia56, pp.275-302.
Corinth = Corinth: ResultsofExcavations HonorofDarrellA. Amyx,éd. M. A. . 1990."Local Red-Figured
Conducted by theAmerican School of Del Chiaro,Columbia,pp.29-35. Pottery fromAncientElis:The
ClassicalStudies atAthens, Princeton Hjohlman,J.,A. Penttinen, and AustrianExcavations of 1910-
VII.3 = G. R. Edwards,Corin- B. Wells.2005. Pyrgouthi:A Rural 1914,"ÖJh60, cols.17-52.
thianHellenistic Pottery,1975. SiteintheBerbatiValley fromthe . 1991."A Corinthian Red-
VII.4 = S. Herbert,TheRed- EarlyIronAgetoLateAntiquity: FiguredCalyx-Krater the and
FigurePottery, 1977. Excavations bytheSwedish Institute DombrenaPainter," OJA10,
XIII = C. W. Biegen,H. Palmer, atAthens, 1995 and1997 (SkrAth 4°, pp.325-334.
and R. S. Young,TheNorthCeme- 52), Stockholm. . 1997."StemlessBell-Kraters
tery, 1964. Johnston, A. 1991."GreekVasesin fromAncientCorinth," Hesperia66,
XV.3 = A.N. StillwellandJ.L. theMarketplace," in Looking at pp. 99-145.
Benson,ThePotters' Quarter: The GreekVases, ed.T. Rasmussenand . 2000."FalaieffBell-Kraters
Pottery, 1984. N. Spivey, Cambridge, pp.203- fromAncientCorinth," Hesperia69,
XVIII. 1 = E. G. Pemberton, 231. pp.453-486.
TheSanctuary ofDemeter andKore: Jones,R. E. 1986. Greek and Cypriot . 2004. "ClassicalPotteryfrom
TheGreek Pottery, 1989. Pottery: A ReviewofScientific AncientCorinth: The A. D. Trendall

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
RED-FIGURE POTTERY OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN I43

MemorialLecture2003,"BICS 47, Papadopoulos, J.K. 2009. "The Relo- GlazedWaresfromAthensand
pp. 1-21. cationofPottersand theDissemi- SouthernItaly:Analytical Tech-
. 2005."The CorinthOinochoe: nationofStyle:Athens,Corinth, niquesandImplications," Archaeom-
One- andTwo-HandledJugsin Ambrakia, andtheAgrinion Group," etry16,pp. 153-187.
AncientCorinth," Hesperia74, inAthenian PottersandPainters 2, Schiering, W. 1964."Rotfigurig be-
pp.41-94. ed.J.H. Oakleyand O. Palagia, malteKeramik," in A. Mallwitz
McPhee,L, and E. Pemberton. 1988. Oxford,pp.232-240. andW. Schiering, Die Werkstatt des
"OY riANTOIEITI KOPIN0OI: Pease,M. Z. 1937."AWell oftheLate Pheidiasin Olympia {OlForsch 5),
A MisleadingReference," ZPE 73, FifthCenturyat Corinth," Hesperia Berlin,pp.248-266.
pp. 89-90. 6, pp.257-316. Schilardi, D. U. 1977."The Thespian
. 2004."SouthItalianand Pelagatti, P. 1973."Camarina," in Polyandrion (424 b.c.):The Excava-
EtruscanRed-FigurePottery from Archeologia nellaSiciliasud-orientale, tionsand Findsfroma Thespian
AncientCorinth," in Festschrift ed. P. Pelagattiand G. Voza,Naples, StateBurial"(diss.Princeton Univ.).
inHonourof].RichardGreen pp. 133-158. Stroszeck, J.2006. Lakonisch-rotngu-
(MeditArch 17),ed. C. D. Barker, Pemberton, E. G. 1983."A Late Co- rigeKeramikaus denLakedaimo-
L. A. Beaumont, and E. A. Bollen, rinthian PerseusfromAncient niergräbern am Kerameikos von
Sydney, pp.55-60. Corinth," Hesperia52, pp. 64-69. Athen(403 v.Chr.),"AA 2006/2,
McPhee,I. D., andA. D. Trendall. . 1988."AnEarlyRed-Figured pp. 101-120.
1986."SixCorinthian Red-Figure Calyx-Krater fromAncientCor- Stroud,R. S. 1965."The Sanctuary of
Vases,"in Corinthiaca: Studiesin inth,"Hesperia57, pp.227-235. Demeterand Koreon Acrocorinth,
HonorofDarrellA. Amyx, ed. M. A. . 1997a."Athensand Corinth: Preliminary Report1: 1961-1962,"
Del Chiaro,Columbia,pp. 160- WorkshopRelationsin Stamped Hesperia pp. 1-24.
34,
167. Black-Glaze,"inAthenian Potters Van Straten, F. T. 1995.HieràKalá:
Mirti,P.,M. Gulmini,A. Perardi, andPainters: TheConference Pro- ImagesofAnimalSacrifice inArchaic
P. Davit,andD. Elia. 2004."Tech- ceedings, ed.J.H. Oakley,W. D. E. and ClassicalGreece (Religionsin
nologyofProduction ofRed Figure Coulson,and O. Palagia,Oxford, theGraeco-RomanWorld127),
Pottery from Attic and Southern pp.407-421. Leiden.
ItalianWorkshops," Analytical . 1997b."Corinthian Black- Whitbread, I. K. 1995. Greek Transport
andBioanalytical Chemistry 380, Glazed Pottery withIncisedand Amphorae: A Petrological andArchae-
pp. 712-718. StampedDecoration," Hesperia66, ological Study(FitchLaboratory
Mirti,P.,A. Perardi,andM. Gulmini. pp.49-97. OccasionalPaper4), Athens.
2006."A Scientific Investigationof . 2003. "Classicaland Hellenis- . 2003. "ClaysofCorinth:
theProvenance andTechnology ofa ticPottery fromCorinthandIts The Studyofa Basic Resourcefor
Black-FigureAmphoraAttributed AthenianConnections," in Corinth, CeramicProduction," in Corinth,
to thePriamPainter," Archaeometry theCentenary: 1896-1996 {Corinth theCentenary: 1896-1996 {Corinth
48,pp.31-43. XX), ed. C. K. WilliamsII and XX), ed. C. K. WilliamsII and
Monaco,M. C. 2000.Ergasteria: Im- N. Bookidis,Princeton, pp. 167- N. Bookidis,Princeton, pp. 1-13.
piantiartigianali ceramiciadAteneed 179. Williams,C. K., II. 1979."Corinth,
inAtticadalprotogeometrico allesoglie Perachora II = T. J.Dunbabin,ed., 1978:ForumSouthwest," Hesperia
dell'ellenismo(StArch 110),Rome. Perachora: TheSanctuaries ofHera 48, pp. 105-144.
Morgan,C. H. 1937."Excavations AkraiaandLimenia:Excavations of . 1980."CorinthExcavations,
at Corinth,1936-37,"AJA41, theBritish SchoolofArchaeology at 1979."Hesteria49. dd. 107-134.
pp.539-552. Athens, 1930-1933 {Perachora II), Wright,K. S. 1980."ATiberianPottery
Napoli,M. 1970.La TombadelTuffatore: Oxford1962. DepositfromCorinth," Hesperia49,
La scoperta dellagrandepittura greca, Prag,A., F. Schweizer, J.Williams, pp.135-177.
Bari. andP. Schubiger. 1974."Hellenistic

Ian D. McPhee EfiKartsonaki
La Trobe University University of Crete
trendall research centre department of chemistry
victoria 3086 P.O. BOX 2208
australia 7IOO3 HERAKLION, CRETE
GREECE
i.mcphee@latrobe.edu.au
efik@chemistry.uoc.gr

This content downloaded from 71.168.218.10 on Tue, 18 Mar 2014 10:12:54 AM
All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions